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  2. Cannabis oil row: Boy has epilepsy medication returned Original article: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-44507135 A boy with severe epilepsy has been given back medicinal cannabis oil that was confiscated from his mother at customs, the home secretary has said. Billy Caldwell, 12, received the oil after doctors made clear it was a "medical emergency", Sajid Javid said. Billy's mother, Charlotte Caldwell, from County Tyrone, said they had "achieved the impossible" but called for the oil to be freely available. Billy began using cannabis oil in 2016 to control his seizures. The cannabis oil, which contains a substance called Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is illegal in the UK but available elsewhere. Billy's most recent supply - which Ms Caldwell had tried to bring into the UK from Canada - was confiscated at Heathrow Airport on Monday and he was admitted to hospital before Mr Javid said it would be returned. The oil arrived at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, where Billy is being treated, on Saturday afternoon. It was administered under a special 20-day licence and is not allowed to be taken home. A spokeswoman for the Home Office said it was an "exceptional licence" for a "short term emergency" and it would need to be reviewed. 'Completely broken' Ms Caldwell said: "I truly believe that somewhere in the Home Office there's someone with a heart, and I truly believe that Billy was pulling on their heart strings." But she said Billy's "little body has been completely broken and his little mind". "No other family should have to go through this sort of ordeal, travelling half way round the world to get medication which should be freely available," she said. "My experience leaves me in no doubt that the Home Office can no longer play a role in the administration of medication for sick children in our country. "Children are dying in our country and it needs to stop now." Billy was admitted to hospital in London on Friday Mr Javid said he had issued a licence to allow Billy to be treated with the cannabis oil after discussions with Billy's medical team. "This is a very complex situation, but our immediate priority is making sure Billy receives the most effective treatment possible in a safe way," he said. "My decision is based on the advice of senior clinicians who have made clear this is a medical emergency. "The policing minister met with the family on Monday and since then has been working to reach an urgent solution." Reality Check: Does UK export the most legal cannabis? Barbara Zieniewicz, co-founder of campaign group Families4Access, and who travelled to Canada with Billy and Ms Caldwell, called Mr Javid's decision "triumphant". "I strongly believe that this is the first push - from here, it's a ripple effect. This means, to me, there is hope, not just for Billy, but for all the families that need it." Billy, from Castlederg, started the treatment in 2016 in the US, where medical marijuana is legal. Ms Caldwell says Billy's seizures dramatically reduce when he takes the oil. In 2017, he was prescribed the medication on the NHS. But in May this year, his GP was told he could no longer prescribe it. At the time the Department of Health in Northern Ireland said cannabis had not yet been licensed in the UK as a medicine. Last Monday, Ms Caldwell tried to bring a six-month supply of the oil - to treat up to 100 seizures a day - into the UK from Toronto but the substance was confiscated by officials at Heathrow airport. The boy's family said he was taken to hospital when his seizures "intensified" in recent days. The family's MP, Órfhlaith Begley, said the Home Office's decision was "life-saving", adding: "I will continue to engage with the Home Office and the health authorities to ensure he can access his medication in the longer term so there is no repeat of the trauma he has suffered over recent weeks." 'Not straightforward' Dr Amir Englund, who studies cannabis at the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College London, said: "Clearly, there is evidence that Billy's medication works for him where others have failed. "The duty of government is to protect its citizens from harm with regulations on medicines, so that the ones doctors prescribe are safe and effective. "However, there are instances which these measures become counterproductive and harmful. This is such an instance, and the Home Office should allow an exemption so that he does not come to further harm." Meanwhile, clinical lecturer in psychiatry at University College London, Dr Michael Bloomfield, said on the one hand "current laws are too strict", but added that the issue of medical marijuana is "far from straightforward". "Any 'medical marijuana' needs a scientific evidence base, in the form of medical trials et cetera, which is currently lacking for many disorders and has become, for many jurisdictions, a potential way of decriminalising cannabis through the back door," he said. Does cannabis have medicinal benefits? CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are two types of cannabinoids found naturally in the resin of the marijuana plant. A cannabis-based drug called Sativex has been licensed in the UK to treat MS. It contains THC and CBD. Doctors could, in theory, prescribe it for other things outside of this licence, but at their own risk. MS patients prescribed Sativex, who resupply it to other people, also face prosecution. Another licensed treatment is Nabilone. It contains an artificial version of THC and can be given to cancer patients to help relieve nausea during chemotherapy. Source: NHS Choices
  3. Home Office looks at allowing cannabis oil for boy with epilepsy Original article at the Guardian by: Mattha Busby @matthabusby Fri 15 Jun 2018 19.01 EDTFirst published on Fri 15 Jun 2018 06.55 EDT https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/jun/15/mothers-plea-for-uk-to-legalise-cannabis-oil-charlotte-caldwell-billy Prescriptions consideration comes after Billy Caldwell, 12, has ‘life-threatening’ seizures The Home Office has said it will “carefully consider” allowing a 12-year-old boy to be prescribed cannabis oil after he was admitted to hospital with “life-threatening” seizures following the confiscation of his supply. Billy Caldwell had his anti-epileptic medicine confiscated at Heathrow airport on Monday. If the decision is made to permit him to have the treatment, it would be the first time that cannabis oil containing THC was legally prescribed in the UK since it was made illegal in 1971. Late on Friday night, Billy’s family were trying to find a clinician with knowledge of his condition to recommend the prescription of cannabis medicine. His mother, Charlotte Caldwell, said: “Finally I’m hearing signs that the Home Office appreciate the severity of Billy’s condition, and are showing a willingness to act humanely.” In a statement, a Home Office spokesperson said: “Billy is in the care of medical professionals who are best placed to assess the care and treatment that he requires. “The Home Office is contacting Billy’s medical team. If the team treating Billy advise a particular course of urgent action, the Home Office will carefully consider what options are available to help facilitate that advice.” On Friday afternoon, Billy was taken to Chelsea and Westminster hospital in west London in an ambulance after experiencing uncontrollable seizures. “Billy has had back-to-back seizures today,” his mother said. “On his medication, which included the vital but banned THC component, he was seizure-free for more than 300 days.” Caldwell said doctors in Canada and Northern Ireland familiar with the case had described her son’s situation as life-threatening. She said the Home Office would be held accountable if her son died. Billy had been placed on cannabidiol (CBD) oil, along with opiate-based medication, after he was forced to stop taking cannabis oil, but he failed to respond positively to the treatment and his health deteriorated as his seizures gradually resumed. The family said the 12-year-old can now be treated only with hospital-administered medication. Speaking from hospital, Caldwell told Sky News: “[Billy’s] out of the seizure but I cannot administer any more rescue medicine for him at home. He’s been admitted and they’re keeping him in hospital simply because Billy’s seizures are life-threatening ... one seizure can kill him.” Earlier on Friday, Caldwell criticised the government for effectively forcing them to leave the UK. “No mother should be made to flee the country to keep their child alive,” she said. The pair have spent about four of the past 12 years abroad because cannabis oil is illegal in the UK. On Monday they had six months’ worth of anti-epileptic medicine confiscated by customs agents when they arrived at Heathrow from Toronto. Caldwell was invited to meet the Home Office minister Nick Hurd, who told her that it would not be returned, despite her pleas. “It has to be the most frightening situation that a mother could ever be put in,” Caldwell told the Guardian, describing how she and Billy had been forced to leave their home, friends and family in order to access the potentially life-saving medicine. “He’s undergone countless administrations of anti-epileptic pharmaceutical drugs which have never worked and have upset his entire system,” Caldwell said. “The side-effects left him so depleted that he couldn’t even lift his head or pick up a toy.” The anti-epilepsy drugs prescribed by the NHS often cause uncontrollable tremors, hair loss, swollen gums and rashes, among other adverse effects. Feeling that she had no choice but to seek treatment for her child abroad, Caldwell found a doctor in the US in September 2007 who “saved Billy’s life” by weaning him off anti-epileptic pharmaceutical drugs, which she says were aggravating his seizures. The doctor also placed him on a ketogenic diet – a high-fat, low-carbohydrate food plan – that helped his seizures to rapidly subside. Eight years later, in June 2016, the seizures returned. They travelled to California again in September that year, until their money ran out eight months later and they came back to their home in Northern Ireland. In March 2017 they walked 150 miles in eight days, from their home to the hospital, to demonstrate the incredible improvement in Billy’s condition after the cannabis treatment. A doctor in Northern Ireland prescribed him the oil, since it was clear it was the only effective treatment. This was the first time a child had ever been issued the substance on the NHS. The oil contained CBD and also THC the psychoactive constituent of cannabis that gets users high. In October 2016, the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency issued an opinion that products containing CBD used for medical purposes are medicine. However, medicines containing the raw form of THC remain illegal. The government’s current position is that THC has no recognised medicinal or legitimate uses beyond potential research. Although some children with epilepsy respond positively to CBD, the conditions of others, such as Billy, respond only to THC-derived products. And there is growing evidence of the benefits of prescribing medicinal cannabis. After about 300 days without a seizure, the Home Office recently ordered the doctor to stop prescribing the oil, prompting Caldwell to seek treatment in Canada, which is preparing to legalise cannabis. The case has shone a light on a drug policy that critics see as outdated and has provoked widespread demands for urgent reform, as well as calls for an exception to be made for Billy until legislation can be considered. Caldwell said she doubted whether she or Hurd would be arrested if the minister decided to “do the right thing” and allow Billy to have his anti-epileptic medication. “Surely common sense should prevail,” she said, pointing to the public support for the legalisation of medical cannabis, and the fact that police in some parts of the country had deprioritised cannabis offences. “To me, this is not an illegal or controlled substance, this is my little boy’s medicine. Even if you drank six months’ worth of this medicine, you wouldn’t get high because the THC content is so low.” There are around 63,400 children with epilepsy in the UK and a third of those do not respond to the medication prescribed by the NHS. Some 1,150 people died of epilepsy-related causes in 2009. Billy, who also has severe autism, cannot talk and requires 24/7 care, enjoys riding his pony Paddy, often goes swimming and attends a special needs school. Asked how Billy had handled a week of intense media attention, Caldwell said he had been “a wee bit out of sorts” and that “he knows that something is going on”. On Tuesday morning he had his first seizure in almost a year. On the same day, a group of pro-reform Tory MPs said that medicinal cannabis could be on sale within a year. But this could be too late for Billy. “The fear that Billy will die without his medication has been my overriding emotion this week,” said Caldwell. “I think that fear is keeping me going.” From the Guardian site and this is direct to Guardian, we are just passing on their request since we use their link. Since you’re here… … we have a small favour to ask. More people are reading the Guardian than ever but advertising revenues across the media are falling fast. And unlike many news organisations, we haven’t put up a paywall – we want to keep our journalism as open as we can. Democracy depends on reliable access to information. Your support helps keep The Guardian open to a global audience for generations to come. The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism takes a lot of time, money and hard work to produce. But we do it because we believe our perspective matters – because it might well be your perspective, too. I appreciate there not being a paywall: it is more democratic for the media to be available for all and not a commodity to be purchased by a few. I’m happy to make a contribution so others with less means still have access to information.Thomasine, Sweden If everyone who reads our reporting, who likes it, helps to support it, our future would be much more secure. For as little as $1, you can support the Guardian – and it only takes a minute. Thank you. Support The Guardian
  4. DUP gives backing to Billy Caldwell receiving cannabis medication Original Article: https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/dup-gives-backing-to-billy-caldwell-receiving-cannabis-medication-37009693.html The DUP have given their backing to Northern Ireland boy Billy Caldwell receiving access to medicinal cannabis oil which his mother says helps control his seizures and could even safe his life. The party had previously remained tight lipped on the issue and were not part of a five party grouping (SDLP, Sinn Fein, UUP, Alliance and Greens) from Northern Ireland which backed allowing access to cannabis oil on the NHS earlier this month. Five NI parties back call for cannabis oil on NHS - SDLP, Sinn Fein, UUP, Alliance and Green Medicinal cannabis could be legal in a year: Tory MP Billy Caldwell's mum says Home Office signed son's death warrant after cannabis oil seized Mum defiant as son's cannabis medication is seized at airport However a DUP spokesperson has now said that the party is in favour of Billy getting access to the medication until a final recommendation has been made on the issue from medical experts. Billy has a rare form of epilepsy and has been denied access to the medication following a ruling from the Home Office. His mum Charlotte took Billy to Canada retrieve the medication but it was then seized at Heathrow Airport as they attempted to return to Northern Ireland. She accused Home Office Minister Nick Hurd of having “likely signed my son’s death warrant” following the seizure. Ms Caldwell is still awaiting an appointment with consultants recommended by the Home Office. She said her son had suffered his first seizure in 300 days after being denied the medication. A DUP spokesperson confirmed that they had met with Billy's family to discuss the issue. "DUP representatives have met with the Caldwell family on many occasions and continue to make representations on their behalf. MPs will usually be only able to facilitate meetings with Ministers on behalf of their own constituents however," the spokesperson said. "The party pursues an evidence-based approach to our position on cannabis. We do not support legalisation of cannabis for recreational purposes. "Trials are ongoing to test cannabis-based drugs for conditions such as epilepsy in children, glaucoma and cancer pain. We recognise that patients and their families will be keen to have access to innovative treatments immediately but it is necessary that such drugs are rigorously tested and all processes followed to ensure full safety and effectiveness." The spokesperson said the party was in favour of Billy receiving the medication until a final decision on the issue has been made. "In the absence of decisions by such expert bodies, consideration has been given to specific process where medication could be provided on an individual basis at the request of an individual clinician to a particular patient for a particular condition," the spokesperson said. "We are supportive of such an approach until final decisions are made on more general availability." The latest development comes after Ms Caldwell hit out at the links between Theresa May's husband and companies which supply the drug. The Daily Mirror reported Philip May's Capital Group is the largest investor in GW Pharmaceuticals, which produces cannabis oil - which Billy Caldwell had been using for his treatment - for sale in a foreign market. Speaking to the paper, Billy's mother Charlotte Caldwell said: "Why is my son being left to die in his own country by his own government? I can tell you why, greed and hypocrisy and it’s a recipe that will kill Billy.” Billy Caldwell requires cannabis oil to prevent seizures. UK-based cannabis-legalisation group United Patients Alliance reported in April GW Pharmaceuticals has produced a medicine extracted from the raw cannabis plant called Sativex, used for Multiple Sclerosis patients, as well as Epidiolex, which is made using purified cannabinoid (a component part of cannabis) CBD. It also highlighted that husband of UK Home Office minister Victoria Atkins is a managing director of British Sugar which grows raw cannabis to supply GW to manufacture Epidolex. Victoria Atkins has previously spoken out against the legalization of cannabis.
  5. Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 1 Breathing Management, Exercises and Retraining
  6. Updated News Billy Caldwell's mum resumes talks with British government for son's medical cannabis Two meetings held on Monday resulted in no movement for the family Original Article: By Jilly Beattie 08:27, 12 JUN 2018 https://www.belfastlive.co.uk/news/belfast-news/billy-caldwells-mum-resumes-talks-14772528 Talks start again this morning in London as cannabis campaigner mum Charlotte Caldwell fightsto retrieve her son’s medical cannabis from the British government. Two meetings held on Monday resulted in no movement for the family. And since Charlotte and her sister landed back in the UK from Canada with his oil, he has missed three vital doses. The sudden removal of his medication after 19 months of daily use could prove deadly to the youngster. The 100 seizures he suffered daily before he was prescribed medicinal cannabis had stopped. But now his mum Charlotte says she will not sleep until he gets the oil back. She said: "I slept with my arm and leg around Billy all his life until the last 18 months when his seizures dropped away thanks to his medication. "But now we are back to square one. By the time I wake on Tuesday and start to fight for the oil to be returned, he will have missed four doses. "This is medication and no medication should be stopped abruptly, especially in a child who suffers from epilepsy. That’s a death sentence by any other name. "I’m exhausted and upset but I’m not beaten and will never be beaten while I have Billy. I will never give up on him and his wellbeing. "He will sleep tonight and I pray he sleeps peacefully. I’ll watch him every minute. It’s all I can do to keep him alive until we get his oil back. "What parent would do any less? Apparently that’s what is expected of me.. to let my son slip away. I didn’t do it 12 years ago, I didn’t do it two years ago and I’m not going to do it now." Epileptic boy has first seizure in months less than 24 hours after 'life-threatening' confiscation of cannabis medication https://www.independent.co.uk/news/health/cannabis-medication-billy-caldwell-epileptic-seizures-marijuana-customs-confiscation-latest-a8394971.html Billy Caldwell suffers first seizure after cannabis oil confiscated His 100 seizures a day stopped when he started the medicinal cannabis drops Original article: By Jilly Beattie 11:26, 12 JUN 2018 https://www.belfastlive.co.uk/news/billy-caldwell-suffers-first-seizure-14773654 Billy Caldwell whose medicinal cannabis oil was confiscated by the Tory government yesterday, has suffered his first seizure in 19 months. The 12-year-old poster child for the fight to legalise the herbal medication, had missed four of the tiny doses prescribed to him in Toronto. His mum Charlotte, 50, from Co Tyrone , travelled from Canada on Monday with Billy and openly declared the Tilray oil at Heathrow Airport. But tearful custom's officers, under orders from Tory Policing minister Nick Hurd, confiscated the bottle which contained enough dosages for six months. Just 12 hours later Billy suffered his first epileptic seizure in 19 months. The 100 seizures he suffered daily before he was prescribed medicinal cannabis had stopped and the youngster had been living a normal life, able to attend school and even learning to swim. But at 1.01am Billy suffered a telltale seizure associated with intractable epilepsy. He cannot come out of the fits himself and needs medicated to try to bring him around. Charlotte said: "Thank God he survived the seizure but he could have another any moment and each one could kill him "He would not be having seizures if he was on his oil. It was confiscated and his medication halted without warning or weaning and that is not medical protocol by any stretch of the imagination." Today mum Charlotte and other family hope to meet government ministers again to urge them to return Billy's medication. A spokesperson for the Home Office said on Sunday: “We are sympathetic to the difficult and rare situation that Billy and his family are faced with. ‘While we recognise that people with debilitating illnesses are looking to alleviate their symptoms, it is important that medicines are thoroughly tested to ensure they meet rigorous standards so that doctors and patients are assured of their efficacy, quality and safety.” The latest radio news ~CBD oil works best when a little bit of THC is added as they work best combined.
  7. Medical information disclaimer 1. Credit 1.1 This document was created using a template from SEQ Legal (https://seqlegal.com). 2. No advice 2.1 Our website contains general medical information. 2.2 The medical information is not advice and should not be treated as such. 3. No warranties 3.1 The medical information on our website is provided without any representations or warranties, express or implied. 3.2 Without limiting the scope of Section 3.1, we do not warrant or represent that the medical information on this website: (a) will be constantly available, or available at all; or (b) is true, accurate, complete, current or non-misleading. 4. Medical assistance 4.1 You must not rely on the information on our website as an alternative to medical advice from your doctor or other professional healthcare provider. 4.2 If you have any specific questions about any medical matter, you should consult your doctor or other professional healthcare provider. 4.3 If you think you may be suffering from any medical condition, you should seek immediate medical attention. 4.4 You should never delay seeking medical advice, disregard medical advice or discontinue medical treatment because of information on our website. 5. Interactive features 5.1 Our website includes interactive features that allow users to communicate with us. 5.2 You acknowledge that, because of the limited nature of communication through our website's interactive features, any assistance you may receive using any such features is likely to be incomplete and may even be misleading. 5.3 Any assistance you may receive using any our website's interactive features does not constitute specific advice and accordingly should not be relied upon without further independent confirmation. 6. Limits upon exclusions of liability 6.1 Nothing in this disclaimer will: (a) limit or exclude any liability for death or personal injury resulting from negligence; (b) limit or exclude any liability for fraud or fraudulent misrepresentation; (c) limit any liabilities in any way that is not permitted under applicable law; or (d) exclude any liabilities that may not be excluded under applicable law.
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  9. Instead of shaming them, this woman stepped up and helped 2 boys about to break the law Click for a video on youtube, we all deserve a happy ending! Originally written by: Hope Schreiber Writer Yahoo Lifestyle June 12, 2018 https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/instead-shaming-woman-stepped-helped-two-boys-break-law-231707501.html Instead of letting the children fail, or shaming them, one Twitter user stepped into a situation to help two young boys. Nanasia Music posted a thread onto her Twitter account detailing how she stepped up and possibly saved two black boys from a police encounter. It was her way to pay it forward and to help the young boys the same way someone helped her when she was younger. Nanasia begins her story by approaching the two boys who were trying to steal from a Walmart. Instead of talking down to them she chose to help instead. While it was a simple act of kindness, it obviously meant a lot to the boys. It also speaks volumes about how we never truly know another person’s struggles. These boys were just 13 and 14 years old, barely even teenagers. They had lost their mother and felt guilty asking their grandmother for a product they needed. Of course, the security guard who was following the boys was not happy with her interference. Ma’am he gave me a look of such anger like I took a notch off his belt that day I smiled and said not today not today u can’t have them https://t.co/60qTKangAf — Silent but Loud (@NanasiaMusic) June 11, 2018 For Nanasia, this was just the way she grew up. She believes in guiding youth in the right direction, not waiting for them to mess up. Young people should be led in the right way when they need to be corrected, or in this case when they need help. I’m just from the generation where adults didn’t pull out camera phones and tape the demise of a young blk male… they took the time to step in before it got way out of line … somebody did it for me so it was only right to redirect them …. — Silent but Loud (@NanasiaMusic) June 11, 2018 Even Walmart tweeted her, cheering on her good deed. We offer this video by the Strumbellas, NanasiaMusic is a hero to me and we at cultural healing and life respect her and her actions. She illustrates how we as a society should help heal our society instead of furthering suffering.
  10. A fisherman gave me this quote that fit quite well from the film the grey
  11. The Tale of a loving mother, an epileptic child, a plant medicine and a government. The following are news articles illustrating the story of a loving mother fighting for her son, fighting for his life and fighting his epileptic seizures that tormented him daily and caused his life to be more torture than enjoyment. The mother took her child across the pond to Canada and found legal medicine in Canada but not in the UK as it is made from cannabis and the laws of politics and prohibition without genuine merit in this situation cruelly force physical torturous suffering on a small child and mental anguish only a parent and mother could know. I ask what is gained by forcing such a condition on a child rather than doing the right thing. The following video was made specifically for such situations and I ask that you say a prayer or give a positive thought for Billy and his loving mother Charlotte so that the powers that be will find a way to allow the effective medicine to free those who suffer these conditions! One Drop Forward The Articles Castlederg woman to fly medical cannabis to UK for epileptic son Original article: By David Hunter http://www.goqradio.com/belfast/news/q-radio-local-news/castlederg-woman-to-fly-medical-cannabis-to-uk-for-epileptic-son/ The mother of Billy Caldwell says she will openly 'smuggle' medicinal Cannabis into the UK today. The 12 year-old from Castlederg, Co.Tyrone, suffers from a severe form of epilepsy. He received cannabis treatment in the U.S for several months last year after medical specialists in the UK said they couldn't help. Doctors say the cannabis oil reduced the frequency of his Billy's dangerous and exhaustive seizures , which Charlotte Caldwell said happened hundreds of times per week. He became the first person in the UK to be given a prescription last year. However, Home Office officials told Billy's Doctor to cancel the script last month, saying he could be struck off. Charlotte travelled to Canada last week, where the medicine is legal, as Billy's supplies ran out. She's told the Daily Mail she'll fly into Heathrow today with a six month supply and will beg customs to let her through. "I hate having to do this" she said to the newspaper. "For a mother to be pushed into breaking the law to keep her son alive is horrendous. But this drug has given me hope and given my son back his right to life. "Of course I worry about breaking the law – but I want my son illegally alive rather than legally dead." Billy Caldwell's cannabis meds battle may end in arrest for mum at Heathrow Original By Jilly Beattie 22:24, 10 JUN 2018 UPDATED 23:02, 10 JUN 2018 https://www.belfastlive.co.uk/news/billy-caldwells-cannabis-meds-battle-14767713 Charlotte Caldwell flies into London on Monday carrying outlawed medicinal cannabis and will face arrest or change history in the UK. The mum from Castlederg, Co Tyrone, traveled to Toronto last Thursday to source the oil her son Billy has relied on to keep potentially deadly epileptic seizures at bay for months. Now doctors in Canada’s leading children’s hospital have placed Billy on a clinical trial of the medication which is awaiting peer review. Richard Pengelly, the Permanent Secretary at the Department for Health in Northern Ireland, and the Chief Medical Officer were furnished with the full documents of clinical trial data and the ingredients in the doses on Sunday night. The Canadian trial is ongoing but early data supports the use of medicinal cannabis oil for patients like Billy. The 12-year-old made history when he became the first UK recipient of an NHS prescription for medicinal cannabis last year. Charlotte giving Billy his first dose legally in Canada But the Home Office put a stop to the prescriptions last month and with just one dose left, Charlotte and Billy flew to Canada desperate for help from specialists at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto. And last night they were booked onto the 9.55pm flight from Toronto Pearson International Airport to Heathrow terminal 5, due to land on Monday at 10.10am. If they make it through customs, immigration and security, and are allowed to pass go after declaring the oil, Charlotte and Billy will be joined by 10 other families who say they need medicinal cannabis. Then together they will make a public statement urging the Home Secretary to trigger a change in the law. Speaking to Belfast Live from Toronto, Charlotte said: “I have no choice. I’ve been prevented from giving Billy the medication that keeps him seizure free. Faceless civil servants did that to Billy. I’m worried about breaking the law but I’d rather have Billy illegally medicated and alive than unmedicated and legally dead. What mother should have to make that choice?” This will be the second time Charlotte Caldwell will have openly carried illegal medicinal cannabis into the UK. In May last year the pair flew into Dublin and drove across the border into Northern Ireland after declaring the full spectrum and THCa cannabis oil at customs in Ireland. Billy Takes 2 drops a day Last week Charlotte and Billy attended a meeting at Stormont where she was assured of support by every political party in Northern Ireland except the DUP. And it was shortly after she invited the DUP to the meeting that her GP received an email from the Home Office ordering him not to write any more prescriptions for Billy. The same GP was then invited to a hotel in Belfast to attend an un-minuted meeting with civil servants from the Department of Health’s Drug Enforcement Agency. A source said: “The meeting was particularly uncomfortable for the doctor. He had no choice but to comply. The prescriptions stopped there and then.” Charlotte said: “Members of the DUP initially said they would support us but the support was retracted. They do not support Billy and they do not support my work to keep him alive and well. Charlotte's campaignis supported by parents and all of Northern Ireland's political parties except the DUP “If I had been offered an abortion I would have refused it and protected Billy’s right to life and so would the DUP by all accounts. "Well I’m doing my bit. Where are they? I believe their stance on this is hypocritical." A spokesperson for Tilray, the British Colombia manufacturer of the trial drug oil, said: “Currently, the study drug used in the clinical trial is only authorized for use by patients participating in the trial. "Once authorised for sale, this would be the highest concentration of cannabis-derived CBD found in a medical cannabis product legally available to Canadian patients. “After the product is authorized for distribution Tilray will first make it available to patients who participated in the trial. As we are able to increase supply, we hope to make it available to patients outside of the trial.” The Trial Drugs from Tilray On Wednesday, Charlotte hopes to bring Billy’s six month trial doses home to Co Tyrone via Heathrow. The situation presents Home Secretary Sajid Javid with a dilemma over whether tomorrow Charlotte should be: arrested and detained, arrested and cautioned and allowed to retain the oil, arrested and cautioned and the oil confiscated, or allowed to pass freely through the airports in London and Belfast She said: “I can only ask to keep the drops to keep my son alive and well. “I don’t know if they'll let me. I don’t know if they'll arrest me and confiscate the oil and sign Billy’s death warrant. But I do know that Billy needs it and I’ll make sure one way or an other that he gets it. “Not only that I want to make sure that everyone who needs medicinal cannabis oil, gets it too.” Charlotte has support from the UUP, SDLP, Sinn Fein, Alliance and the Green Party and now includes a former Tory Health Minister in her group of backers. Former NI Health Minister David Ford attended the meeting with Charlotte and backed her Dr Dan Poulter works part-time in mental health services and recently started an all-party parliamentary group supported by three other doctors at Westminster, pushing to legalise medical cannabis in the UK. He said: “The current law is ridiculous. There is growing evidence cannabis products used medically can be helpful in a number of conditions.” He urged that Charlotte and Billy should be allowed into the UK with the oil and said: “This is both medically the right thing to do and humanely the right thing to do.” Billy has been through so much to get to where he is today A spokesperson for the Home Office said: “We are sympathetic to the difficult and rare situation that Billy and his family are faced with. ‘While we recognise that people with debilitating illnesses are looking to alleviate their symptoms, it is important that medicines are thoroughly tested to ensure they meet rigorous standards so that doctors and patients are assured of their efficacy, quality and safety.” THE mother of a severely autistic boy has accused the government of signing her son's "death warrant" after she had cannabis oil which she claims can help soothe his seizures confiscated at Heathrow Airport Original: By Erica Doyle Higgins 11th June 2018, 1:03 pm Updated: 11th June 2018, 6:22 pm https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/6500494/billy-caldwell-cannabis-oil-confiscated-heathrow-airport/ Their is a video at the link above from the original article, a must watch! Charlotte Caldwell, from Tyrone, Northern Ireland, travelled to Canada last week for the oil after the Home Office banned her son Billy's GP from prescribing the life saving medication. Mum Charlotte had said she would return to the UK with six month's supply of cannabis oil, but customs officers confiscated the oral drops at Heathrow this afternoon. Ms Caldwell accused Home Office Minister Nick Hurd of having "likely signed my son's death warrant" before heading to a London meeting with him. "It's Billy's anti-epileptic medication that Nick Hurd has taken away, it's not some sort of joint full of recreational cannabis. "Let me tell you something now: we will not stop, we are not going to stop, we are not going to give up, we have love, hope, faith for our kids and we are going to continue." She said Billy was due his next dose at 3.30pm, and warned of the dangers of missing his first treatment in 19 months. Charlotte Caldwell returned to the UK from Canada with the cannabis oil but had it confiscated as she arrived at Heathrow "The reason they don't do it is that it can cause really bad side-effects - they wean them down slowly. So what Nick Hurd has just done is most likely signed my son's death warrant." It's not some sort of recreational cannabis, it is his anti-epileptic medication he has taken off me today. "I'll go back to Canada and I'll get more and I'll bring it back again because my son has a right to have his anti-epileptic medication in this country and his own home." She said customs officers were "conflicted" about removing the medication from her. She added that doctors are trialling the oil in Canada and it's been "very successful." The mother pledged to go back and try again to get her son the prescription she believes will help him "I'm not at all interested in recreational use.. It's not something I've ever had an interest in, and for me it's a small bottle of oil that's keeping my son alive, it's anti-epileptic medication. It keeps his life-threatening seizures at bay, it's keeping him alive," she said. Billy, 12, was given a prescription for medicinal cannabis oil last year to help treat his epilepsy - in a case similar to that of six-year-old Alfie Dingley, who met with Theresa May in March in a bid to help change the law around the drug. He has a form of the condition meaning he cannot get help through medication or diet. He used to suffer up to 100 seizures a day until he began treatment with cannabis oil in the US, where medical marijuana is legal, in 2016. Charlotte has fought to get her son Billy the treatment she thinks can help calm the number of seizures he suffers She said she would be meeting Mr Hurd at the Home Office on Monday afternoon to plead to him "parent to parent" to get the oil back. The Home Office has defended the seizure of cannabis oil from a mother who attempted to get it into the UK to treat her son's severe epilepsy. A spokesman said: "The Home Office is sympathetic to the difficult and rare situation that Billy and his family are faced with. "Whilst we recognise that people with debilitating illnesses are looking to alleviate their symptoms, Border Force has a duty to stop banned substances from entering the UK. Ms Caldwell has, therefore, had cannabis oil seized this morning at Heathrow Airport upon landing from Canada. "The Policing Minister will meet Ms Caldwell this afternoon." What is cannabis oil and why does Billy Caldwell need it? Billy Caldwell can suffer up to 100 epileptic seizures in a day, and his mother Charlotte previously got cannabis oil for Billy’s treatment from the US. This medicine reportedly had stopped Billy’s seizures but when they were unable to travel for a new supply, she took Billy to their GP. Recognising this as a “unique” case, Dr Brendan O’Hare prescribed the medicine to Billy, but was told last year by the Department of Health and the health board he should not continue to do so. Cannabis oil is a medicine containing a part of the cannabis plant called cannabidiol (CBD). It does not contain the ‘psychoactive’ part of cannabis – the part that causes the feeling of being high. Last year, the UK’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) classed CBD as a medicine in the UK, but it has not been licensed as a medicine. The agency has said that CBD products must be licensed as this means they “have to meet safety, quality and efficacy standards”. In 2017, he became the first person in the UK to receive a prescription after his local GP Brendan O'Hare began writing scripts. The doctor was summoned to a meeting with Home Office officials recently and told to desist. Ms Caldwell is worried the cycle of fits "will eventually kill him", and has struggled to contain her son's seizures without access to the cannabis oil. She said Billy has been free of the debilitating episodes for a considerable period since the treatment. Charlotte said the oil is keeping her son's life-threatening seizures at bay The Department of Health in Northern Ireland said it did not comment on individual cases, but added that Cannabis is a Class B controlled drug and has not yet been licensed in the UK as a medicine. "However, an application made by a specialist clinician based in the UK to prescribe a Schedule 1 controlled drug on the basis of relevant medical and scientific evidence and guidance may be considered within existing legislative provisions and appropriate clinical supervision arrangements. "No such clinically supported applications have been received by the department," it confirmed.
  12. Multimillion-dollar hydroponic pot bust is one of Miami-Dade's largest ever, cops say http://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/community/miami-dade/homestead/article212762259.html BY DAVID J. NEAL dneal@miamiherald.com June 07, 2018 09:05 PM A nearly 200,000-square-foot patch of South Miami-Dade zoned for agriculture contained 1,692.5 pounds of marijuana in two grow houses, according to Miami-Dade police. Thursday's seizure of 192 plants was "one of the largest marijuana hydroponics seizures in the history of Miami-Dade Police Department," said a police statement. Miami-Dade police placed the street value of the marijuana seized at $3.8 million. Miami-Dade property records say the property at 16901 SW 200th St. has been owned since October 2015 by The Nursery Spot, a business formed in September 2015. The only agent for Homestead-based The Nursery Spot is Raimundo Rodriguez. That's not Homestead resident Juan Oliva-Villar, 49, who was arrested on charges of marijuana trafficking. According to the search warrant, a confidential source tipped police that a pair of marijuana hydroponic grow houses sat on the land. A detective approaching on May 30 wrote that he saw "two large black nursery style mesh canopies (shade houses) amongst the trees, which appeared to be covering two unknown style structures." Strolling to the edge of a neighbor's land, the detective said, he could see that same kind of mesh covering a corner of the structure. Also, a smell gave him olfactory encouragement that his tipster was correct. On the property, the detective and a sergeant saw a man. "The unknown male was asked if he was the owner of the property and he advised that he was not and did not know who was," the search warrant read. "[The sergeant] asked the unknown male to walk to the front gate of the premises where he would be greeted by additional officers. The unknown male walked away toward the front gate and walked into one of the shade houses. A few minutes later he walked out of said shade house then walked into the second shade house where he remained. Several attempts to have him exit the premises were attempted via loud speaker; however, he never came out." That was Oliva-Villar. “The success of this investigation, the arrest of the defendant and the seizure of such an enormous amount of illegal drugs was due to the close collaboration between Miami-Dade County Police Department Narcotics Bureau and the State Attorney’s Office Narcotics Unit," State Attorney Katherine Fernandez Rundle said in a statement. "Drug traffickers should recognize that doing business in Miami-Dade’s neighborhoods will put them behind bars." Some of what Miami-Dade police say is 1,692 pounds of marijuana seized from a South Miami-Dade grow house. Miami-Dade Police Department
  13. In UK news! Billy Caldwell: GP says 'ethical issue' in not allowing cannabis BBC News https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-44194042 In 2017, 12-year-old Billy Caldwell became the first person in the UK to receive the NHS prescription. Dr Brendan O'Hare said there is an "ethical issue" in not allowing Billy to have medicinal cannabis. His mother, Charlotte Caldwell, said his seizures had dramatically reduced while taking the cannabis oil. Last week when she went to renew the prescription she was told it would not be possible. After initially prescribing the medicinal cannabis, Dr O'Hare had been told by the Department of Health and the health board last year he should not continue to do so. The Department of Health in Northern Ireland said it did not comment on individual cases, but added that Cannabis is a Class B controlled drug and has not yet been licensed in the UK as a medicine. "However, an application made by a specialist clinician based in the UK to prescribe a Schedule 1 controlled drug on the basis of relevant medical and scientific evidence and guidance may be considered within existing legislative provisions and appropriate clinical supervision arrangements. "No such clinically supported applications have been received by the department," it confirmed. Dr O'Hare reiterated that his initial prescription was "not a support of the irresponsible use of products for ailments for which there is no evidence". But he said in this specific case, this child has benefited and "the reduction in his fit frequency is huge". "This is not to open the floodgates for products, it's about one individual child," he added Billy Caldwell was first given the treatment in the USA by an epilepsy expert.His mother told BBC Radio Five Live that until that point Billy was having up to 100 seizures a day. Ms Caldwell said the effect on her son was "miraculous". "For Billy it's controlling his life-threatening seizures. That is what a small bottle is doing for him." CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are two types of cannabinoids found naturally in the resin of the marijuana plant. Unlike THC, pure CBD oil is not a psycho-active ingredient associated with the "high" in marijuana. There is no restriction on the personal use of CBD oil. However, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is of the opinion that CBD products, used for a medical purpose, are medicines. CBD oil has not yet been licensed in the UK as a medicine but can be prescribed by doctors in special circumstances. The oil containing the THC chemical is illegal the under misuse of drugs legislation. "I am a single mummy and he sleeps beside me and goes everywhere with me. I go to school with him. "He is just my life," she added. When Billy first got the treatment in the United States, Ms Caldwell said it helped the "brutal condition". "I remember sitting up watching him at night in Los Angeles and touching him to make sure he was still breathing in case I had missed a seizure." She said her "heart sunk" when she heard the news. "I know if he hasn't access to this medicine his seizures will return," she said.
  14. Judge Halts Florida's Attempt to Stop Patients From Smoking Medical Marijuana http://www.cannabisbusinesstimes.com/article/judge-halts-florida-attempt-stop-patients-smoking-medical-marijuana/ June 6, 2018 Miami Herald TALLAHASSEE - In a second stinging blow to Gov. Rick Scott and the Florida Legislature, a Leon County Circuit Court judge Tuesday lifted an automatic stay on her ruling that the state's ban on patient access to the smokable form of medical marijuana is unconstitutional. Judge Karen Gievers gave the state until June 11 to put into action a process that will make smokable marijuana available to patients at marijuana dispensaries throughout the state. She said that the state's attempt to delay the implementation of her May 25 ruling created irreparable harm to patients, particularly two women who challenged the law which prevents them from being prescribed smokable marijuana to treat their chronic diseases. "First, they cannot legally access the treatment recommended for them,'' Gievers wrote in the four-page ruling. "Second, they face potential criminal prosecution for possession and use of the medicinal substance." Diana Dodson of Levy County, who has HIV and neuropathy, and Cathy Jordan of Manatee County, who has Lou Gehrig's disease, testified that the only cannabis delivery system that works for their symptoms is smoking, and they are alive only because they break the law and smoke marijuana. The Florida Department of Health, which is charged with regulating medical marijuana in the state, said it was reviewing the ruling and would not answer questions about whether it will move forward with rules related to smoking marijuana. Instead, the agency released a statement focused on the existing law, which Gievers has ruled was unconstitutionally inconsistent with voters' intent.
  15. Ohio Delays Medical Marijuana Roll-out https://www.cincinnati.com/story/news/politics/2018/06/05/medical-cannabis-legal-ohio-weed-cannabis-delayed/673839002/ Jessie Balmert,Chrissie Thompson and Randy Tucker, Cincinnati EnquirerPublished 2:01 p.m. ET June 5, 2018 | Updated 10:21 a.m. ET June 6, 2018 COLUMBUS - Ohio patients will not be able to buy marijuana on Sept. 8, the anticipated start date for Ohio's medical cannabis program. In fact, it could take weeks more before medicinal weed is available for patients. Even then, it's likely to be available only in limited quantities. Delays in licensing 25 marijuana growers in Ohio have pushed back the program's launch, the Ohio Department of Commerce said Tuesday. Before planting can begin, the growers must have their facilities inspected by the state and be granted a certificate of operation. "We really should have had plants in the ground by this time,'' said Mark Hamlin, a Ohio Commerce Department spokesman. Ohio legalized medical marijuana in June 2016, saying people could buy it out of state if they had a doctor's note – although few people have taken that option. Meanwhile, the state has been working toward setting up its own marijuana growers and dispensaries. The rollout has been fraught with hiccups and delays. So far, just one large grower – Pure Ohio Wellness – has had its facility inspected but did not receive a certificate of operation. The Commerce Department, which regulates the growers, is continuing to work with the company to pass inspection. “This is a miserable failure,” said state Sen. Kenny Yuko, a Cleveland-area Democrat who has championed medical marijuana, of the delayed launch. The patients who were hoping to use marijuana to cope with pain, seizures, digestive problems and the like “had so much hope and trust," Yuko said. "It was taken away." State regulators are promising progress. Two more small growers will be inspected later this month, Hamlin said. And five large growers are slated for inspection in July. Still, even if all of the growers got their certificates of operation at the time of inspection, it's highly unlikely that they would be able grow marijuana and have it ready for sale Sept. 8, Hamlin said. Even when medical marijuana does become available, Hamlin said, "supplies on Day One will be very limited, and even intermittent, until production catches up to the market.'' Hamlin insisted the program will still be "fully functional'' by Sept. 8, as required under the law. He said the law simply requires the regulatory framework for the program be established by Sept. 8. "We recognize that along the way the public expectation became that there would be medical marijuana available for patients on Sept. 8,'' he said. "Our role was to be ready to inspect them (growers) when they were ready for us, and we’ve been ready to do that since March,'' he said. Nicole Scholten has been working toward marijuana legalization in hopes of using the drug as a treatment for her 14-year-old daughter, Lucy, who has debilitating epilepsy. The delay past Sept. 8 doesn't surprise her. "I think that the law was written not with patients at the fore," Scholten explained. Ohio isn't the only state to have delayed its medical marijuana rollout, said Charlie Bachtell, CEO of Cresco Labs, which is building a facility to grow marijuana in Yellow Springs. Illinois, Pennsylvania and Puerto Rico had similar holdups. "It’s more important for a state to get this right than to try to hit deadlines that might have looked good on paper," Bachtell said. In Ohio, Cresco Labs was awarded a license in November and broke ground in December. But construction faced setbacks because of Ohio’s cold and wet winter, Bachtell said. The facility has scheduled its state inspection for the second week of July. If it passes that test, workers could grow marijuana plants in about 90 days, he said. Theoretically, marijuana from Cresco could be available in October. “Delays are going to be measured in a matter of days and weeks – not months,” said Bachtell. He praised Ohio Department of Commerce’s regulators for their efficiency. A longer wait to put medical marijuana on shelves has consequences, Scholten said. "Every day that this is delayed, people who are very sick, whose medicine is not working for them, they're making terrible decisions: to uproot their families, to engage in criminal behavior (to get marijuana) or to wait," she said.
  16. Couple Loses Custody, Might Face Jail Time After Giving Son Who Suffered from 10 Seizures a Day Marijuana They Bought Illegally Tim Marcin,Newsweek Desperate to treat his frequent seizures, a couple in Georgia said they gave their 15-year-old son marijuana—acquired illegally—and found that it worked in significantly reducing the number of seizures he suffered. But as a result, they're now battling to regain custody of their child, according to multiple reports this week. The couple, Matthew and Suzeanna Brill, also potentially face jail time after being charged with reckless conduct when their child, David, tested positive for marijuana in April, according to CBS News. But the Brills have said marijuana helped David go from suffering as many as 10 seizures per day to being seizure-free for more than 70 days. "It was a miracle for him," Matthew Brill told CBS News. The couple said David has since been moved to a group home, and he is again suffering from frequent seizures. Despite the potential consequences, David's stepfather has said he would do it all over again because traditional pharmaceuticals weren't working for him. "Even with the ramifications with the law, I don’t care," Matthew Brill told The New York Times this week. "For 71 days he was able to ride a bike, go play, lift weights. We were able to achieve that with David medicated not from Big Pharma, but David medicated with marijuana." Medical marijuana is legal in a majority of states and there has been some movement toward making seizure medicine based on marijuana. A review from health officials found a drug made from the marijuana plant—not the psychoactive parts—reduced seizures in children with severe forms of epilepsy and recommended FDA approval, reported The Chicago Tribune last month. Georgia has strict marijuana laws, however, allowing only some residents to acquire state-issued cards to obtain oils that are low in THC, the part of marijuana that gets you high. Suzeanna Brill said getting a card for David proved difficult. "The only way he could get a medical card would be a six-year waiting list," she told CBS News. Anecdotes like the Brill family's aside, the Epilepsy Foundation website notes there have been issues determining how much marijuana can help those who suffer from seizures because of limitations on research. "Evidence from laboratory studies, anecdotal reports, and small clinical studies from a number of years ago suggest that cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive compound of cannabis, could potentially be helpful in controlling seizures," it reads. "Conducting studies can be difficult as researchers have limited access to marijuana due to federal regulations and even more limited access to cannabidiol."
  17. Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 1 Understanding Breathing and Breathing Test Medical Disclaimer Understanding Breathing Managing energy and stress through breathing is not a new practice. This practice started in ancient times and is even used in the military today. We also do it everyday without realizing it. When our physical and mental activity change our breathing patterns do the same. In the following we will discuss the types of practices that can increase energy or to reduce stress working towards relaxation and clarity. The following techniques can assist greatly with our day to day energy and stress but I recommend using them in conjunction with other practices such as: correct sleep patterns, meditation, nutrition, a general positive and happy state of mind These are keys that help unlock a healthy life controlling stress by enabling our bodies and mind to serve us well by working in tandem and in support of one other. Think of each aspect as spokes on a wheel. They all serve a purpose and are very important to the strength and longevity of the wheel! Oxygen Advantage When we think of breathing we think of oxygen but the regulator in breathing is not oxygen. It is carbon dioxide that regulates our breathing reflex and it also plays an active role in how well our cells work. We think of carbon dioxide (co2) as a waste gas but this is not necessarily the most accurate way to understand carbon dioxide. We need to understand how it affects the process of breathing. It is the level of carbon dioxide that triggers our breathing and this level can be adjusted. As carbon dioxide increases in our bodies a message is sent from the brain to inhale. Exercise and stress can increase carbon dioxide and thus increases our breathing rates. In this manner, carbon dioxide is a regulating factor. Generally our modern lifestyles works against us in breathing healthy and we tend to breath hard/faster. However the key is to healthy breathing is to slow breath. Our modern life has worked to set our brains to activate our breathing points on a lower level of carbon dioxide which reduces the functionality of our cells while at the same time not having an effect on oxygen in the red blood cells. We essentially bring in more oxygen than we need and by doing so we remove too much carbon dioxide that it unbalances our cells from functionally optimally and this can cause a domino effect of other negative issues. It is interesting to note, when we hold our breath we think we reducing oxygen to our cells but in reality we are not making any real differences. What is affected is our "breath hunger" and this is a behavior that can be trained and changed for better or worse. This level of breath hunger can be altered by slow breathing and we will discuss this further in this compilation. For now, it is important to understand, that when we hold our breaths and feel the need to inhale, that is breath hunger and not a true indication of a lack of oxygen. BreatheSimple Mouth Breathing and Nasal Breathing Mouth breathers are those who breathe through their mouths instead of their noses. Breathing through the mouth has negative health implications. There are those who breathe with their mouths only when they are asleep and those who do even when they are awake. Those who wake up with dry mouth, they mouth breath during sleep. Mouth breathing can be is as a result of either one of these: Nasal obstruction: There is resistance to the smooth flow of air It can also be habitual where you formed a habit of breathing through the mouth since you were a child In the third trimester of pregnancy, mouth breathing is common. However if you are not a mouth breather this will stop. Associated mouth breathing symptoms include: Dry mouth Bad breath Snoring Chronic fatigue Dark circles beneath the eyes Slow growth in children If you typically breathe through your nose, you should be enjoying these benefits. Less anxiety and stress Healthier blood pressure levels Increased endurance during physical activity Improved lung function Anatomical mouth breathing causes: Obstructions: Nasal obstructions are a common cause of mouth breathing. These can be foreign bodies, a deviated septum, or large adenoids. Facial deformities: Both lip incompetence and a cleft palette can force mouth breathing. Infectious mouth breathing causes: Viral: Both the common cold and sinus infections are examples of viral infections that can make it difficult to breathe through the nose. In these cases, mouth breathing is typically temporary and resolves after the infection is eliminated. Medical mouth breathing causes: Pregnancy: Women who have never snored can suddenly find themselves being woken up by angry partners when pregnant. Additional blood flowing through the body causes blood vessels to expand and nasal membranes to swell. Sleeping disorders: Mouth breathing is a common first symptom in those diagnosed with sleep apnea. If a diagnosed patient wasn't always a mouth breather, CPAP treatment can usually revert the patient back to breathing through their nose. Tumors: Though incredibly rare, the location of an undiscovered tumor can affect breathing. This shouldn't be the first cause of mouth breathing you consider but if all common causes have been ruled out, it should be explored. If you need help diagnosing your condition, schedule an appointment sooner than later, especially if you're experiencing the following. You're receiving complaints of sudden or loud snoring You never feel rested, even after a full night's sleep You're experiencing persistent bad breath or dental problems Even if you've been a mouth breather your entire life, you should still take positive steps to reverse the condition. The following mouth breathing treatment suggestions can help. Practice: For some, mouth breathing is a habit. Breaking a habit takes consistent practice. Whenever possible, focus on breathing through your nose. Elevate your head: This can especially help when pregnant or suffering from a sleeping disorder. Propping yourself up with an extra pillow can discourage mouth breathing. Exercise regularly: Similar to elevating your head, exercising on a regular basis can improve breathing in those with sleep disorders. Remove allergens: Even slight allergies can cause serious nasal inflammation. Focus on making your bedroom an allergy-free area. Keep pets out, purchase bedding made from safe materials, and keep windows closed. Breathing aids: If congestion is behind your mouth breathing, a nasal strip can help to support nasal passages and encourage nose breathing. What I've Learned Tanveer Abbas The normal anatomical function is to breathe through your nose. And there are good reasons why you should maintain this natural provision. Breathing through the mouth reduces the oxygen absorption capacity of the lungs. As you breathe through the nose, nitric oxide gas is produced by mucus in small levels. This gas increases the lung’s oxygen absorption capacity. Prolonged oxygen inadequacy has detrimental long term effects to your overall health. Air breathed through the nose is cleansed of harmful microbes and other impurities. As the air travels through the hose, they are filtered in the mucus lining of nose. This mucus lining also moisturizes and warms the air. Breathing through the mouth is detrimental to your oral health. It dries out gums and promotes acidity increasing the risk of cavities and plague. It also increases the risk of gum disease. Research has proven that mouth breathing at night worsens snoring. As absurd as this may sound, breathing through the mouth can lead to facial deformation. This mostly happens in children. Buteyko Clinic International How to stop mouth breathing in five easy steps. Sarah Hornsby The Breath Test A measurement of how long we can hold our breath can be indicative of our overall health. Since we are all different we will discuss the breath test which will allow us to uniquely understand our personal breathing as it relates uniquely to us. The following tests will assist in determining what our breathing illustrates about us and will give us a starting point in seeing how our breathing affects us uniquely. Oxygen Advantage Breath Test, Sitting Instructions Mouth is always closed. Step 1 Sit down in an upright position, with your back straight, and relax for a couple of minutes. Take a small breath in and a small breath out, in a calm way through your nose (approx. 2-3 seconds on inhalation and approx. 2-3 seconds on exhalation.) Step 2 Pinch your nose after the exhalation is finished and hold your breath and start the timer. Step 3 When you feel the first urge to breathe, let go of your nose, stop the timer and breathe in and out calmly through your nose, in the same way as in step 1. Chad Moreau Breath Test, walking instructions Mouth is always closed. Step 1 Sit down in an upright position, with your back straight, and relax for a few minutes. Step 2 Stand up and take a small breath in and a small breath out in a calm way through your nose (approx. 2-3 seconds on inhalation and approx. 2-3 seconds on exhalation). Step 3 Pinch your nose after the exhalation is finished and hold your breath and start walking while counting the number of steps you take. Step 4 When you are not able to hold your breath any longer, let go of your nose, inhale and exhale calmly through your nose and note how many steps you took. Try to wind down by breathing calmly as soon as possible. Mim Beim Interpretation of Breath Test Health status Hold breath sitting Hold breath walking No symptoms, optimum health 60 seconds 120+ steps Very good health, most symptoms are completely gone 40 seconds 80-100 steps Good health, symptoms present when exposed to a trigger 30 seconds 60-80 steps Symptoms are often present 20 seconds 40-60 steps Many different symptoms always present 10 seconds 20-40 steps Medications, diseases, very heavy breathing 3-5 seconds 10-20 steps Understanding Breathing and Breathing Test Summary By understanding breathing and how carbon dioxide and oxygen affect our bodies we can begin to institute various breathing exercises and even the retraining of our breathing for optimal oxygen absorption for our cells giving our bodies the opportunity for optimum health. By understanding how we uniquely rate in the breathing test we can establish a personal base point so that we can understand our personal starting points and chart our growth. In addition the breathing test is a generic test of overall health and thus this measurement holds a larger significance. In the next compilation we will discuss various breathing techniques and breathing retraining. The good stuff! Credits: Lyam Thomas Christopher Professor Kimberlee Bethany Bonura http://www.mayoclinic.org/ What I've Learned Tanveer Abbas Buteyko Clinic International Sarah Hornsby https://www.buoyhealth.com/ Oxygen Advantage Mim Beim Chad Moreau BreatheSimple Oh Wonder
  18. Personal Energy - Understanding Stress and Our Energies The Autonomic Nervous System Our personal energies are effected by a large part by stress. We tend to think of stress an invisible thing but stress is actually a physical affect caused by stimulation from both physical and mental/emotional influences. For most of us, our personal energies are not balanced and we suffer from this in ways we likely do not understand or possibly appreciate. The following explains the physical effects that stress inflicts upon us and in so doing we hope the word "stress" begins to have more meaning as in understanding the process, that understanding can give us a measure of control that can have dramatic positive impacts on our lives. We will discuss several topics and for some people they will view some topics as not as important as some other topics. Please understand that each topic is important and acts like a spoke on a wheel. While some topics such as breathing and meditation can offer a more noticeable benefit in a quick period of time while some others do not show or illustrate their benefit as quickly such as nutrition and increased sleep. Please understand, what follows is a skill and can be learned. While perhaps we may have some habits that work against these topics from being utilized effectively as it may impact upon our comfort level such as actually going to sleep for the correct period of time and such as altering our breathing and posture. By gaining an understanding and finding an appreciation for adopting the practices it will positively impact your life energies. The topics that will be discussed are: Understanding the autonomic nervous system (basic is only important but I offer more information), State of Mind, Sleep, Breathing, Meditation, Nutrition, Daily routines that help balance ourselves mentally and physically. Understanding the autonomic nervous system (basic is only important but I offer more information) Before I go into personal energy I think its important to realize and appreciate our two part autonomic systems within us. The sympathetic nervous system The Parasympathetic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System CrashCourse The sympathetic nervous system The sympathetic nervous system is generally called the flight or fight reflex. It is a stress reflex the basically diverts our bodies energy into the vital processes of our bodies for the moment and shuts down or reduces energy to other parts of the body. Such as if we see a dog and that dog begins to chase us, the sympathetic system sends hormones to receptors that enable us to run as fast and as quickly as possible. This system affects our heart and blood vessels and promotes the areas of our bodies that need it the most, as in the legs for the above dog chase scenario. It also suppresses immunity and overtime with frequency this is a factor that plays a role in us being unhealthy due to reduced immune systems. Your body goes through a number of changes when the sympathetic nervous system is activated. Your heart rate increases The bronchial tubes in your lungs dilate Your pupils dilate Your muscles contract Your saliva production is reduced Your stomach stops many of the functions of digestion More glycogen is converted to glucose However, the sympathetic nervous system can be activated without real world aspects and can be activated such as scary movies, work stress, bad news on tv, personal relationship hardships or just about anything stressful. Unfortunately when this type of stimulation actives our sympathetic reflexes we do not go through the balancing aspect of the physical activity such as running or whatever action would of been applicable. This aspect and negative consequences becomes compounded overtime. What happens is we when we mostly have the stress component activated overtime we become accustomed to this stimulation which then becomes a habit and becomes integrated into the normality of how we live our lives and we develop significant health issues and mental aspects as a result. Often these issues are not noticeable at early stages and leads to many problems we tend to take medications for such as high blood pressure but by understanding that how we live our lives is the root of the cause we can begin to take actions and measures that can truly cure the issue and not hide it via medications. The following is taken from Lyam Thomas Christopher - As I think he sums it best. In summary of the Sympathetic Nervous System is that is provides a valuable service in genuinely emergency situations but since it is easily activated by our modern life style and habits it has become a root instigator into many health and mental issues that affect us today. The doctors will tend to give us medications that do little overall but treat a symptom. We all hear stress is a big issue but we rarely appreciate those words. By understanding this system perhaps we can begin to truly understand and begin to appreciate those words and start to change the cycle that is destroying us. The following tactics can help and we will go into more on each aspect further in their own compilation. Positive state of mind, Meditation, Breathing, Exercise, 7 to 8 hours sleep on a regular basis, Nutrition Detailed information about the Sympathetic Nervous System CrashCourse The Parasympathetic Nervous System The second part of the autonomic system is the parasympathetic nervous system. This is activated when we are typically are rest and relaxing allowing our bodies to use energy in healing and maintenance type of ways. This system is often referred to as the feed and breed system. The parasympathetic system when in balance with the sympathetic system enables us to reduce stress and live healthy mental and physical lives. We often ignore this part of us and we suffer greatly for it. The body undergoes several specific responses when the parasympathetic system is activated. Your saliva is increased Digestive enzymes are released When we are stressed we cannot digest our foods correctly and this causes a reduction in nutritional absorption and health issues overtime. Your heart rate drops When this does not occur due to modern life style and modern stimulation this buildup of increases stress on the affected body parts and overtime create significant health issues. The bronchial tubes in your lungs constrict Your muscles relax The pupils in your eyes constrict Your urinary output increases Regulating sexual arousal Ways to activate the parasympathetic system is to do calming things, from breathing, light exercises, petting a dog or a cat, reading a book, sitting and enjoying the evening, listening to calm music, a soothing bath, taking a walk, gardening, spending time in nature and the list can go on and on. Finding what works for you to that helps calm and sooth you is the answer and possibly to expand on that list to help you manage it with more tools. These methods can assist in activating the parasympathetic system in situations such as work or when other techniques are not practical. Aligning our mental and physical attentions: By bringing our mental state into the physical state (what we are doing now) it can help to reduce stress by simplifying stimulation. Examples: Focus on your feet on the ground or within your shoes Feel the wind upon your face The sun shining on you The saliva in your mouth, how your tongue rests and the warmth and texture of your tongue. Breathing excercises Meditation and muscle relaxation techniques Positive emotion and happy thoughts The more time we spend in the parasympathetic system the better and the sooner we activate this after stimulating the sympathetic system the better for our mental and physical well being. Detailed information on the Parasympathetic Nervous System CrashCourse In Summary By addressing these two parts of our nervous system by understanding how modern life and its stimulation affects us we can begin to take control of our physical and mental health at a root level by simply allowing our bodies to function as intended. As a result we can increase our mental and physical energy levels, our nutritional absorption, our mental states, our immunity and reduce the potential for chronic diseases. It is never too late and the body is remarkable at healing if given the chance. We hope this has given you an understanding of how stress in our lives affects us and that you will begin to take the steps to manage those stresses and become better for it. Credits: crashcourse Lyam Thomas Christopher Professor Kimberlee Bethany Bonura HealthVibed The adrenal fatigue A cultural healing and life writing and compilation
  19. Fishmonger who released 70-lb octopus back into the ocean says he'd do it again By Michael Bartiromo | Fox News http://www.foxnews.com/food-drink/2018/05/24/fishmonger-who-released-70-lb-octopus-back-into-ocean-says-hed-do-it-again.html The folks at Giovanni’s Fish Market in Morro Bay, which is owned by Giovanni “Gio” DeGarimore, announced last week that DeGarimore purchased an especially large octopus from a fisherman for the sole purpose of releasing it back into the sea — and now he tells Fox News he'd do it again. “I can’t be a savior to everything, so I had to pick one thing and do what I can," DeGarimore tells Fox News. To that end, DeGarimore says he intended to release the 70-pound octopus into Morro Bay "without much fanfare," but an employee snapped a pic and shared the story to Facebook. “Meet Fred,” read the posted shared to the fish market's Facebook page, along with the picture of “Fred” in a basin of water. “As you may or may not know, Gio has taken a moral position to no longer support the sales of ANY Octopus products. While it might seem strange, we think it's actually pretty cool,” the message continued. DeGarimore told the San Luis Obispo Tribune that, even though he makes his living selling fish, he’s become more conflicted about octopus over the last 10 years or so, and especially after a recent diving expedition in which he “played a game of hide and seek for 15 minutes” with a playful cephalopod. He also told Fox News that the last straw came a few months back, after witnessing a live octopus being butchered at a sushi restaurant. "That's what made me take a stance," he said, adding that Fred himself was likely destined for the same fate. So when DeGarimore was offered the chance to purchase the 70-pounder, he forked over a few hundred in order to save the “beautiful animal.” The purchase came just a few months after DeGarimore made the decision to stop selling octopuses from his shop althogether — a decision he explains on the store's website. "Financially, it doesn't make sense, but I had to stand for something," DeGarimore told Fox News. "If I get the opportunity [to free another octopus] again, I definitely will." DeGarimore released Fred into Morrow Bay on Thursday, and says his decision has been met with "99 percent" positive reactions from customers, and Facebook commentators largely agreed.
  20. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. The Indoor Garden Environment ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Ventilation Ventilation is a big part of creating and managing the entire environment. First we need to understand the needs of the plants being grown. A wise gardener can not only create a stable grow environment but can manage with accuracy the environment in regards to temperature, humidity, CO2 and air quality. Their are a variety of setup and options that offers a range of capabilities depending on a gardens needs. Understanding how to use these tools is vital in creating optimized grow areas. What ventilation tool works in one setup may not be ideal in another ventilation setup. For example, dealing with humidity is different in a tropical area compared to dry climate area. Often people will be told that one method may not be good when in fact that method may be most beneficial in certain situations. This aspect negatively works against us by instilling these misunderstood views. Creating an effect that limits the typical ill informed gardener in knowledge and capability in respect to options to utilize to manage their garden. This may in part be due to much of the communities knowledge coming from marketed directions and forums, never mind this one . Ventilation Types Active or Passive Ventilation. Active Ventilation - Using a slightly smaller inline fan to intake fresh air into your grow room. This has less strain on your garden's extraction fan and is more efficient. Exhaust fan typically will have a filter attached This reduced effectiveness of the fan. Making it sensible for a lower intake fan. Using fans with control switches can give you better control. I tend to recommend that if a grower can afford and if they plan to expand at a later date to over spec the requirements using a speed controller for the fan to adjust to correct CFM rate for the grow. For tents I do not recommend a weaker intake fan rated CFM for tent size as negative pressure is a problem on stitching. I do not recommend an overly strong intake fan rated significantly higher than your CFM needs as a whole. Consider for intake fan, the next fan size or model down from your intake fan. Adjust for exhaust filter and ducting losses. Intake is 8 inch fan with dimmer switch and an 8 inch exhaust fan with/without dimmer switch. Intake is 6 inch fan with a 8 inch exhaust fan. Intake is 4 inch fan with a 6 inch exhaust fan. Negative of too much ventilation is high heat, high humidity and low levels of CO2, this will negatively affect photosynthesis. Negative of too little ventilation is low humidity and stomata/transpiration issues. Illustrates traits often associated with genetic aspect when in fact it is a result of a plant responding to environmental stress that the gardener may or may not appreciate. Extreme situations of low humidity will put the plant in a hibernation or pause state until the environmental stress passes (humidity levels return to functional levels). Dry climate areas with low humidity are higher risk. Passive ventilation - I dislike this typically due to the following. Basically is a low vent on one side and a high vent on the opposite side of the room or tent. Works best during colder periods when the difference between inside and outside temperatures is greatest. Passive ventilation used alone can’t extract humidity. Determining Ventilation Requirements Cubic Foot per Minute of ventilation requirement is needed. Exchange your garden's air at least once per minute at minimum. Not as important in vegetative growth when plants are small as they have less leaves. "Best Practice" is to exchange once per minute. Ensure fresh air intakes are managed (intake filter) for bugs and pest that could enter the garden via this pathway. Intake filter will reduce approximately CFM's by 25% Bends in ducting reduce CFM's drastically. Ducting curved 30 degrees reduces CFMs by 15% Air quality - Low humidity intake air will need less ventilation until humidity is correct as the leaves will begin lose moisture and negatively affect the stomata and the photosynthesis process. To calculate initial cubic feet per minute of ventilation you need, start with calculating the size of the garden in cubic feet. You do this by multiplying the height, length, and width of the room. FAN CFM CALCULATOR Note: You need to have Javascript enabled on your browser for the calculator to work. http://www.industrialfansdirect.com/CFM_Calculator.html Advanced calculator Ventilation Summary Understanding ventilation and how to use it in various situations is a skill that few appreciate and with automation capabilities it becomes rarer still. Often their are negative garden issues associated with to little ventilation within a multi ventilation setup and when this occurs it can lead to potential harmful situations like mold or heat aspects. It is important to understand ventilation but one can make it as complex or as simple as they wish. The point is that now one can make an informed decision and have some direction on how to effectively setup for each perspective gardeners needs. Environment the Tool and some tools The environment is the driving factor in a garden and as such it is wise to utilize this to our advantage rather than to just build around it. As an example, this is a common practice done by to instigating the flowering stage by adjusting the timing of the lights to further adjustments in temperature and humidity depending on how simple or as complex the design of the garden and needs of the crop are. Understanding how to use the tools such as ventilation and the different setups that enable various capabilities that may offer solutions to gardeners with certain situations and/or needs. Further still this knowledge gives you the capability to adjust to environmental conditions experienced out of normal weather patterns. The key is to appreciate that assisting a plant through a stressful period of time be it normal growth period development and/or environmental based stress that addressing the plant at all levels from environmental aspects to nutritional aspects as to ensure the overall health of the plants is strong. A gardener must not depend on the strength of any one aspect to cover for not being competent in other areas of plant care such as heat control but not humidity and also take into consideration nutritional and plant physiology aspects for before during and after the stress event. Some environmental control aspects. Hot and Cold areas Sealed Room Consideration (higher electrical cost but is easier to control grow environment) Air conditioning aspects Air conditioning Air cooled reflector hoods Insulated ducting Carbon dioxide Burner. Bottled. Bucket/Bag grow shop kits Wine/Ethanol making. Air Filters Pest control Air quality and smell controls. When seasonal outdoor temperatures are not good. Air intake from inside the building offers stable temperatures and humidity levels. Use an Lung room or tent to temper and treat air before going into garden area. Hot areas Outside air intake into an active cooling lung room. Balance for proper humidity level and temperature. Cold areas intake into an lung room. Outside air intake into lung room. Grow room exhaust into lung room lower temperature and exhaust or intake into grow room as best for your setup. If exhaust to outside this helps remove aspects of ice build up. If exhaust to grow room ensure proper temperature and humidity levels for current growth cycle. Lung room option 2 Intake air from inside building to lung room (stabilized but not ideal) Cool or heat lung room and obtain proper humidity level Exhaust lung room into grow area. Exhaust grow area outside (filtered most often) Exhaust grow area inside of building (Use the heat) or Exhaust grow area to a lung room for temper for outside temperatures. The biggest thing is to make informed and calculated decisions when working an issue. Their is no need to panic and rush into a decision that make things worse. Gain control of the situation and sit back and look at it through eyes as if you was going to give advice to another. Try to see the garden as if for the first time and go over your grow history and analyze. The answer or the answers are their. When you can during stressful climate times and periods, go for nature walks and see what plants are doing well and see if get any ideas! Video on Heat in the grow room Video on cold in the grow room Fan controller video AC video Air Cooled Hoods & Ducting Video Filter size video Additonal tools Advanced Calculator: http://www.uk420.com/growroomtools2.php BTU Calculator for room & Area: http://www.calculator.net/btu-calculator.html Click Hortilux logo for Watts/lights to BTU calculator A BTU, also known as a British Thermal Unit, is a measurement of the energy needed to cool a substance. Grow lamps generate a lot of heat. By converting your wattage into BTU per hour, you’ll have the information you need to keep your plants cooled so that they don’t burn up from the heat of the grow lamps. A BTU is also the equivalent of 252 heat calories, not to be confused with the kilo-calories of food, and of approximately a third of a watt of electrical power. When speaking of cooling power, the BTU also works in reverse. The air-cooling power of an air conditioning system refers to the amount of thermal energy removed from an area. Hence a 65,000 BTU heater and a 65,000 BTU air conditioner are of roughly the same capacity and size. The higher the BTU output, the more powerful the heating or cooling system. The thermal energy needed to raise water one degree Fahrenheit can depend on the original temperature and the method used for heating. Therefore, it is possible to get several different definitions of a BTU from different sources. This rarely has a palpable effect on consumer product information, however. Click for Phresh CFM, Cubic Feet per Minute Calculator Click for Phresh CFM Calculator Indoor Garden Environment Summary Ok, by controlling the environment we can affect plant physiology and development stages but as we know their is no simple "one size fits all" formula for managing the indoor garden. By understanding to appreciation the aspects discussed in this writing you have created a base of knowledge that will allow to address virtually all the varied aspects of the environment and how to control them to serve the plants and you very well. By making a true home for our plants, they will truly it make it that and live their life healthy and fit. Always understand via competent analysis of established to new technology that can affect indoor environments. Continue to learn on plant physiology. Always be the student. Continue to learn on plant and environment interactions and aspects. Always be the student. It is not so important that any specific method be strictly followed as that you have a true understanding of all things affected and then from that knowledge you apply effective methods to obtain the conditions you want. For You When environmental and plant physiology wisdom is effectively gained it can become the advantage that can equal or best the long established or it can just be what makes a garden happy and productive. ~JJ The Gardener The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas.
  21. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. The Indoor Garden Environment ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Air Quality Air Scrubbing Air quality in grow rooms is dependent on several factors but most important for plants is co2, temperature, humidity and air flow. However, we often do not think of the other aspects of air such as various particles such as pollen, hairs, dust, smoke, dander about anything than can float in the air. When considering I recommend a charcoal filter rated for the size of your room or slightly smaller than your rated CFM and run independently of any exhaust filter, Place the fan directly on top of the filter and secure to filter. Allow fan to filter air blowing the air upwards. The higher position the filter the better but keep away from moisture and humidity of 80% or more as it will stop the effectiveness of your filters. This is operated in the garden and separate from the exhaust system or you can run dedicated air cleaning machines. This will add some heat from the fan into the room Account for additional electric needs. To "scrub" the air take a filter for the size of your room or one with a lower CFM rating and do same with the size of the inline fan ensuring to match the correct size fan to filter. Aspects of air scrubbing: Offers a higher degree of smell containment when used in conjunction with a traditional charcoal smell filtration system or any other effective smell management system. Cleaner air in grow room. Can remove gas created by end of life leaves which give off a gas that encourages ripening. This is stated that it can be used to extend ripening times for some crops. I personally would not consider as a base justification as I would tell you to remove the dead and decomposing leaves. I do not necessarily believe this but it is stated in several competent writings. Down side to blowing into the room is that it can distribute a fine charcoal dust from the filter. A solution is use a lung room and scrub the air through that mechanism. I do not find it normally necessary to scrub or clean grow room air but I find beneficial in following scenarios. Consideration for high pollution areas. Additional layer of smell protection when used together with other smell management systems. Consideration for extra protection in breeding setups and will discuss such aspect in future breeding setup writings. Video on Air Intake A good example of the construction of a good air intake filter. Ozone Air Scrubber Option I do not recommend ozone for sealed or closed rooms as ozone is not healthy for plant life or most life in general. Plants will negatively respond that is a exposed to ozone. I have no problem with ozone being used for air filter system that is safely exhausted. Carbon Filter (Smell) Often carbon filters are used as part of the exhaust system. Adjust for loss of CFM when determining fan size, approximately 25% Replace approximately once per year. Some filters you can switch the cap and extend the life cycle of the filter. At 80% humidity carbon filters are no longer effective. Carbon filter Video Air Scrubber Summary The quality of the air is something we generally take for granted as being a given. It is not a necessity and adding more noise and heat to your garden area may not be the smartest move but it is an option that should be considered and ruled on as a matter of competence. In my view, if you can do it, do it. If you do, use it intelligently drawing and pushing the air in locations such as areas that receive little wind/breeze or are heat sink/spot areas as to distribute evenly throughout the room. It also can offer an extra layer of smell protection when used in tandem with a tradition smell management system. This option is also useful in areas of processing where extra filtration may temporarily be of value. I do recommend to run filtered air in areas that processing takes place in. This extra is more than a security measure it helps filter any animal hair, pollen or any matter that may be undesirable and visible under a microscope. For example, when a dispensary is analyzing your crop. Well filtered air is a blessing in preventing embarrassing detritus in the crops. Regardless of ones view of this, it is a tool that can easily be employed and should be considered and ruled any time an applicable scenario presents itself for its use. Carbon Dioxide or C02 Carbon Dioxide is one of those tricky subjects that is easy to misunderstand. Generally, CO2 is a great a marketing aspect for indoor garden suppliers but what is not often said is how to effectively use them. I believe many gardeners misuse or they are not efficiently using CO2. In the end this cost money and is wasted resources. When using CO2 it is best to be used with "best practice" along with "best practice" in lighting, nutrition and management. Then the capabilities of achieving the most from your genetics become a possibility. If not done to effective levels of competence with all other aspects of the plant the reality of the benefit of CO2 is greatly diminished. Thus, CO2 is only a viable option for flowering for those with well constructed rooms as to maintain efficiency levels in particular in reference to financial costs. However, it is beneficial to add higher levels of C02 in early veg, cloning stages as the required PPM is far less and this can assist with maintaining heat and light tolerance. This can be beneficial preparation in the stages before hardening rooted plants off outside or for other needs. Can be a benefit when you ship clones to help them endure shipping as they are stronger. High Concentrations of CO2 is bad for people and animals and can kill when it reaches 1% of the air. Gardens use approximately 0.15% of the air. However, use a CO2 meter to ensure that no malfunction of a burner and compressed tank could cause a disaster. never saw nor heard of this happening but lets not be a first. Using CO2 CO2 is heavier than air. Thus we put CO2 so that it falls or "rains" CO2 down on the plants. Evenly distributed Small fans strategically pointed upward can keep CO2 in air and over plants and helping distribution. "Best Practice" is to have the grow rooms at optimum levels of C02 during the day. Often CO2 is run in closed rooms. Often 15 minutes co2 dose and then 15 minute air exchange and repeated throughout day cycle. With this setup you often run air cooled lights. Exceptions can be with lung rooms and recirculated air system. This is a trade off in cost efficiency where you run the CO2 at optimum levels throughout the day and replenish as your plants use. Often used in conjunction with a CO2 Meter/controller. Their is no benefit to running C02 during the night/dark period. Will turn your plants yellow. Seedling, Cloning, initial transplant cycles you only need 300-500 ppm. Few leafs and little photosynthesis. Raising temperature at this level will not help CO2 at this level will assist with plant tolerance to heat and light stress. Vegetative stages after rooting increase CO2 to 600-900 ppm. As plants increase in leaf and growth they will use more energy/photosynthesis and sugars are made. Adjust/Rise the CO2 levels accordingly. It is not harmful to the plants if PPM's are higher than normal for period. This increases the cost of your grow to have ineffective CO2 ppm amounts. Do not raise temperature in vegetative area as in later flowering period. The plants can become more hardier to withstand light intensity and higher temperatures. Is generally part of a CO2 garden operation to treat at this stage as to prepare for the higher temperature and more intense light in a flowering/blooming or an outdoor environment. Helps reduce shock in this regard. Flowering stage keep CO2 at 1000-1500 ppm. Increased growth and bud production by running CO2 during the first 2-3 weeks of flowering. Once flowering has truly begun CO2 may or may not be effective. Their are strong views for and against continue or discontinue CO2 at this time of development. Traditional CO2 use would finish 2 weeks before harvest approximately. I have no direct experience with CO2 in terms of comparison as above. Raise temperature 85f (30°C) to 95f (35°C) for full benefit of CO2. Watch for heat stress in plant and adjust temperature accordingly. You potentially lower your lights towards the canopy if desired paying attention to light bleaching aspects. Plants become more light tolerant with higher CO2 PPM and higher temperature. Helps reduce shock in this regard and allows for leafs to function at brighter and hotter temperatures than normal. Examples of Setups with Enough Light for CO2 Injection up to 1500 PPM I like full spectrum light in addition to brightness, traditionally they go by brightness. 3' x 3' space - 600W HPS or HPS/MH Combo or LED/full spectrum & bright 3.5' x 3.5' space - 2 x 400W HPS or HPS/MH Combo or LED/full spectrum & bright 4' x 4' space - 1000W HPS or HPS/MH Combo or LED/full spectrum & bright CO2 Garden Options CO2 Generators and Compressed CO2 are the most effective and efficient ways to add CO2 to your garden area especially for flowering areas. Vegetative areas also benefit but a due to the less amounts needed this can be actually achieved by other means than generators and compressed tanks. It is possible to use fermentation kits and CO2 bags purchased from a store, however this is costly. If you are seriously into making wine you can also do this if fermentation concentrations are sufficient, smaller areas. Also for those who live on a farm and/or those who make ethanol, the fermentation process releases CO2. CO2 Generators & Compressed CO2 CO2 Generators often run on propane or natural gas. Some generators are optimized for higher elevations Compressed CO2 is run with a regulator and bottle setup. Costly operationally I like best for: When needing fast increases of CO2. Bug infestation. Management option. When testing CO2 in your environment before dedicating to it. Low initial cost and is often consideration for a "trial" run to evaluate before dedicating to a burner system which may require some room alterations. In some garden situations I like burner systems and the use of a CO2 tank in certain situations. Tank being largely used in supplemental aspects and certain situations. Very good informative video Good example of Compressed air system. CO2 Burner Information, Not an endorsement, for illustration purposes. I have no opinion on quality. Set up for this style of burner to give illustration of setup understanding. CO2 Summary CO2 use is ideal for most growers only in vegetative stages due to the low PPM requirements and benefits in preparing the plants for follow up stages. Often smaller gardens will use a bucket or bag CO2 product and hang high as CO2 is heavy and will fall. Fans pointed up will help keep CO2 in air column. The costs of these products can be high and some home brewers may be able to devise a system to take advantage but for most this aspect is a pain the ass. CO2 compressed tanks are a better alternative to the bags due to the low PPM in veg the cost efficiency of tank is more attractive and bags and buckets take up space and are generally a pain the ass. I recommend only for trial purposes. Dedicated gardeners with closed systems can create systems that take full advantage of the CO2 and to do this requires a degree of best practice aspects all around. The average gardener can not easily achieve this no matter what marketing says. Additionally their is much debate with merit on both sides for and against continued CO2 use after flowering/fruiting has begun. I have no experience with this aspect and will update as more information becomes relevant. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas.
  22. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. The Indoor Garden Environment ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Humidity Humidity is water vapor in the air. The amount of this water vapor (humidity) in the air we measure is in terms of relative humidity. Humidity has a significant impact upon plants both positive and negative depending on the percentage. Often I see people who prescribe negative aspects of the garden plants to other reasons when in fact humidity played a role in their issue more so than what they prescribed as the culprit of the problem. Many times this is in part an aspect for stretch and rooting aspects.. When humidity is in the correct "relative humidity" levels for a plants specific development stage it is the equal of what a perfect outdoor day feels like to us air and breeze wise. The kind of day where you think you could just stay out on the porch, in the yard, have a grill as the day just changes your plans for you. This is what we want to create for the plants and it is not as hard as you would think. Learning about humidity and how to effectively manage it is a key aspect of ones evolution in indoor gardening as we learn how to use the tools of advanced gardening. I warmly welcome you to the tool shed. Humidity aspects Plants Transpire This is how plants cool themselves, like sweating. They release water into the air But when the air is already saturated (high humidity) The plant shuts down at a certain point. This is why in part high humidity is dangerous. when the plant cannot transpire is can become the equivalent of being bloated and this makes it easier for plants to become infected by mold and mildew infections as their is much more water inside the plant it is easier to infect. Especially plants that are stretched due to high nitrogen and low calcium uptake. Weak cell walls + full of water in plant = easy for mold spore to drill into and infect internal plant water and infection. Seedlings and cuttings are most sensitive. Think spring light and humid environment. Cuttings may use dome in traditional clone rooting Cuttings in air cloners do not require a dome Seedlings require a dome only until they come up. Careful adjusting from climate of seed tray to next area. Placing a clear film over top of early rooting plants raises the humidity at plant level. Putting a dry light blocking material around plants will help with humidity in the plant area. Humidity of 80% is ok We do not want to put pressure on roots at this point. Vegetative growth a higher humidity of 60 to 70 percent is healthy. Gradually increase as plants develop. Pay attention to leaves and adjust humidity up or down accordingly. Generally this is controlled by exhaust, and/or air conditioning. Flower around 40 to 50% is healthy. To high humidity in flower is inviting to mold and mildew spores. Air conditioning & heat as applicable is sometimes used to manage humidity. A dehumidifier is sometimes used to manage humidity in flower Be aware of the electrical needs and amp requirements of a dehumidifier. Humidity Summary For most the next big thing is in some bottle or in an up and coming light. In truth, utilizing humidity as a tool will enable you control the plant in ways many do not yet effectively appreciate. We see that a plant will grow about anywhere and this aspect has caused many of us to misunderstand what a good grow environment actually is and thus our expectations are not aligned correctly and we often sell our selves short by simply not understanding humidity levels. Now that we understand humidity and growing we can better use it to our advantage to help control stretch and root growth, create environment conditions like early morning, mid afternoon, later afternoon and night for each stage. As with other indoor gardening tools control of humidity is as complex or as simple as one wants it to be. I recommend optimizing humidity for each plant development stage with root growth, transplant and transition stages. Very good video regarding humidity. How to control humidity indoors Good information on greenhouse and urban farming. Their youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/BrightAgrotechLLC/videos Too Hot Too Cold Fan control Air Conditioning Air Intake, Filter, Inline Fan, Ducting and Air Cooled Reflector Hoods The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas.
  23. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. The Indoor Garden Environment ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Temperature & Gardening To be wise in regards to temperature in gardening is to appreciate that temperature affects two main aspects in the garden. The environment and the plant. In gaining an appreciation of these two perspectives and their cumulative and lasting effects is the beginning of taking control of your garden environment rather than your gardens environment controlling you. Once we understand this concept we can discuss how to control the environment to our advantage to limiting adverse uncontrollable situations like heat waves or periods of high or low humidity. The below formula is made to help illustrate this aspect. Temperature/humidity effects on environment + Plant physiology/effects = Temperature in gardening knowledge Temperature perspective in regard to the garden environment The first perspective of temperature is the environment perspective as temperature is the guiding factor that directly determines the effects, positive and/or negative for all other environment factors in your garden. Such as raising or lowering temperature can affect the humidity and the effect on the plant itself ranges from comfort level to affecting its daily biological functions (leaf to root pressure) to negatively impacting the plants development stage. Further still, temporary bad temperatures that cause stress can have reactions that enable a setting favorable for mold pathogens and other similar negative effects on the plant. If a plant is not healthy (nutritional) and fit (Brix levels) during stress times plants can become more attractive to pests and disease causing further problems. Understanding temperature and its effects on your environment and that upon your plants physiology and development will enable the gardener to transform temperature as a feared grow barrier to a hard to control force to being just another tool in the gardeners tool box and a simple factor to account for. Garden Temperature Effect Formula: Temperature & Environment (humidity) from canopy/middle/low fruit/media/root media level + _____Plant Physiology & Plant Development + Impact over time_____ = Garden Temperature Effect. Genetic & Climate Tolerance Plant type/strain/phenotype @ Climate Tolerance + Match Environment = Good plant Genetic The Second perspective to temperature is from the plants perspective. We tend to take the plant for granted that it will just automatically respond wonderfully to our specially designed environment. However, before we can go that far with our expectations we need to ensure that we have the correct genetics, phenotype and sensitivity aspects accounted for that matches the garden environment or the garden environment adapted for. Hot and dry areas you want plants adapted for that climate. Humid and hot areas you want plants adapted for that climate. Account for known sensitivities or discard that genetic in favor of those who better adapt. Regarding the type of plant environment think and research about the time of the season and how the plant would naturally and traditionally be grown. We just want to match those conditions as best we can for the type of plant and the strain and phenotype. For example, spring environment for natural seedlings, early growth, pre fruit/flower, transition period, early flower, middle flower and end of flower/fruiting environments. The next part is to understand how temperature and relative humidity affects the plant. By understanding this aspect you can gain the knowledge to control your environment as necessary and to optimum conditions if so desired. Good video on temperature and other factors. Everest Fernandez Temperature, Humidity, Light Intensity, Spectrum and Plant Physiology The key to optimizing lights in the environment is to control the heat. We want to find the sweet spot that maximizes a lights intensity, spectrum and penetration with favorable conditions at all viable plant depths. Either using one or multiple lights each light is treated the same way to determine optimum settings in terms of cooling and heating. Light intensity & Environmental Formula Temperature and humidity @ various plant levels + plants physiology = light intensity/quality Often, If canopy temperatures are too high gardeners will often increase the distance between the plants and lights. This directly affects light intensity and spectrum at depth due to light loss with increased bulb to plant distance. Air conditioning options. Air cooled reflectors are options. CO2 use. This directly impacts the quality and yield of the plants lower fruits if lights are moved out the optimized distance. Take light intensity into consideration no matter how close you are able to get light to your plants with cooling if you are able to get to close to a plant due to effective heat control. (light bleaching.) Palm test - if too hot for your palm after a minute it is probably to hot. Lumens - 50,000 to 20,000 lux is acceptable. Temperature and humidity effects and damage can range from: Reduced photosynthesis. Leaf damage Heat damage High humidity shuts down plant process negatively affects transpiration and stomata function. Low humidity affects Too dry air negatively affects transpiration rates increased intake of water and nutrients can lead to nutrient burn and other nutritional aspects Light bleaching if too close Lower light spectrum aspect if canopy is not maintained at good environment temperature/humidity. Adjust light distance if applicable. Media environment stress will alter the bio life of your media to potentially negative aspects. Intersex plant trait potential due to stress depending on plant sensitivity and type. Temperature and humidity can alter the media and the plants uptake and intensity levels of nutrients to dangerous levels. This can affect temporary situations such as lock outs. Can create longer term effects such as adding to soil/media acidification and creating a domino effects from causing locks to inviting To visualize these effects in human comparisons think of a baby to teenager (seedling/cutting to veg) and/or an adult to elderly person (mid flower to harvest time frame) in harsh environments be it hot or cold this effect is dramatic on the younger people and older people (kids in cars and elderly people without air conditioning or heating as example) just as it does with young, elderly and sensitive people it is the same with most plants. This is why predators in the wild like old, the sick, the injured and the babies of their prey. Easier meal as they are weaker. This aspect is rarely appreciated by those who believe they understand temperature. If you are after quality and yields, pay very close attention to your temperature levels doing your very best to not go into stress situations. Just like "Goldilocks", plants like it just right. Not to hot and not to cold. You are also prepared to understanding on when to induce stress as applicable for your plant type. Be it to induce fruiting, sweetness or any pertinent factor for the plant being grown. Some plants require stress factors to help them enter their next development stages. Stable all the time is not necessarily as a good as matching the plant environment with its developmental stages. Things to help manage stress: When outdoors, encourage deeper root growth. B-Vitamins before, during and after High brix CO2 use (PPM dependent) Air conditioning increased air flow/breeze above and through the plant. If dry heat add some humidity depending on your plants needs at their development stage. if humid head reduce humidity depending on your plants needs at their development stage. Ensure reservoir water and watering in water is at a correct temperature. Add ice bottles. water chill system. increase aeration when water temps rise. lower oxygen content in warmer water. low oxygen and warm water is good environment for root pathogens. Add H2o2 to water periodically and 5 minutes before feeding to increase oxygen to water levels. H202 breaks down into oxygen. Ensure media temperature does not get out of proper range. Smaller containers may be transplanted depending on stage of development of plants. Larger containers soils should be shaded (if not already by plant). Union Break! I think this is how some might feel! Garden Temperature Planning During the planning stages of a garden the plan will often take into consideration the intensity, spectrum and over all the strength of a grow light in terms of yield and quality and work from the top down depending on what they can afford to purchase. Generally people think they will be automatically able to place the light at optimum levels as stated in marketing for light quality, penetration and per suggested light distance from the plants but they do not appreciate their ambient and the entirety of the operating temperatures and the lights impact on temperature. No matter what marketing says your garden temperatures will be determined along with other factors such as natural ambient temperatures and humidity and this directly affects the efficiency and overall quality of your lights in terms of heat, light intensity and spectrum in regards to the light penetration of the plants. Otherwise the scenario where gardeners purchase a high wattage light and cannot control the heat. A very common situation that leads to the gardener raising their costs by adding in cooling options to make the situation more palatable to the plant. The best answer is a reduced wattage light that equals the best operating temperature. Having a 600w HPS or a 1000w HPS so high from the canopy due to heat that it is essentially a 400w light is not efficient use but this is fairly common, especially during summer months where budgets do not include effective additional cooling options. Some people will consider LED lighting or other low temperature lighting in comparison to HPS or other high heat lighting and this is a valid option but I also recommend reviewing a smaller wattage light and in combination with another light for a better light spectrum. Which ever will give you better spectrum with good penetration taking into consideration the operational temperature of your garden. This is rarely the big light choice when the high wattage lights impact upon the garden is appreciated after taking into consideration impact the light brings to the operational garden heat as a whole and with other costs associated which typically lowers the lights efficiency in comparison to the other options. To plan out a garden environment we need to consider all the elements that make up the garden environment and affect temperature specifically. Such as mechanical equipment and the natural ambient temperature so that we can determine cooling and/or heating requirements. How To Determine Heating and Cooling for Environment Natural Ambient Area Temperatures - This is the normal temperature of the area you are going to grow in prior to starting. We will use this in estimating operational temperature. Day and night temperature at high and low temperature and humidity readings. This information will determine if we need to add cooling or heating just to prepare or set the garden environment. We will use this as our Natural Ambient Temperature Natural Ambient Temperature Formula Natural Ambient Temperatures (day and night) for operating seasons (intake air). + _____Estimated Heat (Lamps, fans, CO2 burners, insulation etc) @ BTU and/or Watts____ = Estimated Operational Temperatures per season as applicable @ BTU and/or Watts for cooling and heating requirements Now to determine the "Operational Garden Temperature" and then we can make adjustments to the build plan to obtain our environmental goals during the planning stages. Operational Temperatures: Intake temperature (outside/lung room air) needs @ BTU and/or Watts for HVAC + _____Grow room heat (Lights + other)_@ BTU and/or Watts for HVAC = Operational Garden Temperature HVAC requirements (Day and night highest and lowest temperatures per day for each change in intake air such as each season). By adjusting the BTU/Watt requirements for the selected lights it can be estimated to an acceptable range of accuracy the impact that each light will have on the cooling or heating requirements for the garden. As a general rule if the numbers are close I recommend going the light size lower or increase the BTU/watt requirements for additional cooling as to ensure better optimization for light penetration and spectrum. Further additional BTU/Watt, cooling/heating consideration for: Insulation properties of the room, ducting and any other pertinent factor. Air conditioning, dehumidifiers, CO2 burners and ventilation are also factors to consider. Add the wattage of heat generating aspects with the type of insulation and we can determine the cooling or heating requirements. Example: Grow tent 3x3x6 in a basement area that is consistent at 65℉= 18.3℃. Should a 400w light require cooling. We want to determine the cooling required for a 400watt HPS for a 3x3x6 size tent. http://www.eyehortilux.com/education-room/btu-calculator.aspx Enter 400w light wattage = 1365.200 BTU/HR http://www.calculator.net/btu-calculator.html Adjust Temperature to Increase or Decrease Setting Adjust this setting until it matches close but over the 400w BTU/Watt cooling needs as learned from this calculator; http://www.eyehortilux.com/education-room/btu-calculator.aspx 1365.200 BTU/HR Once the BTU needs match that of your light and combined needs of your room. Add the degrees needed to cool the light from your desired garden temperature. This is the temperature that can be estimated by your lights. This will determine if cooling or heating or nothing is appropriate. In this examples of a 400w HPS in a 3x3x6 tent with stable ambient temperature at 65f. You will need 1,360 BTU/hour or 398 watt to cool this light by 20f to reach desired setting. http://www.eyehortilux.com/education-room/btu-calculator.aspx Since it will take similar BTU/watt requirements to cool that matches our light BTU/watt requirements at 20f we can determine the light will add approximately 20-25 degrees of heat to our ambient temperature. Total heat is estimated to be in the 80℉= 26.6℃ to 85℉= 29.44444℃. A bit on the upper high side of acceptable. Add air conditioning for better environment and less risk. Add air cooled reflector. Reduce to next light wattage option down/dimmer switch on light. CO2 considerations due to plant temperature benefits if run on high side but may be more cost effective to consider cooling options. Once all the BTU/wattage requirements are known and accounted for at depth of the plant for light intensity you can determine the entire cooling or heating needs by simply working your overall BTU/watt requirements as you did each light. This will give you a good estimate on realistic garden environment and its requirements. Temperature in the Garden Summary Once a gardener understands to an appreciation the perspectives and effects of temperature and how to control it the gardener can utilizes this knowledge to manage their crops effectively and expertly to the degree of control they build into their garden systems. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas.
  24. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. The Indoor Garden Environment Part 1 ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Environment Introduction Garden order of importance Quality and strength of light + garden environment + nutrition + management/technique/method = grow operation. It is not rare for new gardeners to make basic errors when designing or planning an indoor garden. They often think of the harvest and what the optimum level for this and that when creating a grow environment but they rarely take into genuine consideration the plants themselves when planning and building grow environments. The following is my attempt to answer this aspect. First, lets change our perspective to that of the plants. For many of these plants the indoor garden environment is all they will ever know of nature and life. By creating a garden environment worthy of this aspect you not only respect the harvest you desire but the life that produced the harvest for you and in so doing we co-exist together in a sacred life cycle harmony that for some is a serious perspective and for others the basics will do. This is my attempt to lay the groundwork for either direction and all the ways in between. When we properly respect our plant partners and the harvest (by harvest I mean managing the crop) the happiness along with the fitness of the plant combines to bring back to you in a tangible form a glorious harvest worthy of the life and harvested crop that you have provided and managed for. To some this is sacred, to others this is just taking care of a plant. A plant that is in synergy with its environment, light and nutrition is a healthy and happy plant. When this happens the best of the genetics is possible by promoting the plants during their life stages or just take an easy growing approach it is all up to you. Note; Sometimes when a plant is in too good an environment we may have to alter the environment to induce a degree of stress to encourage the transition and/or to ripen or potentially face extended grow periods. Certain conditions can affect plant physiology such as hormones and trigger the beginning or the encouragement of a development period. Aspects such as temperature and humidity followed by light timings for quality to life cycle for various plants and qualities there of. To be wise in creating a garden environment is much more than construction and math. It is to understand and appreciate the life and physiology of plants, environmental aspects and all those as aspects as a whole. When these aspects are aligned the full spectrum and strength of your lights will be happily received and they will fittingly energize achieving plants that most will think they could not achieve prior to this appreciation. In the gardening community we often are more unwise at some point in our gardening lives. Early in our learning/experience we can tend to prescribe plant problems and aspects incorrectly as to other causes and effects than those that are environmental based or at least in part based. This misunderstanding often affects the reality of what we actually know of gardening compared to what we think of we know. At "common and harmless" levels it is just maybe a bit humbling to be corrected or to just learn correctly on a subject that you believed was one way but in fact was another reason or effect of. At worst, it directly causes harm to yours or others crops. Market affect on this type of grower: Before spending one bit of money or energy on adding "boosters" and such from light to nutrition unless your garden environment is happily in balance with your plants or you have largely wasted (ineffective results) and increased the cost of your environment. Their is a difference between a not as healthy plant but normal looking plant gaining health than a very healthy plant gaining a "boost.' from an additive or such. Most people fall into the category of "not as healthy but normal looking plant gaining health." This an aspect why many forums will say boosters do not work, I comment on environment not boosters in general but use as illustration. We will be discussing each aspect that makes up the grow environment so that you will be able to influence and manage your environment effectively for each stage of plant growth or just the general grow period as up to you. We will discuss standard grow area sizes and locations associated with personal medical grow rooms and indoor gardens associated within the normal garden community. In this discussion we will be giving recommendations that represent store bought or easily assembled products. This is not a marketing gimmick nor an endorsement of any products as they are used for illustration purposes and to be realistic to what I believe many in this category will use, at least initially. I do not give endorsed views other than possible situations based on unique and/or specific needs and availability of products to a perspective gardener. Grow Environment Formula Location (Grow Area) + Operational Temperature (actual operating temperature) (Day - High & Night - Low) (To estimate ambient temperature + estimated operational temperature, take into consideration fans, lights, CO2 burners) + Humidity + Ventilation + Air quality + Climate Adjustments (CO2, HVAC adjustments in addition to normal ventilation) = Grow Environment for Day and Night, can customize for each plant stage of development. Home Location Selection and Analysis Location location location as they say. We all think of grow areas differently. For some, it is a tent, for others it is an attic, a basement, a closet or just a room. Regardless of location we have to take some key aspects into consideration and then we want to work on removing any limitations to making a grow location suitable for a plant to call home, as everyone knows "home is where you make it." Many indoor gardeners do not really select or choose a grow area than they tend to use what is available to them. Regardless of how we may select the grow area, we need to understand the area wisely. This is often an aspect that many people take for granted and not much effort is put into effectively appreciating this aspect and often a price is paid for this lack of competence. Once a location is chosen and analyzed it needs to be cleaned and prepared correctly. "Best practice" may be to create a room within the room as to enable the typical construction of a sealed room easier, cleaner and more efficient. Thick or insulated type of walls are best for maintaining stability. Thick walls like rock. Modern insulated walls. A tent is generally not a significant issue as it is affected by the ambient room temperature for which the tent resides. Generally I dislike tents but they are fine to use and have their use depending on a variety of needs. Tent is influenced by the surrounding air in the room. Use air around tent like a lung room. Determine your base ambient temperatures. Determine Cubic Square Feet of grow area Phresh CFM calculator http://www.phreshfilter.com/tools/cfm-calculator Address location negatives Understand the grow area ambient temperature during the seasons and with day and night temperatures. This is your base ambient room temperature. Base Ambient Room Temperature = The "empty" grow area in Day (high) and night (low) for each season. We will use these base high and low numbers in our future calculations and analysis, notice the word and. Basements and attics may have damp and mold that needs cleaned and addressed. Window areas in attics often need addressed. Attics are typically not well insulated and the base ambient temperatures usually vary with the seasons Mostly effected by high and cold temperature extremes. This is one reason an attic garden is less favored unless it favors condition for a particular plant type. Basements may have mold aspects Using mold resistant white paint is an option. Hospital paint that has anti mold/fungus properties. I recommend use in grow areas regardless for "best practice" aspect. Basement base ambient temperature should be stable throughout the year. Flooding issues Old or not well managed drains Address tree root maintenance for pipes if applicable. Bugs/pest issues. A thorough cleaning and competent bug management is typically sufficient. Definitively remove any pre-existing infestations and ensure their will be no return. If the location was previously used for growing then ensure to clean and sterilize for pollen, bugs and molds. Good Location Video information. Location Summary Regardless of where and how we select our garden areas. It is our job to create and manage a favorable environment as possible for the harvest. It just so happens to get a good harvest we have to have healthy plants. The following information is about various aspects of the environment and how to manage for the location for which your garden resides. Since the best answer for some situations can vary from situation to situation it is important to understand the flexibility ventilation and its various setups that offers various management and control over your environment and plants. Remember, no matter the gritty appearance of a starting location you are creating a home! The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas.
  25. Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 1 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 2 Vermiculture, Vermicompost  & Worm Castings - Part 3 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 4 Vermiculture, Vermicompost Worm Castings - Part 4 Using Vermicompost Vermicompost is a fully stabilized organic soil amendment that is much more microbially active than the original organic material that was consumed. It has a fine particulate structure and good moisture-holding capacity. Vermicompost contains nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in forms readily taken up by plants. It also has plant growth hormones and humic acids, which act as plant growth regulators. You can either use your vermicompost immediately or store it and use it later. The material can be mixed into the soil in your garden and around your trees and yard plants. You can also use it as a top dressing on outdoor plants or sprinkle it on your lawn as a conditioner. It’s best to protect the vermicompost from direct sunlight by incorporating it in soil or covering it with mulch. You can also make “vermicompost tea” to spray on your plants. Simply add two tablespoons of vermicompost to one quart of water and allow it to steep for a day, mixing it occasionally. Water your plants with this “tea” to help make nutrients in the soil available to the plants. Be sure to use the vermicompost tea on your plants within 24 hours of making the batch of solution. Do not use vermicompost tea on the edible portion of a plant unless you are absolutely certain that the solution does not contain pathogens. Mixing castings for use in starting a garden Pauly Piccirillo - How To Mix Worm Castings For the Garden. The way to much information section Worm farming information: A special thank you to Rhonda Sherman for all her work in the industry. Worms Can Recycle Your Garbage (Rhonda Sherman, 2017, AG-473-18). How to set up and maintain a worm bin in your home or office to compost food scraps. https://composting.ces.ncsu.edu/vermicomposting-north-carolina/ "Vermicompost for Healthier Plants" JC Raulston Arboretum - "Vermicompost for Healthier Plants" Worm Bin Troubleshooting Bin smells bad Overfeeding Stop feeding for 2 weeks Non-compostables present Remove non-compostables Food scraps exposed to air Bury food completely Bin too wet Mix in dry bedding, leave lid off Not enough air Drill more holes in the bin Bin attracts flies Food scraps exposed to air Bury food completely Rotten food Avoid putting rotten food in bin Too much food Don't overfeed worms Worms are dying Bin too wet Mix in dry bedding; leave lid off Bin too dry Thoroughly dampen bedding Extreme temperatures Move bin where temperature is between 59° and 77°F Not enough air Drill more holes in bin Not enough food Add more bedding and food Worms are crawling away Bin conditions are not right Review above; Leave lid off and worms will burrow back into bedding as they escape the light. Mold is forming Conditions are too acidic Cut back on acidic foods; remove mold; moisten bread products Bedding is drying out Too much ventilation Mist bedding keep lid on the worm bin Liquid collecting in bottom Poor ventilation and/or over-watering Leave lid off for a couple of days and add dry bedding Feeding too many watery scraps Cut back on coffee grounds and food scraps with high water content Mix food with bedding material before feeding To prevent unwanted seeds, generally a professional for profit operation. Compost traditionally until the internal compost pile temperature reaches 131 °F to 170 °F for 3 days. Remove composting material (is not done we only want to kill the seeds and pests) Spread around and let the compost cool or you can cook your worms. Add this compost as feed stock to the worms. Pests - Not all are harmful but annoying Potworms Potworms are common in worm bins and enjoy slightly acidic conditions. Potworms are small white worms commonly found in soil. They can develop into massive populations, especially in compost piles or in earthworm farms. They’re scientifically known as enchytraeids (enn-kee-TRAY-ids) and are segmented relatives of the earthworm. They are often thought to be baby red wigglers, but baby red wigglers are reddish even when they are tiny. The name “potworms” comes from the fact they inhabit the soil in pots and containers. There is some unnecessary worry that overpopulation will choke out the worm population. That is typically not the case as potworms and a host of other creatures, including those that cannot be seen except under a magnifying glass or microscope, reside peaceably with earthworms, often in great numbers. When a potworm invasion occurs, they can number as many as 250,000 in a ten-square-foot area. Adults measure about a quarter of an inch, and can literally appear to be in the millions in comparison to your red wiggler worm population. Potworms tend to congregate together under food. Potworms feed on the same type of litter as earthworms and inhabit rich organic environments such as a compost heap or worm composter. They are efficient at aerating soil and breaking down just about any organic material. This species prefers an acid environment that is moist. When lots of acidic materials are added to the bin, or when starchy materials are added and allowed to ferment. If the bin is too dry, they will die. The easiest way to reduce potworm populations is with bread soaked in milk. They will flock to a piece of soaked bread and can be lifted out and destroyed in large batches Just as potworms won’t harm other living worm species, they do no damage to living plants. The only possible problem that could occur with potworms in a worm bin is if their population grows so large that they compete for food with the red wiggler composting worms. However, this rarely happens and potworms generally help with the composting process. Spider mites (Brown and white) Mites are the most common pests to show up in your vermicomposter. Most worm beds usually contain several species of mites. Earthworm mites are small and are usually brown, reddish or somewhere in-between. They tend to concentrate near the edges and surfaces of the worm beds and around clusters of feed. They are not known for attacking the earthworms but do eat the worm’s food. When the mite population is too high the worms will burrow deep into the beds and not come to the surface to feed, which hampers worm reproduction and growth. Mites can compete with the worms for available food if the population spirals too high. High mite populations usually result from: Feeding the earthworms overly moist garbage and vegetable refuse as feed. Over-watering. Keep the beds damp but not wet. Poor bed drainage. Ensure that there are adequate drainage holes at the bottom of your worm bin or housing. Remember, the same conditions that ensure high worm production will be less favorable to mites. If you find your worm farm overrun by mites, expose the beds to the sun for light for a few hours. Cut back on water and feed and then, every 1 to 3 days, add calcium carbonate. Add additional shredded paper or coconut coir to absorb any excess moisture. Drain off any liquid that has collected in the base and check to make sure the spigot is not plugged. They seem to love cantaloupe and watermelon. Place the rinds on top of the compost (after you have enjoyed the fruit of course). Leave it over night and the next day you will have mites covering the rind from top to bottom. Wash the mites off over the sink. Keep repeating the process until you are satisfied with the results. When you're done leave the rinds in for your worms to enjoy. Christy Ruffner - ControllingSpiderMitesInTheWormBin Fruit Flies Not a friend, neither an ally, just plane annoying. A common method for ending the cycle of nature on these worm farming pests mainly in your house. Fill a small bowl with apple cider vinegar, wrap it with plastic wrap and punch a couple of small holes in the middle about the size of a toothpick. They will fly into the hole and eventually drown. They are attracted to the acid in the vinegar. This is probably what attracted them to the bin in the first place. Remember to add the food in small layers to avoid rapid bacteria growth and pungent odor. A way to prevent their eggs from hatching can be to boil it before feeding it to the worms or freeze it but only if you see them in the fruit. Freezing will probably only kill the larvae and not the cocoons. Make sure to bury the food under at least 2 inches of bedding to eliminate any flies from getting in. This will also mask the smell from emanating from the bin and attracting other worm farming pests. Springtails Springtails are tiny, wingless insects, usually white in color but may also be yellow, gray, red, orange, metallic green and lavender. They feed on mold, fungi, bacteria and decomposing plant material so they are harmless to earthworms. Springtails can “jump” about 75 mm. They have a tiny spring-like structure under their bellies that causes them to jump when disturbed. Springtails are most numerous in wetter bedding, while numbers decrease as the bedding dries out. Although they have on occasion been observed to eat dead or weak worms, springtails are primarily a nuisance because they eat the worm’s food and can, when the populations are big enough, drive the worms deep into the beds and keep them from coming to the surface to feed. One deals with them the same way one deals with mites Earwigs They are not harmful in a worm composter but may eat some of the earthworm food. Earwigs are outdoor insects usually found under mulch, logs or dead leaves. They both need and are very attracted to moisture. Earwigs are rapid runners, and are easily identified by the prominent pincers on the end of the abdomen. The common earwig is a light, reddish brown flattened insect, up to one inch in length. Most species of earwigs are scavengers that feed on dead insects and decaying plant material but some species are predators. Earwigs may try to pinch if handled carelessly, but are harmless to people. Beetles Beetles are not harmful in the worm composter. The most common beetles in compost are the rove beetle, ground beetle and feather-winged beetle. Feather-winged beetles feed on fungal spores, The larger rove and ground beetles prey on insects, worms, snails, slugs and other small animals. Rove beetles are the most common group of beetles found in composting bins. They are slender, elongated beetles with wing covers (elytra) that are much shorter than the abdomen; over half of the top surface of the abdomen is exposed. Their tail often bends upwards and they can be mistaken for earwigs. Most rove beetles are black or brown. Most rove beetles are medium sized beetles; a few species are up to one inch long. Rove beetles are active fliers or runners. When they run they often raise the tip of the abdomen. Rove beetles don’t sting, but can give a painful bite. They are found in or near decaying organic matter and feed on other insects such as fly maggots. Centipedes - Remove these pests Centipedes are fast moving predators that will kill worms and should be removed. Centipedes resemble millipedes, but their bodies are more flattened and less rounded at either end. Centipedes have one set of legs per segment on the bodies and a pair of pincers which originate behind the head. The centipede is generally more reddish than the millipede. The stingers behind their head possess poison glands that they use to paralyze small earthworms, insect larvae and small insects and spiders. The only way to control centipedes is to remove them by hand which should be done carefully. They will use the pincers to sting. Millipedes They are harmless to earthworms. Millipedes have worm like segmented bodies with each segment having two pairs of walking legs. Millipedes move much more slowly than Centipedes and have a rounder body. Colors range from black to red, but those species found in the worm bin are commonly brown or reddish-brown. Millipedes are vegetarians that break down plant material by eating decaying plant vegetation. They will roll up in a ball when in danger. Sow Bugs and Pill Bugs They are highly beneficial in the worm composter but can harm young plants. Sow Bugs, also known as a “wood louse” are fat bodied crustaceans with delicate plate like gills along the lower surface of their abdomens which must be kept moist and a segmented, armored shell similar in appearance to an armadillo. They are brown to gray in color and have seven pairs of legs and two antennae. They move slowly, grazing on decaying vegetation. They shred and consume some of the toughest materials, those high in cellulose and lignins. Sow bugs are usually found in the upper areas of the worm composter where there is an abundance of unprocessed organic matter. Pill bugs, or “roly polly bugs” look similar to sow bugs but roll up in a ball when disturbed. Slugs & Snails Slugs and snails can be found in your vermicomposter. While they will not harm the worms they will eat any fresh kitchen waste in the composter. The biggest detriment is the eggs they lay. The eggs can be transferred into your plantings in the compost providing them with a meal of succulent young plants. It is best to remove any slugs or snails you find immediately. If they become a problem you can make a slug trap as follows: Cut several 1 inch opening in the sides of a clean, covered plastic container. Sink the container into the bedding of the top tray of the worm composter so that the holes are just above the level of the compost. Remove the lid and pour in ½ inch of beer or a yeast mixture of 2 tablespoons flour, ½ teaspoon baker’s yeast, 1 teaspoon sugar, 2 cups warm water. The slugs will be attracted to the beer or yeast mixture, fall in and drown. Check the container regularly. Ants Ants are attracted to the food in a worm bin. They feed on fungi, seeds, sweets, scraps, other insects and sometimes other ants. Try not to spill anything near your bins and clear away any spillage as soon as it is spotted. The presence of ants is an indication of dry bedding. Moisten the bedding and turn it with a trowel to disrupt their colonies and most ants will find some place else to live. One way to keep ants out of your worm composter. Put each of your bin’s legs in a dish of water that has had a drop of dish soap placed in it to reduce the surface tension of the water. This prevents the ants from walking across the water. Alternatively, most of the garden centers sell ant goo, a sticky substance that is painted around the stems of rose bushes to trap ants. It is eco friendly as it doesn’t contain any insecticide poisons. If all else fails and the ant invasion has already become serious, Dust the area around your beds with pyrethrum dust or douse the ant nest and the trails leading to your bin with a granular insecticide, or use commercially available ant traps, which contain slow release poisons that the ants take with them back into their nests. Please be sure not to use any insecticide on the actual worm bed soil or you will kill your worms. If ants are already established inside the beds soak the section they are in with water and they will usually go away. The ants don’t bother the worms and they actually benefit the composting process by bringing fungi and other organisms into their nests. The work of ants can make worm compost richer in phosphorus and potassium by moving minerals from one place to another. Blow and House Flies Excess flies buzzing around your worm bins or worm farms are usually the result of having used meat, greasy food waste, or pet feces as feed. They spread disease and can also result in maggots if the beds aren’t properly sealed. If your farm is kept indoors or under some sort of shading Hang up some fly strips, which will draw them away from the farms. A properly maintained worm farm will normally not stink and therefore not attract flies. Soldier flies Soldier fly larvae are harmless to you, your worms and your plants. They are very good decomposers and, if allowed to stay in your vermicomposting system, will help to recycle your waste. Just be sure that your worms get plenty to eat as well. The soldier fly manure does make good worm feed as well. Soldier flies are true flies that resemble wasps in their appearance and behavior. Adult flies vary in color from black, metallic blue, green or purple, to brightly colored black and yellow patterns. The larvae of the fly are a type of small maggot that feeds exclusively on putrescent material. They are often found in worm composters but are not a real threat to the worms. They do not attack them or compete with them for food and may in fact complement the compost worms activities. Like the vermiculture worms their feces make excellent compost. They can best be kept out of the worm composter by not using meat and fatty waste and by keeping the moisture on the dry side. Make sure that there is a good cover of bedding material over the feeding area. These remarkable creatures, unlike the common housefly, do not spread bacteria or disease. The larvae ingest potentially pathogenic material and disease-causing organisms and thus render them harmless. Moreover black soldier flies exude an odor which positively discourages houseflies and certain other flying pests. When the larvae reach maturity they leave the feeding area to pupate. The adult fly is nocturnal and characterized by very fast and rather clumsy flight. It has no mouth and cannot bite or sting. Maggots or larvae The most common type of maggots found in a worm bin are grey-brown and about 1/2″ long. These are the larvae of the soldier fly, a large pretty, blue/black fly. These larvae are attracted to compost piles and to the worm bin, and will not harm you or your worms. In fact, they are good decomposers and, like the redworms, will produce a high quality casting. If you haven’t added animal proteins, and don’t have any foul odors in the bin, then in all likelihood the maggots you are seeing will be soldier flies. Once your bin has soldier flies, it can be difficult to say goodbye to them. Your best tactic is to simply allow them to grow out of the larval stage (which they do quickly) and fly off. If you really can’t stand them, you’ll have to harvest the worms and get rid of all your vermicompost material (put it in an outdoor compost pile, or bury it in the garden). Then put your worms back into fresh bedding. Flatworms and Planarians Land Planarians are extremely destructive to earthworm populations and need to be removed and destroyed upon sight. Land Planarians, also called Flatworms, are iridescent slimy worms with a hammer or disk shaped head. They eat slugs, each other, and are voracious predators of earthworms. Much like slugs, they hide in dark, cool, moist areas during the day and require high humidity to survive. They are rare in rural sites. Feeding and movement occur at night. They can survive desiccation only if water loss does not exceed 45 percent of their body weight. They are thought to primarily be distributed by tropical plants. Planarians are a predator that you will want to remove and destroy every time you see one. Spray with orange oil or bleach, or collect to dry out in hot sun. Summary Utilizing worm castings in the garden is an excellent way to ensure balanced plant nutrition and maintaining a healthy soil web. Castings are sometimes referred to as "black gold" due to the plant and soil benefits but also its economic value as high quality worm castings can be profitable. Additionally, vericulture works to remove food and other organic waste products from landfills where it does not assist nature. Today more and more restaurants, schools, farms, military and many other businesses and institutions are utilizing vermicomposting and truly making a greener world! For this, they have our respect! Depending on the food stock that you feed the worms the traits of the castings can be different. Such as more manure based castings are different than vegetable based worm castings but they all work great. Their is also not much data available on this aspect but I do know that is a thing. In time when more data is more accessible I will update this compilation. I hope you have a positive view of worms and perhaps become friends with them. We owe much to the not so lowly earthworms and I thank them! Congratulations for learning about composting worms! Credits - Please support these people and organizations directly. Dave http://floridanativeplantseeds.com/perennial_seeds_A-L.htm https://liaandrews.com/episodes/ WormPost SE - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WormPostSE Larry Hall DownToTheRoots Home Farm Ideas Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics The Abled Gardener GreenShortz DIY Gregor Skoberne I AM ORGANIC GARDENING The Growing Club The Farm at South Mountain Pauly Piccirillo JC Raulston Arboretum Rhonda Sherman geobeats Christy Ruffner http://www.wormfarmingrevealed.com/ The Record Company ChetFakerVEVO Links Natural farming section Indoor gardening environment Biochar Compost extract & Compost teas Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 1 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 2 Vermiculture, Vermicompost  & Worm Castings - Part 3 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 4 Soil recipe ~A Proud Cultural Healing and Life compilation
  26. Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 1 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 2 Vermiculture, Vermicompost  & Worm Castings - Part 3 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 4 Vermiculture & Vermicompost Part 2 Composting Worms and sources Finding suitable worms for vermiculture. It takes one pound of worms (1,000 individuals) to start a good-sized compost bin. You may find redworms near compost, under rotting logs or similar decomposing situations. You won’t be able to tell the difference between Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida. Composting worms can be purchased either locally or order via the Internet. If a shop cannot tell you the scientific name of the worms do not purchase. Worms suitable for vermicompost are from the epigeic class of worms. Eisenia fetida - Red Wigglers Eisenia Hortensis - European Nightcrawler Eudrillus Eugeniae - African Nightcrawler Lumbricus rubellus - Red worms, often confused with red wigglers or Eisenia fetida Amynthus Gracilus - Alabama Jumpers Attracting compost worms & a worm barrel update... Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics - Attracting compost worms & a worm barrel update... 4 Different Kinds Of Composting Worms Larry Hall - Why Am I Raising 4 Different Kinds Of Composting Worms? Well Let Me Tell You Why! Feeding worms Once the earthworms have settled into their new home (after a couple of days) Add a small amount of food scraps on the surface of the bedding. The amount should not exceed 1-inch high. This will prevent the food scraps from building up heat which is detrimental to the worms. Feed your earthworms any non-meat foods such as vegetables, fruits, crushed eggshells, tea bags, coffee grounds, shredded paper coffee filters, and shredded garden debris. Red wigglers especially like cantaloupe, watermelon, and pumpkin. Do not add citrus fruits or fruit peels to the bin They can cause the bin environment to become too acidic. Never add meat scraps or bones, fish, greasy or oily food, onions, garlic, fat, tobacco, citrus, salty foods, or pet or human manure. They can bring in pathogens and attract pests. Chop or blend food scraps into small pieces so they break down easier. This is not necessary but will help the food stock become consumed faster. Once you have fed your earthworms, use a three-prong garden tool to cover the food scraps completely with 1 to 2 inches of bedding to prevent fruit flies from finding the food. Food scraps can be stored for a few days before adding them to the worm bin. Store in container with a lid next to or under their kitchen sink. Coffee containers are excellent. Food scraps can also be stored in a container or bag in the freezer. The worms may be fed any time of the day Earthworms can be fed as seldom as every two to three weeks, depending on how many earthworms are in the bin. If you are going away for a couple of weeks, apply 1⁄2-inch layer of food scraps and cover it with two inches of moistened, shredded paper. Manure can be used but is recommended to compost it first. Non composted manure can be used but it can make the worm bin to hot. Worm Chow Recipe by down to the roots. Adding a spoonful of this sprinkled over the food stock will ensure a balanced and healthy nutrition for your worms which ensure quality castings. Think quality in and quality out! 1 Part-Whole Wheat Flour 1 Part-Corn Meal 1 Part-Ground Oats 1/2 Part-Ground Oyster Shell/Egg Shell - Eggshells need to be cleaned and dried before using. Feeding composting worm bins video section DownToTheRoots - How I feed my composting worm bins. Homemade dry worm food (Worm Chow) DownToTheRoots - Homemade dry worm food (Worm Chow) Processing eggs shells for worm bin DownToTheRoots - How I process egg shells for my worm bins. Utilizing fish manure. Home Farm Ideas - What to feed worms Worm Slushies Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics - How we feed our compost worms, worm slushies anyone ? Harvesting the Vermicompost You may harvest the vermicompost by one of three methods After a few weeks, you will begin to see vermicompost on the bottom of the bin. Vermicompost is soil-like material containing a mixture of earthworm castings (feces) and partially decomposed bedding and food scraps. In about four months, it will be time to harvest the vermicompost. : Method 1: Sideways Separation. Feed the earthworms on only one side of your worm bin for several weeks, and most of the worms will migrate to that side of the bin. Then you can remove the vermicompost from the other side of the bin where you have not been adding food scraps, and add fresh bedding. Repeat this process on the other side of the bin. After both sides are harvested, you can begin adding food scraps to both sides of the bin again. Method 2: Light Separation. Empty the contents of your worm bin onto a plastic sheet or used shower curtain where there is strong sunlight or artificial light. Wait five minutes, and then scrape off the top layer of vermicompost. The earthworms will keep moving away from the light, so you can scrape more vermicompost off every five minutes or so. After several scrapings, you will find worms in clusters; just pick up the worms and gently return them to the bin in fresh bedding (with the old bedding mixed in). Method 3: Vertical Separation. Before you begin vermicomposting, either buy a manufactured stacking bin or make your own. Set one bin aside and vermicompost in the other bin for a few months. When the bedding in the bin fits snug against the bottom of the bin you set aside, simply fit the second bin inside the first one, and begin only feeding in the top bin for the next several months. Most of the earthworms will move up into the upper bin to eat, and eventually the lower bin will just contain vermicompost. Be on the lookout for earthworm egg capsules; they are lemon-shaped and about the size of a match head, with a shiny appearance and light-brownish color. The capsules contain between two and seven baby earthworms. Place the egg capsules back inside your bin so they can hatch and thrive in your bin system. Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 1 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 2 Vermiculture, Vermicompost  & Worm Castings - Part 3 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 4
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