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Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Preserving bacterial based inputs Inputs - Section 5 - Water Soluble Calcium (WCA) Calcium is as important to plants as it is to humans. It is one of the most common substances in the world next to oxygen and silicon and the majority of calcium exists in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). In Natural Farming, calcium carbonate is extracted from egg shells, shells from clams/oysters or from coral sand in which calcium carbonate is the main component by using a vinegar. Through this process, calcium carbonate is changed to water-soluble calcium, which can be quickly absorbed by the crop. It prevents overgrowth of crops, hardens the fruit, prolongs storage period, promotes absorption of phosphoric acid and helps crops to accumulate nutrients. Calcium carries and accumulates nutrients carbohydrate, which is temporarily stored in branches (pith) and in leaves till the final storage. Several soil characteristics affect the availability of calcium to plants: soils with higher pH have higher levels of available calcium than acidic (lower-pH) soils; soils with a higher capacity to absorb or hold calcium will have more available calcium; the presence of excessive amounts of sodium, potassium, or magnesium in the soil interferes with calcium availability. Calcium can also react with other soil nutrients, such as phosphorus, to form insoluble compounds that cannot be used by plants. Calcium is commonly applied as a soil amendment in the form of ground limestone (calcium carbonate) or gypsum (calcium sulfate). Water-soluble calcium (WCA) is an alternative to these commercial sources of calcium. Water-soluble calcium is a source of available calcium that can be made from commonly used household items, eggshells and from the shells of clams/oysters and vinegar. When applied as a foliar spray, WCA provides available calcium to plants for normal cell processes, root growth, and fruiting In Natural Farming, WCA is applied as a foliar spray during the reproductive stage of a plant’s growth cycle when setting fruit and vegetables are most vulnerable to blossom-end rot. Calcium in water soluble form is efficient and effective WCA is also effective when crops are overgrown, Plant leaves have bad color or no luster, Floral differentiation is weak, Flower blossoms just fall, Fruits do not ripen, Fruits are not sweet and crops are nitrogen-excessive. However, WS-Ca should not be given when vigorous vegetative growth is needed. Master Cho Recipe PDF - WCA WCA video by Onedrive WCA with eggshells by Chris Trump Chris Trump - WCA with eggshells - https://www.patreon.com/christrump Instructions for WCA Collect eggshells (oyster or clam shells may also be used); Remove the tough internal membrane from the inside of the shells. Break the shells into small pieces (1/4”). Lightly roast or grill the shells in a frying pan or foil container over low heat for approximately 45 minutes to remove any organic substances that will rot and contaminate the WCA. You can fan over top the eggshells while cooking to remove the unwanted egg lining. the wind from fanning will blow them away. Shells should be dry and lightly burnt to a light tan color but not charred. Slowly add roasted eggshells to a glass jar filled 2/3 full with brown rice vinegar, a store bought fermented vinegar will work just as well at a 1:10 ratio by weight. Vinegar should not be distilled. Add eggshells slowly or the solution can over foam and create a mess. The eggshell fragments will float up and down within the vinegar, emitting carbon dioxide bubbles, while the calcium is being dissolved into the solution. Cover the mouth of the jar with breathable cloth, such as muslin, or paper (not plastic) and secure with rubber bands or ties to keep out pests. Place the jar in a cool, dark location for 7 to 10 days. Letting it sit longer than needed will not hurt the WCA. After this time, check if bubbles are present in the solution. If bubbles are not present, the WCA is “saturated” – proceed to step 10. If bubbles are present, add more roasted eggshells and let stand for 1 to 2 more days. Repeat until the solution stops producing bubbles. Strain the vinegar-and-eggshell solution through a colander into a clean glass jar to remove eggshells. Label the WCA solution and store at room temperature out of direct sunlight. compost the remaining eggshells. Preparation of 1:1,000 WCA Solution Amount of wca _____________________________________________________________ Water Volume Kitchen utensil measurements Fluid ounces (fl oz) Milliliters (ml) ¼ gallon 1 /3 teaspoon (tsp) 0.06 2 1 gallon ¾ tsp 0.13 4 5 gallons 1¼ tablespoons (Tbsp) 0.64 19 10 gallons 2½ Tbsp 1.28 38 25 gallons little less than ½ cup 3.2 95 50 gallons little more than ¾ cup 6.4 189 WCA with Coral Sand Using coral sand is the easiest WCA method as their is no cooking off the shells needed. Chris Trump teaches WCA with coral sand. Chris Trump - How to WCA with Chris Trump - https://www.patreon.com/christrump WCA Coral Sand instructions (Oyster and clam shells can be used too) Add coral sand to jar. one part coral sand to 10 parts vinegar. Add vinegar slowly to the jar to prevent overflowing of bubbling. Use a fermented vinegar and not a distilled vinegar. Cover the mouth of the jar with breathable cloth, such as muslin, or paper (not plastic) and secure with rubber bands or ties to keep out pests. Do not have air tight or it will explode from pressure build up. Place the jar in a cool, dark location for 7 to 10 days. Letting it sit longer than needed will not hurt the WCA. After this time, check if bubbles are present in the solution. If bubbles are not present, the WCA is “saturated” – proceed to step 6. If bubbles are present, add more coral sand and let stand for 1 to 2 more days. Repeat until the solution stops producing bubbles. Strain the vinegar-and-coral sand solution through a colander into a clean glass jar to remove coral sand. Label the WCA solution and store at room temperature out of direct sunlight. compost the remaining coral sand. Use same as WCA made with eggshells. Reverend Peyton's big damn band sings us out! bigdamnbandofficial - This land is your land solo slide guitar. Credits TheGothardSisters http://www.cgnfindia.com/wsca.html College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources Onedrive Chris Trump bigdamnbandofficial For Just You! Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Preserving bacterial based inputs ~Cultural Healing and Life
Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Preserving bacterial based inputs Inputs - Section 4 - (OHN) Oriental Herbal Nutrient OHN is a mixture of edible, aromatic herbs extracted with alcohol and fermented with brown sugar. It is used to discourage the growth of anaerobic, potentially pathogenic microbes and encourage beneficial aerobic microbes in the soil and on plants. The oriental Herbal Nutrient (OHN )is a very important input in Natural Farming. It is made from herbs which are full of energy and function to increase plant robustness, to sterilize and keep plants warm. OHN revitalizes crops and activates their growth. It is made from effective oriental herbs such as angelica, garlic, ginger, licorice and cinnamon that are fermented to maintain the vigorous growth during times of stress. OHN is one of the more multiple step inputs in natural farming but it is not truly complicated. With great instruction and explanation of the videos below they will walk you through this process with ease. OHN is truly a secret type of ingredient for maintaining plant health. It demonstrates its properties by promoting the microorganisms with micronutrients that are helpful and works to maintain health during stress. You can also additionally add to the ingredient list any anti-pathogenic plant such as turmeric. However, add it in addition too and not in place of the traditional ingredients found in the below recipe. Cho's Global Natural Farming PDF - University of Hawaii Chris Trump - How to OHN Chris Trump - Korean Natural Farming How to : OHN - To support Chris Trump direct: https://www.patreon.com/christrump OHN material list Recipe below is same as video above Containers: 6 containers for fermenting large mason jars 6 containers 2x the capacity of your fermenting containers 1 mixing container Ingredients: Dry angelica root Dry cinnamon bark Dry licorice root Fresh ginger Fresh garlic Beer (or other low alcohol liquid) Vodka (or other higher alcohol liquid) Brown sugar (6x the weight of the ginger you will use) Tools: A scale A funnel with a strainer A mesh bag to place over a funnel) keep each ingredient uncontaminated from the others. A wooden stick for stirring The Process Re-hydrate stage Ferment stage Stabilization Extraction stages Storage and use Stage 1 - Re-hydrate stage for dry ingredients. In this stage we simply want to ready the dry ingredients for the next fermenting stage. Dry angelica root (2 parts, so you make two containers) Dry licorice root Dry cinnamon bark Separately fill your jars with 1/10th with dry materials of the volume of your jars. (in mason jars is just below the first line, tip from Chris Trump) Angelica root, fill two jars to 1/10 of the jars volume of angelica root. Angelica is used at a higher dosage in the final mix so you will make two batches where with the others you make just one batch. Licorice root, fill one jar to 1/10 of the jars volume. Cinnamon bark, fill one jar to 1/10 of the jars volume. A total of 4 jars for the dry ingredients due to two jars of angelica root. Add beer to each of the jars so the total volume of each jar is half way full. Allow foam to settle and pouring to prevent foam will save you time. Label and cover with a breathable cover and let sit for 24 hours in a dark area. Stage 2 - Dry and Wet Ferment Stage Stage 2 - Dry In this stage we will start a ferment by adding brown sugar to the mix by weight and volume. However, total volume used in the jar is more important than precise weight. Fill to 2/3rd of the jar in total. Dry Ingredients, the jars from yesterday Weigh jars from yesterday. Add in equal amounts of brown sugar to each jar but pay attention to the volume of the jar not to exceed 2/3rd of the volume. Stir in a clockwise direction with a wooden stick (never metal) to ensure the sugar is dissolved and well mixed. Cover with breathable lid and set aside to prepare the wet ingredients. Store all jars in a dark area for 6 to 7 days, faster in warmer areas and slower in cooler areas as it is a fermentation process. Stage 2 - Wet In this stage we basically are making an FPJ with ginger and garlic. Traditionally garlic and ginger are used but if you have a plants in your area with similar or desired properties you can prepare similarly to ginger and garlic and add them in their own jar. You would later add them when you make a mix prior to using. Fresh ginger: Mash gently the ginger with the peels and place in a mixing container. Add equal amounts of brown sugar to each container. Example, 1 pound of ginger would need 1 pound of brown sugar. Ginger is wetter than the garlic, if need be you can add a little bit more sugar but not too much. Mix very well, similarly to making FPJ but with garlic. Add to jar and fill 2/3 of the jar full. Air gaps in jar will settle as it ferments. Cover with a breathable lid and store in a cool dark place. Label Jar Store all jars in a dark area for 6 to 7 days, faster in warmer areas and slower in cooler areas as it is a fermentation process. Fresh garlic: Mash gently the garlic with the peels and place in a mixing container. Add equal amounts of brown sugar to each container. Example, 1 pound of ginger would need 1 pound of brown sugar. Garlic is drier than the ginger, so no extra sugar is added to the garlic. Mix very well, similarly to making FPJ but with garlic. Add to jar and fill 2/3 of the jar full. The garlic is fluffy when filling the fermenting jars. Add in the same amount as ginger. Push down in jar to fit. The garlic will settle as it ferments. Cover with a breathable lid and set in cool dark place. Label Jar. Store all jars in a dark area for 7 days. Union Break! DopeLemonVEVO - Uptown Folks Stage 3 - Stabilization 7 days later. In this stage we want to stop the fermentation process and stabilize. If any mold should form on some of them, in OHN making it is ok as the alcohol will stabilize everything. In this instance it is ok. Use vodka or similar. You want a higher alcohol than wine and of the hard liquor category. Pour some vodka but not full yet Stir the jars clockwise with wooden stick and ensure everything mixes Be sure to get any sugar on the bottom of the jars are mixed. Pour more vodka to the brim. Cover with a lid or plastic to make air tight. Do this for all jars and store in dark area. Stir clockwise once daily for the next 14 days, you will open and stir the containers. Use a clean untreated piece of wood stick to use. Stage 4 - Extraction Process. Extraction stages Extraction Jars, anything but metal but if you use plastic use HDPE plastic as this will not leach into your material. Extraction Jars needs to be big enough for hold the whole volume, you will get about twice as much as you put in for OHN ingredient jar. Strainer Wooden stick The extraction process is done in 5 separate stages over time for a total of 5 extraction sessions. 1st extraction, 14 days stirring every day until next extraction, 2nd extraction, 14 days stirring every day 3rd extraction, 14 days stirring every day 4th extraction, 14 days stirring every day 5th extraction, 14 days stirring every day Extraction Start with angelica as its extraction amount is used for overall ratio alterations for garlic and ginger jars. Pour in all liquid from each jar into the extraction jar. Label (not on lid, great tip by Chris Trump) Ensure all solids are back in the fermenting jar. Fill back 2/3 full of the fermenting jar with the liquid you just extracted. Fill the remaining 1/3 of the fermenting jar with more vodka, Stir with wooden stick. Leave enough room to be able to stir everyday. We need to determine extraction amounts for the rest specifically the garlic and ginger levels. Using the angelica extracted volume as your guide. Repeat this extraction again in 14 days or a total of 5 extraction sessions. Ensure all extractions are same level adjusting as necessary. Final extract, strain all fermenting jars and pour all liquid into extraction jar. After final extraction you can compost the remaining ingredients from the jars. Seal jars airtight and store out of direct sunshine or bright light. Adjusting fermenting amounts The extraction amount at the very end of this process should be the same for all extraction jars but we may need to adjust along the way the extraction amount. The extracted amount is less than the angelica extracted. Originally you would fill back 2/3 full of the fermenting jar with the liquid you just extracted. Fix Pour back less of the extracted amount and pour in more vodka to match the volume difference. This can be adjusted during each extraction session so that the final amounts are at same level. Stir with wooden stick. Leave enough room to be able to stir everyday. The extracted amount of garlic or ginger is more than the angelica amount. Originally you would fill back 2/3 full of the fermenting jar with the liquid you just extracted. Fix Remove some garlic, ginger or whatever the ingredient is. Pour back 2/3 of the extracted liquid top off with vodka as normal leaving room to stir. Stage 5 - Storage and mixing for use Store in separate containers only mixing when you are going to use. Store out of direct sunlight and bright lights. OHN improves over time in strength. Mixing for use: 1 part of each extraction jar. (Angelica is given twice and is reason we made two jars for angelica.) Fresh batch and under 6 months mix at 1:1000 dilution rate. Make the solution weaker (1:1,500) if it is to be applied to stressed plants or during drought conditions, or if the OHN has been concentrated by storage for more than 6 months. How to use OHN OHN is used for making IMO - 3, IMO - 4, the soil treatment solution, and the seed treatment solution. OHN is also good for all of the growth periods of crops, nutritional growth period, change-over period and reproductive growth period. OHN can be used throughout the early, vegetative, changeover/transition and fruiting or reproductive stages at the basic dilution ratio of 1: 500 to 1000 times in water. Apply as a foliar spray on plants to repel insects. Apply during late afternoon or early morning hours. OHN can be mixed in a cocktail with Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ) and Brown Rice Vinegar (BRV) and applied as a foliar spray every 10–12 days to make plants less susceptible to powdery mildew and downy mildew. Apply diluted OHN as a soil drench prior to planting to activate dormant soil microorganisms. Part of a seed-soak solution 2 tsp if you feel a cold coming might help. When crops are weakened To reinvigorate weakened crops, a mixture of OHN (1:1000) with FPJ (1:500) and BRV (1:500) can be applied. For plants with soft rot or anthracnose, WCA (1:1000) is added to the mixture Animals and Livestock As a pre-biotic in poultry and livestock production OHN can be mixed with animals’ drinking water (1:1,000 dilution) and offered ad libitum 3 times a week. Preparation of 1:1,000 OHN Solution Water Volume Amount of OHN Kitchen utensil measurements Fluid ounces (fl oz) Milliliters (ml) ¼ gallon 1 /3 teaspoon (tsp) 0.06 2 1 gallon ¾ tsp 0.13 4 5 gallons 1¼ tablespoons (Tbsp) 0.64 19 10 gallons 2½ Tbsp 1.28 38 25 gallons little less than ½ cup 3.2 95 50 gallons little more than ¾ cup 6.4 189 Union Break CatClydeVEVO - Mama Said Example of a documented first run, excellent video with practical advice and illustration from a new OHN maker. George T - OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrients Credits https://cms.ctahr.hawaii.edu/home.aspx http://www.cgnfindia.com/ohn.html Chris Trump DopeLemonVEVO George T CatClydeVEVO The School of Life Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Preserving bacterial based inputs Congratulations for learning about OHN. Israel "IZ" Kamakawiwoʻole. Thank you! RIP. ~Cultural Healing and Life
Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Preserving bacterial based inputs Inputs - Section 2 - FPJ - Fermented Plant Juice FPJ is a fermented extract of a plant’s sap and chlorophyll's. It is a rich enzyme solution full of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria and yeast that invigorates plants and animals. FPJ is used for crop treatments and can be added an input for making other natural farming inputs. FPJ captures the essence of the fermented plant and in this way FPJ becomes like a super gardener power that for some is one of their secret ingredients! This means you can create your own specific boosters for the developmental stage of your plants. You simply utilize the matching plant with the properties to fit the period of development for your growing plants. Additionally, if mixed with a rice bran and sprinkled around the base of a tree or a plant will attract bugs to that area and away from the fruits. FPJ - PDF from The University of Hawaii, click emoticon Video Section The following 3 videos are worth watching them all as they compliment one another in information and wisdom. It is with pleasure that I introduce Chris Trump talk on FPJ, fermented plant juice who explains it effectively well. Chris Trump - How to : FPJ - To support Chris Trump direct: https://www.patreon.com/christrump Large Scale FPJ Chris Trump - How to : FPJ - To support Chris Trump direct: https://www.patreon.com/christrump It is with pleasure that I introduce Alika Atay FPJ teaching James Yunker Alika Atay Teaches How to Make Fermented Plant Juice - http://mauiindependent.org/native-wisdom-water-protector-alika-atay-on-the-power-of-we-the-people/ An excellent FPJ video with useful tips and information regarding collection and is a must watch. Video is not embedded by request at youtube, click the emoticon to watch the video at youtube. Instructional Section This FPJ recipe is from Master Cho, click to visit. FPJ is a fermented extract of a plant’s sap and chlorophyll's. It is a rich enzyme solution full of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria and yeast that invigorates plants and animals. FPJ is used for crop treatments. Materials/ ingredients needed: Non poisonous vibrant plants that fit the growth properties you are wanting such as: Mugwart / Water amaranth / Bamboo shoot etc. Jaggery / Brown sugar Glass / Ceramic / Clay jar with a wide mouth. (No metal) Porous paper (paper towel) Rubber band / thread Sharp Knife or Scissors Large mixing container with wide mouth Storage container of ceramic / glass /HDPE plastic (no metal) Scale WHAT TYPE OF PLANTS TO COLLECT Use only the same type of plants when collecting per FPJ batch. Plants that are strong against cold and can grow well in spring. This is in order to pass down the characteristic of plants that can endure extreme climatic changes. Plants that grow fast and are vigorous. Fast developing plants have growth hormones at are very active. This characteristic can improve any plant weaknesses and the recovery of certain health problems of the plants. Thinned-out fruits have a lot of gibberellins which makes plants healthy with thicker foliage and enhances the thickness of fruit. Never poisonous plants. WHEN TO COLLECT Avoid days when there is excessive sunshine or rainfall. Excessive sunshine may evaporate nutrients. Too much rainfall may wash away important nutrients and microorganisms. When there is rain, collect only after two days. Do not rinse with water. Collect the ingredients just before sunrise. Plants have perfect moisture level during this time. Take tips 2 to 3 inches long. HOW TO MAKE FPJ Shake off dirt from the Plants but do not wash in water. Washing will remove useful microorganisms. If the ingredients are too big, cut them to adequate sizes, about 3 to 5 cm. This increases contact surface area and promotes osmotic pressure. (Do not mix different kinds of ingredients in one container. Use separate container for each ingredient.) Measure the weight of the ingredient and the weight of brown sugar. Brown sugar should equal the weight of the ingredient. You should add or subtract sugar according to plant’s moisture level. Put the ingredients and brown sugar in a large wide container and mix them with your hands. Everything is to be covered with brown sugar as to ensure osmotic pressure. Cover with porous paper and leave for 1 to 2 hours. Put the mixture into a glass or clay pot. It should fill up ¾ of the jar. It is important that the jar is not too full or under full. The empty space is optimum for fermentation to occur. Put weight (Stone) on the mixture to control the amount of air in the mixture. Put on the breathable cover and tie the jar. A cover is needed to prevent insects from getting into the mixture. Paper is ideal because it lets the air in and out. 24 hours later check volume of material in jar. This is important to insure proper fermentation. If it has settled under 2/3 jar, add more mixture until 2/3 full. If it is too full remove some material until the jar is 2/3 full. 1 or 2 days remove the weight. After the air has escaped, put breathable cover back on. Place the jar in a cool and shaded place. Do disturb the ingredients during the process of fermentation. You will know that fermentation is occurring when bubbles start to form, which normally occurs on the second day. Ideally, fermentation should take no longer than 7 days, as the quality of FPJ appears to diminish thereafter. Fermentation is complete when: The plant material floats and the liquid settles at the bottom If too much brown sugar was used, this separation is not distinct. There is a light alcohol smell due to breakdown of chlorophyll The liquid tastes sweet, not bitter. After fermentation is complete (3 to 7 days), separate the plant material from the liquid using a colander or strainer. The spent plant material can be used as animal feed, or added to mixed compost (another input known as IMO#5). The liquid is Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ), which can be used immediately or stored in a loosely covered container. Transfer the FPJ into a glass or food-grade polyethylene (PE) plastic container. The microorganisms in the solution are alive and continue to produce gases. The lid must be kept loose or the container can explode. As with all Natural Farming inputs, each batch should be stored separately. They should be combined only when a solution is being mixed for immediate use. Refrigerate for short term use. For long-term storage and can be stored at room temperature, add an equal amount of brown sugar by weight to FPJ to prevent it from souring Preparing and Applying FPJ Dilute FPJ with water It is best to use a mixture of old and newly made FPJ in your solutions. FPJ is generally used at a concentration of 1 part per 500 parts water (1:500) If a more dilute solution is necessary (1:800 to 1:1,000) To avoid damaging plants (leaf burn) under the following circumstances: Add FPJ when using more than three different natural farming inputs combined, It is applied during hot weather, FPJ that has been stored longer than a year and thus has become more concentrated is being used. Apply FPJ once per week in the late afternoon, ideally an hour before sunset The solution can be foliar sprayed on leafs or watered into the soil. The nutrient solution is applied once per week and is adjusted as the plant passes through its life-cycle stages and vegetative and reproductive phases. Dilution Rates: 1:500 Water volume Kitchen measuring utensils Fluid ounces (fl oz) Milliliters (ml) ½ gallon 3/42 teaspoon (tsp) .13 4 1 gallon 1 1/2 tsp .26 8 5 gallons 2 1/2 tablespoons (Tbsp) 1.28 38 10 gallons 5 tablespoons (Tbsp) 2.56 76 25 gallons Little more than 3/4 cup 6.40 189 50 gallons 1 cup 12.80 379 Dilution Rates: 1:800 Water volume Kitchen measuring utensils Fluid ounces (fl oz) Milliliters (ml) ½ gallon 1/2 teaspoon (tsp) 0.08 2.5 1 gallon 1 tsp 0.13 5 5 gallons 5 teaspoon (tsp) 0.80 24 10 gallons little less than 1/4 cup 1.60 47 25 gallons 1/2 cup 4 118 50 gallons 1 cup 8 237 Dilution Rates: 1:1,000 Water volume Kitchen measuring utensils Fluid ounces (fl oz) Milliliters (ml) ½ gallon 1/3 teaspoon (tsp) 0.06 2 1 gallon 3/4 tsp 0.13 4 5 gallons 1 1/4 tablespoons (Tbsp) 0.64 19 10 gallons 2 1/2 Tbsp 1.28 38 25 gallons little less than 1/2 cup 3.2 95 50 gallons little more than 3/4 cup 6.4 189 WHEN TO USE FPJ Germination to early vegetative growth examples: Mugwort, Dropwort, and bamboo shoots FPJs are suitable at this stage to help crops become resistant against cold and grow fast and strong and is applied from germination until early stages of plant growth. FPJs should be used at lower concentration during this stage, preferably at a dilution of 1:1000. Vegetative growth examples: Kudzu, Arrowroot, Beans, Angelica, Dropwort. Purslane, Squash shoots, Sweet potato shoots, Watercress and Bamboo shoots as well as Reeds (water or marsh plants with a firm stem), help crops obtain their needed nitrogen to increase in volume. At this stage, FPJs can be used at a general dilution of 1:900 to 1:700. Beginning flower/fruiting: FPJ made from green (unripe) fruit is applied to plants that are just beginning to develop flower shoots and need phosphorus (P). At this stage, FPs can be used at a general dilution of 1:600. Reproductive and flowering and fruiting stage: They require a lot of calcium (Ca). FPJ made from calcium-rich plants or FPJ that has been stored for over a year is applied at this stage. At this stage, FPJs can be used at a general dilution of 1:500. Presence of pests: FPJ can be used to keep pests away from fruits. A mixture of FPJ and rice bran can be sprinkled on the area around fruit trees to lure pests to the ground, thus preventing them from going to the fruits. FPJ can be used at a general dilution of 1:500. WHEN NOT TO USE FPJ During excessive vegetative growth or overgrowth due to prolonged rains or cloudy weather. During acidic or nitrogen-excessive crop conditions, which create a pest-attractive environment. Conditions of too much moisture or poor ventilation, which promotes fungal growth. Only use citrus with citrus plants. Tips and special notes: It is not recommendable to use molasses as it contains too much moisture to raise the osmotic pressure as high as brown sugar does for good fermentation. Sometimes small bubbles or fungi will be present in the Jar. They result from lacking brown sugar or from an unbalanced volume between the empty space and the ingredient. In this case, add a little brown sugar, stir and preserve after filtering. Avoid picking plants near the road side to prevent the polluted plants. The most important requirement when selecting plants for making FPJ is to use the growing tips of plant species that are fast growers. Flowers, flower buds, and immature fruits can also be used. The plants should be vigorously growing at the time of collection. Hard or woody plant parts will yield little or no plant juice. Plant parts should be harvested while the plants are in respiration mode (before sunrise) and not in photosynthetic mode (during daylight), due to the effects these processes have on plant chemistry. Avoid collecting plant parts during or after rainfall (ideally, wait two sunny days after rain stops) and do not rinse collected plant parts, to conserve their surface microbial populations (lactic acid-producing bacteria and yeasts), which will carry out the fermentation process. Low levels of these microbes will result in improper fermentation and/or low yields of plant juice. Bonus Fermentation Fun by Chris Trump Credits Cho's Global Natural Farming Master Cho Chris Trump Alika Atay OneDrive The University of Hawaii School of Life Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 ~Cultural Healing and Life