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  2. Court rules Stingray use without a warrant violates Fourth Amendment Originally posted: Mallory Locklear,Engadget Thu, Sep 21 7:54 PM EDT https://www.yahoo.com/finance/news/court-rules-stingray-without-warrant-235400204.html PDF of Court Ruling Court rules Stingray use without a warrant violates Fourth Amendment Today, the Washington DC Court of Appeals overturned a Superior Court conviction of a man who was located by police using a cell-site simulator, or Stingray, CBS News reports. The court ruled that the defendant's Fourth Amendment rights were violated when law enforcement tracked down the suspect using his own cell phone without a warrant. Stingrays work by pretending to be a cell tower and once they're brought close enough to a particular phone, that phone pings a signal off of them. The Stingray then grabs onto that signal and allows whoever's using it to locate the phone in question. These sorts of devices are used by a number of different agencies including the FBI, ICE, the IRS as well as police officers. The use of cell-site simulators, especially without a warrant, has come under question a few times in recent years. In 2016, a federal judge suppressed DEA evidence obtained via such a device, the first time a federal judge had done so. Last year, members of Congress called for legislation that would protect citizens' privacy and require a warrant before Stingrays could be used by law enforcement. Two such bills were introduced in the House of Representatives earlier this year. In the ruling, the judges said, "We thus conclude that under ordinary circumstances, the use of a cell-site simulator to locate a person through his or her cellphone invades the person's actual, legitimate, and reasonable expectation of privacy in his or her location information and is a search." They also said, "We agree with [the defendant] that the government violated the Fourth Amendment when it deployed the cell-site simulator against him without first obtaining a warrant based on probable cause." The ruling could affect ongoing and future cases as well as law enforcement's use of the technology.
  3. Cultural Healing and Life Presents Work Place Management Communication Introduction Since we were children we have heard of the importance of good communication skills. Unfortunately after learning to read and write it usually stops there. Outside of an adult shouting play nice, or watch your language, no one sat us down and explained the benefits and/or repercussions of communication. We all know what can happen if we partake in inappropriate language or disturbing hand gestures to one another. This writing will explore the manner in which we communicate as well as discussing the basic concepts of communication within a professional environment. In short we are sitting you down and explaining the benefits and/or repercussions of communication. Before we can explore the meaning of communication we need to understand communication. Communication is essentially a behavior. The manner of our communication skills reflects our general upbringing, schooling, occupation, and knowledge. In this chapter we will discuss some basic types of communication: Behavior Meetings/Interviews Legend Effective Communication- Manager & Supervisor Leadership Training- Part 2 San Antonio Business Leadership Academy-The Dynamic Leader - Effective Communication- Manager & Supervisor Leadership Training- Part 2 Behavior Generally speaking, in youth a hierarchy of individuals is created based on many factors. An individual's status within this hierarchy generally determines how an individual will interact and communicate with one another. This influence tends to follow the individual when the youthful hierarchy ceases to exist due to age, typically after high school when an individual begins a professional career or advanced learning. This carry over of behavior tends to be most noticeable in the areas of communication. Behavior may also reflect in an individuals attitude and confidence level. It is important to understand that not only is your communication skills governed by behavior, so are your colleagues and employees. Understanding how we develop our communication skills is the first step in altering our communication skills to maximize communication to its potential. We have all dealt with some type of individual that you just could not talk to or reason with. It may be a individual at the utility company, a store at the mall, or a department or section manager. Regardless of where the individual was employed you probably felt that the individual was rude and/or unprofessional. In some cases you may have even made a complaint to the individuals supervisor or the company headquarter about the individual. While the individual may suffer from more than one shortcoming they are probably utilizing communication skills that have not evolved since their childhood days. This is what we refer to as the behavior factor. Some simple guidelines that will assist in answering the behavior factor are: Lead by example. Make decisions based on established policies and merit. Council employees on proper communication reflecting on benefits and repercussions which is accountability. The skill level of communication abilities should reflect the appropriate occupational and position level. Improve the employee's knowledge, skills, and abilities by offering further training and additional responsibility as earned and warranted. Assist in the development of the employee's communication skills. (Explain situations.) By following these guidelines you should be capable of eliminating this barrier and increase the effectiveness of your employee's communication skills. By increasing the communication skills of your employees an improvement of moral can be enjoyed as well creating a base for future training and general advancement of your employees. Effective Communications for Managers Sharon Brooks - Effective Communication for Managers Appearance Meetings/Interviews/Boards Appearance perhaps is the most important aspect of communication. Appearance is not limited to how someone looks. It also relates to accomplishments and/or paperwork. For example an application or resume is often used to screen potential job candidates. While an artist is mainly judged by his or hers art. The majority of the artist admirers don't know what the artist looks like. First impressions are the most common form of this type of communication and is typically the first type of communication the majority of us experience in the business community. This concept tends to intimidate and scare some people, especially during a job interview or business meeting. This is due to what J Bailey Management commonly refers to as "Fear of loss," which essentially means that the interview or meeting itself may not be what scares or intimidates the individual. It may be the fear of not obtaining the position or expressing your report or idea to a board or meeting environment and not the interview itself. However there are many individuals who have a fear of public speaking, you must be able to discern what type of fear you or an employee may have prior to finding a solution. To a point this fear or nervousness is good, as it is necessary to obtain a good first impression or to express a message in a meeting. However there is no need to feel nervous and/or intimidated about first impressions. By researching information about the subject of the first impression meeting you can reduce the fear of loss factor significantly. There is no formula or guaranteed system that will ensure a good first impression each and every time. However there are some simple guidelines that will enrich an individuals chances of obtaining a good first impression. Research the subject of the encounter, when possible. Dress for the occasion. Professional and neat in appearance. Speak clearly and confidently. Make eye contact. When shaking hands only one firm grasp for one shake and smile. By following these five guidelines you can increase the chances of a good first impression when meeting another individual. Documentation When we are being judged by paperwork as in a resume and/or an application, it is vital to understand the importance of the following concepts. Essentially we want to explain ourselves professionally on a few pieces of paper. In the beginning of our careers it's difficult to fill two pages of professional information about ourselves. As we develop and progress in professional knowledge, skills, and abilities we have a hard time fitting in the information about ourselves on a few pieces of paper. To decide what information about ourselves we may want to describe or explain should depend on its value. For example: the value of having a high degree of skill in an administrative function is generally better than explaining your hobbies in detail. The value of information is determined by what its relation is to the subject. Simply put, if you can type 40 words per minute it is essentially a novelty if you're applying for a bricklaying position since a bricklayer does not tend to have many typing duties. When reviewing an application or resume the object is to select the best applicants. In order to accomplish this, the reviewer selects or rates each applicant’s credentials. This is done by evaluating the applicant's credentials against the needs of the organization Movieclips - The Devil Wears Prada - Andy's Interview Legend There are times when an individuals accomplishments or abilities will offer an impression of oneself without the knowledge of the individual. This is good and bad. When the impression is good this type of appearance can be beneficial. Unfortunately this can also be devastating if a negative impression is relayed. The main problem with this type of appearance is accuracy. An individual's impression can be determined with biased reasons with the lack of fact. The individual does not have the ability to represent themselves fully. When the individual meets someone that has a negative impression of the individual it is quite difficult to change the impression. There is no way to create guidelines that may assist in countering this type of appearance. People will talk and people will listen. Everyone has been told about the high quality fare at a restaurant only to be disappointed when you cat at the establishment. You may from then on not assign much value with the individual that recommended the not so good restaurant in regard to information about eateries. This type of appearance has many names, gossip, politics, backstabbing, or kissing up. Regardless of the name it is a form of communication that should be avoided at all cost. This area of appearance is discussed for the purpose of understanding how words and opinions can alter another individual's impressions without fact. People tend to hold a high value on what other people say or think. An example: A food critic eats at a new restaurant with three friends to rate the establishment. The critic suggests what each friend should eat. After the meal the food critic and two of the three companions enjoyed the meal but one of the critics friends did not like the meal, stating that the entree was too salty. The critic writes that the restaurant's food is too salty for most taste. The restaurant loses fifteen percent of its business the following week. The restaurant takes three weeks to recover from the damage caused by the food critic. In the example a companion persuaded the food critic's opinion even though the critic and two other companions enjoyed the meal. This resulted in a significant loss of revenue due to the drop in business related to the opinion of the food critic. In this example it is easy to realize how someone's opinion can influence others. This happens every day and it happens where you work. By understanding this behavior a professional will always seek facts prior to acting upon a situation. When this is not possible a professional attempts to minimize the amount of potential damage or potential gain by referring to the subject decision in a truthful manner. In many cases decisions are required to be made before all the facts can be gathered. It is not uncommon to realize that the wrong decision was made based on the facts after the decision. As long as you make the best decision based upon facts; what is likely to happen, when no facts are available; or what has happened based on past occurrences you will make more right decisions than wrong decisions. Note: The first and most important aspect of communication is that it requires at least two individuals to communicate. As such we will examine both sides of communication. The second part of understanding communication is to realize how we develop our communication skills. The third part of communication is to understand the different aspects of communication. Science of Persuasion influenceatwork - Science of Persuasion
  4. Plant Nutrition - Potassium

    Nitrogen Potassium Potassium in Plants and Soils. The Importance of Potassium CropNutrition - The Importance of Potassium Potassium (K) is an essential nutrient for plant growth and is classified as a macro-nutrient due to significant amounts of K being taken up by plants during their life cycle. This compilation is designed to instill the basic understanding of potassium (K) nutrition of plants, how it reacts in soils, and what it dows for the plants, and how it effects efficient crop production and quality. Not all plants uptake the same amount of potassium such as corn silage and alfalfa will uptake and remove from the soil far greater amounts of potassium than say grain crops. Understanding this aspect is vital as to better design a nutrient plan for crops but this is largely true of all macro-nutrients and crop types. Depending on the amount of available K and exchangeable K and your plants needs you may need to add K to your fertilizer nutrient plant. The total amount of K in soils often exceeds 20,000 ppm (parts per million). Almost all of this K is held in the structural components of soil minerals and is not available for plant uptake. Due to the differences in plant/crop type and the effect of weathering of these materials the amount of K supplied by soils varies. Therefore, the need and amounts for K in a fertilizer program varies. The Potassium Cycle Univ of Wisconsin Integrated Pest and Crop Management Soil Moisture factors on available K Dry soil or low soil moisture. Approximately 78% of the plants K needs are taken up by the roots. Higher soil K levels relieves some of the nutrient stress associated with drought. K alleviates the effects of both moisture deficit and excess on the crop and counteracts the yield reductions due to either. Low K in the soil can reduce plant uptake of potassium during dry/drought conditions. Soil moisture increased from 10% to 28% can increase potassium uptake by 175%. Too high soil moisture and cold soils will reduce oxygen availability and restrict the uptake of K. (wet roots) Too high soil moisture can also work to leach away available potassium to the plant. Irrigation can play a role in leaching K in sandy and mucky type of soils. Soil Temperature & PH for Potassium Optimum soil temperature for uptake is 60-80°F. Low temperature will restrict plant growth and the uptake rate of available K. Early planting can reduce the uptake of K. Increasing K may be a viable option. High available K levels will increase K plant uptake at low temperatures. Phosphorous and Potassium are typically high in rooting/starting fertilizers for this reason as together they greatly assist root growth. Low PH conditions and acidic soils Higher competition for CEC sites at a lower PH. Low ph can be a cause for potassium deficiency in crops while having sufficient K quantities of K in the soil. Correct PH conditions or limed soils. Enables more K to be held in CEC and also reduces leaching. Illustration of K in soil (organic particles are negatively charged.) https://extension.psu.edu/programs/nutrient-management/educational/soil-fertility/managing-potassium-for-crop-production Potassium is held in soils in 3 states; soil solution, exchangeable/fixed, and mineral. Soil solution - Usable to plants. Potassium (K) is taken up by plant roots only from the soil solution. K in solution is a small fraction of the total K in soil. The soil solution is replenished with K from other sources in the soil to be usable by plants. That replenishment comes primarily from readily available, “exchangeable” K. Exchangeable or Fixed K Exchangeable K, like other positive charged ions such as magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and aluminum (Al), is loosely held in soil by an attraction to the negative charged surfaces of soil particles, this is similar to magnets on a refrigerator. This is not held strongly and can be leached. The amount of exchangeable K in the soil is dependent on the soil's cation exchange capacity or (CEC). When K is added to soil it occupies negative charged sites on soil particles by “kicking off,” or exchanging with, other positive charged ions. The creates a reserve of K in the soil waiting for a place in the soil solution to become available. As plant uptake occurs, K is released from these sites to the soil solution. The amount held in reserve and how much is released in soil solution is directly dependent the proportion of the CEC sites it occupies. The amount of exchangeable K is related to the amount of K available to the crop and the crops uptake. Clay type and Iron levels in the soil affects K availability. As Fe3+ is reduced K can be trapped between clay layers for smectite With illite K will be released. Soil testing for potassium. Soil test measures K in soil solution and exchangeable K. Take soil test at same time each year. Is very important to test annually and regularly for sandy and organic soils due to leaching. When dried the type of clay particles/minerals can affect the amount of K available. Soil heavy in micas release K during freeze and dry cycles at higher rates. Soils with low mica and high quantities of exchangeable K are less affected by freeze thaw. Time of soil sampling in regards to wet and dry cycles can affect the soil test. Spring, summer, fall and winter will show different levels. The factors of weathering, plant uptake and soil clay and mineral make up are all factors that can alter exchangeable K. It is not advised to input high K on sandy and mucky soils in the fall due to leaching aspects. By spring most will be leached away. Mineral - Not usable and very slowly released The majority of K in soil is held more tightly, trapped, or as part of the structure of soil minerals. approximately 90-98% of total soil K is found in this form. Feldspars and micas are minerals that contain most of the K and plants cannot use the K in this form. These forms, called nonexchangeable K, are generally either unavailable or only slowly available. Not viable to depend on this for plant use. Mineral K is not, typically measured as part of the soil test procedure. Decomposing organic matter in soil contributes little K. K is a soluble nutrient that leaches quickly from fresh crop residue, manure and sandy soils. However organic matter is important to K fertility because it provides many negative charged sites for holding exchangeable soil K. Finding this balance or fertilizing management with the your nutrient plan is vital for healthy plants. Union Break! Alex Clare - Alex Clare - Open My Eyes End of Union Break! Potassium in Plant Growth Potassium directly assist the plant to with stand stressful conditions and builds a stronger resistance to disease and plays a role in nearly every facet of crop production. Photosynthesis, control of plant N, formation of new proteins and tissues, and strength of cell walls and stalk tissues are all influenced directly by K nutrition. K is associated with movement of water, nutrients, and carbohydrates in plant tissue. K is involved with enzyme activation within the plant which affects protein, starch and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. The production of (ATP) regulates the rate of photosynthesis. The main value of K to crop plants is in times of stress. Full and balanced nutrition in all essential nutrients maintains a plant’s vigor and reduces its vulnerability to stress. Potassium, role in a plant’s defense, which is primarily preventative. Resistance of some varieties to stresses of disease, temperature, or moisture is related to a greater ability to take up soil K. Plant disease requires at least two conditions An infection point or entrance and a favorable environment for development. Resistance to both the incidence and the severity of disease is conferred by K through alleviating these two conditions. In some plant species, wounds, which are potential entrance sites for infection, heal more rapidly when the plant is supplied with adequate K. Even if higher numbers of disease organisms are present, plants nourished with sufficient K are less affected because of greater plant integrity. Even if disease is able to enter the plant the development of disease in a plant is affected by its K levels. When K is deficient, production of proteins and tissues stops and production materials accumulate, thus providing an ideal environment and food source within the plant for disease to develop. Potassium also helps to regulate the opening and closing of the stomata which regulates transpiration which is the exchange of water vapor, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. If K is deficient or not supplied in adequate amounts, growth is stunted and yield is reduced. For perennial crops such as alfalfa, potassium has been shown to play a role in stand persistence through the winter. Other roles of K include: Increased root growth and improves drought resistance Maintains turgor; reduces water loss and wilting Aids in photosynthesis and food formation Reduces respiration, preventing energy losses Enhances translocation of sugars and starch Produces grain rich in starch Increases protein content of plants Builds cellulose and reduces lodging Helps retard crop diseases Potassium Management In evaluating a fertility program analyzing the K soil test trend over time gives a perspective that is more important than the level at any one given time. Maintaining the level within the optimum range over time is the goal. The response to added K can also be predicted somewhat by anticipating stresses to the crop. If the crop is planted in a poorly drained field, or conversely, a drought field, moisture stress is likely, and so is a response to added K if soil levels are even borderline low. Managing K fertility for a corn grain/alfalfa hay rotation is a matter of extending your perspective from the K requirement of the present crop to the requirement of the next crop as well. A profitable response to added K is most likely when soil test levels of K are low. Within the optimum range, nutrient availability will not limit growth. Soil test levels are thus put into the context of the rotation. Potassium can be stockpiled during the corn years of a rotation in anticipation of the large requirement by alfalfa later in the rotation. Applying manure to supply nitrogen to corn will likely supply K in excess of what the corn crop generally removes. But because the concentration of K in the soil solution is low, and because it is held by the CEC, there is little potential for this nutrient to be lost through leaching, particularly in heavier soils of high CEC. The little leaching that does occur provides K for subsoil uptake by the deep-rooted alfalfa crop. In this case, soil test K levels may exceed the optimum during the corn years of the rotation, but for the rotation overall they should be around optimum on the average. Potassium soil test levels for corn-alfalfa rotation during which manure was applied in corn years to build up K for hay crop requirements. The need for increasing or reducing potassium in a fertilizer program can be determined by conducting and analyzing plant analysis data and soil testing. Soil testing is the most reliable predictor of this need. Calculations of K2O recommendations for a soil of CEC=10 at three initial soil potash levels and for three crops. Penn State Extension For most soils, this adequately predicts K availability however in some soils, the mineral K (which is not usually measured) supplies a significant amount of K to the crop, and thus the test based on the exchangeable and solution K does not fit the situation. This is most likely to occur with soils containing high amounts of the illite and vermiculite types of clays. The clue may be that there is little change in soil test K when K removal is expected to be large, or conversely (because the reaction is reversible), little change in soil test K level when K is added. Once this is a known factor this aspect can be accounted for in your nutrient management plans. This is not a common scenario. Reduced potassium in soils reasoning over time. Not sufficiently replacing potassium after crop harvest and rotations. Cost of potassium fertilizer. Minerals in soils. Soil minerals in K cannot replenish K to account for plant uptake. Is true for deep rooted plants to bring up K but the amount is not sufficient. Adjusting K in the soils Soil buffering capacity Less K is needed to adjust PPM levels. 6 to 7 pounds per acre will adjust 1 PPM. Less time is needed for a change to occur to raise or lower soil k levels. Crop removal of potassium Alfalfa by the ton K removal 180 lbs Corn silage by the ton K removal 160 lbs corn grain by the bushel K removal 46 soybean by the bushel K removal 63 wheat by the bushel K removal 23 Suggested management practices for K vary with each crop. Top dress applications are appropriate for perennial crops such as alfalfa and grasses. For soybeans, broadcast applications incorporated before planting are most effective. For corn and wheat either banded or broadcast applications can be used Broadcast rates can be reduced by one half if banded applications are used for these crops. This management practice does not reduce yields but results in a savings of fertilizer dollars. For crops (alfalfa and corn silage examples) that use lots of potassium and for soils with low potassium amounts. Soil test and monitor these soils often to ensure proper levels and availability. Top dress potassium. No till or reduced tillage crop systems - These crop systems can cause compaction and reduced soil temperature which leads to less K availability. Soil test and monitor these soils often to ensure proper levels and availability. Top dress potassium. Too high Potassium High potassium in forage crops can be problematic to farm animals. Dairy cows can get milk fever for example. Consider the potassium levels in the soils and how it relates to your plants and farm animal dietary needs. Decrease in uptake of other nutrients can result with too high K in the soils. Potential nutrient pollution of surface water through erosion of the nutrient-rich soil. Potassium is not a problem pollutant, but when soil K levels are built up by applying manure, soil phosphorous levels are also likely to be high. Reducing soil K in soils is to keep removing it, typically by utilizing crops with a high K requirement, without continued application. Can cause a depression of magnesium (Mg) uptake by cool season grasses. This can lead to grass tetany, a potentially fatal condition for ruminant animals. Its effects are related to nitrogen fertilization, low soil temperatures, and animal physiology. Grass, especially in fertilized pasture, accumulates K during the period of lush growth in May and early June, but Mg (magnesium) uptake is hindered by soil temperatures below 60 degrees F. Grazing cattle get a high K diet that increases their need for Mg, This results in a nutrient imbalance in the animals. Guarding against grass tetany involves pasture and animal feed management. The potential for this condition is greatest in pastures composed totally of cool season grasses. Legumes accumulate Mg, even at soil temperatures below 60 degrees F. High K forages can also result in increased incidence of milk fever if these forages are fed to dry cows. Union Break! Overheard - Flow End of Union Break! Potassium Deficiency LDSPrepper - POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY IN PLANTS: Symptoms & Treatment With a K deficiency the seasonal duration of leaf photosynthesis is shortened, transport of nutrients and sugars within the stem is hamstrung, plant integrity is compromised, starch formation is hindered, and use of nitrogen is limited. K is mobile and shows on older leaf growth. At the bottom leafs of the plant. The plant will take K from the lower leaves and transport them to the top leaf growth. Classic signs are a yellowing or chloro-sis from the leaf tip then around the leaf edges Can be spots to streaks of yellow or white depending on plant type. Research and understand the K deficiency for your crops and plants as various difference can be illustrated. Leaves already showing deficiency symptoms cannot be restored by adding K. Yield potential yield has already been reduced by the time the deficiency symptoms appear, and the plant has become more susceptible to the effects of other stresses. Yield and quality of the crop is directly affected. If insufficient K is available, characteristic symptoms of deficiency are likely to be evident during rapid crop growth. Photo Examples Romaine Lettuce Lettuce Rice Corn on the Cob Corn Leaf Potassium Application Gary Pilarchik (The Rusted Garden) - Understanding Garden Potassium: What it Does, Greensand, Banana Peels & Other Forms Organic options for Potassium Compost - Especially with adding banana peels. Usable to the plant immediately. Easily leached. Wood Ash - Hard wood ash 5 gallon bucket will treat about 1000 square feet. Can be added to compost to boost potassium levels of the compost. Caution - will raise PH levels. Kelp Meal and seaweed - Dry or Liquid form Easily available to the plants. Greensand - Mined from ancient sea beds. Can be used as a fertilizer or used in compost. Muriate of Potash (potassium chloride) Contains chlorine which is harmful to soil microbes. Sulfate of Potash Similar to muriate of potash but generally more expensive Does not contain chlorine and is safe to soil microbes. Not all sources of sulfate of potash is truly organic. Sul-Po-Mag - A variation of potash, sulfate of potash-magnesia A natural version is langbeinite Is water soluble and immediately available to the plant Can leach Generally is not used unless you need sulfur and magnesium. Granite Dust Is very slow potassium and tract mineral release. Not a sufficient source of potassium on its own. Can be added to compost piles. Manure Potassium Manure is a K resource present on most farms. However, K concentration varies by water and bedding content. Manure nutrient analysis is the only sure way to manage amounts of applied manure nutrients. Potassium in animal manure is almost totally dissolved in the liquid fraction, so it is important to conserve this portion of the manure. As long as liquid is not lost, handling and surface or incorporated application do not affect K content or availability. If a soil sample is taken after manure application, then the available manure K will be reflected in the soil test level and recommendations. If, however, manure is applied after soil sampling, then manure K should be subtracted from the recommendations on the soil test report. Manure K is immediately available and may be considered a 1:1 substitute for K fertilizer. Manure Moisture (%) K2O (lbs/ton) Variation (%) Cattle 85 10 36 Pigs 91 11 53 Poultry 30 30 39 The average K content of various animal manures. Fertilizer Potassium Potassium chloride (KCl), called muriate of potash is the most common fertilizer form. It is a highly water soluble salt with a K2O analysis of 60 to 62 percent. Processing differences result in two common chemical qualities, identifiable as red and white muriate of potash. Because the difference is of no consequence to the plant, deciding which to use should depend on the basis of cost per unit of K. The K analysis of a fertilizer material is given as the percentage of K2O (potash) for the material. There is no actual K2O in fertilizer, but this is the accepted and legal reporting form. Potassium recommendations are reported as lbs of K2O per acre on a soil test report. The units of potash (K2O) can be converted to potassium (K) by multiplying lbs of K2O by 0.83. For the opposite conversion, multiply lbs of K by 1.2 to get lbs of K2O. Is incompatible with tobacco. Potassium sulfate, with a K2O analysis of 50 percent, also supplies sulfur, but this is generally inconsequential since sulfur is rarely limiting for agronomic crops. Solution fertilizers may use KOH as the K source. KOH has a high K2O analysis, 70 percent, the K is no more available to the crop than if KCl were applied. Fertilizer solutions made with KCl may not be clear, but that is not a disadvantage from the plant’s perspective. As a salt, K has the potential to injure plant roots. Whether this becomes a problem depends on the rate of fertilizer or manure, especially poultry manure applied and its placement relative to plant roots. Rainfall dilutes and leaches the salts in soil, reducing the risk of injury. Because starter fertilizer is placed, by design, near seedling roots, this practice has the greatest potential for root injury. You can avoid injury by reducing the rate or by placing the fertilizer farther from the seed. Recommendation by Penn State is that total nitrogen plus K2O should not exceed 70 lbs per acre when the fertilizer is placed 2 inches over and 2 inches down from the seed row, and less if placed closer. Except in low K soils, there has been little consistent benefit from banding K as a part of the starter application and, therefore, it may be best not to include K in starter fertilizer. Summary In soil fertility we are concerned with crop response. We want to apply nutrients, K in this case, where we are most likely to get a profitable return. We have seen that crop response to K may be more indirect than direct. Effects will be an increased response to nitrogen and improved resistance to disease, drought, and cold temperatures, and may, therefore, depend on growing season conditions. In soil testing, we have a good, though not perfect, indicator of probable response to K. Soil testing partnered by good crop records enables management to make it effective. Then, by knowing the yield per field, growing conditions, problems, soil K level, and other factors, you can make decisions, based on realistic information for your crops and fields that will project into the coming years. This is important when you rotate crops in a field, especially when those crops, like corn and alfalfa, have very different K requirements. Managing nutrients makes better use of limited finances. Manure needs to become a primary concern in nutrient management, because it is a readily available nutrient carrier on most farms. Potassium needs to be used wisely to ensure an adequate supply for your crops, but not oversupplied in “insurance applications.” Recommendations: Test soil regularly, at least every three years or when changing crop. The soil test reports the amount of available K and the K2O required, if any, to bring soil level up to optimum and offset crop K removal. Evaluate the fertility program for each field by looking at the trend, over time, of the soil test levels in relation to the optimum range. Plan ahead within a rotation to supply K for the crop with the larger requirement. Reduce soil erosion with soil and water conservation practices, Do not stockpile nutrients in fields prone to erosion. Conserve the liquid portion of the manure with bedding or leak proof storage to conserve the manure K. Have farm manure analyzed for its nutrient content. Apply manure uniformly and at a known rate as part of a planned nutrient management program. Remember, quality in gets quality out. Evaluate the need for K in a starter fertilizer relative to soil test levels. At optimum or higher K levels, a response to starter K is unlikely. Keep rate of K used in starter low, or keep K away from the seed to avoid salt injury to seedlings. Keep good crop records and include input amounts, measured yields, and production costs. Managing Potassium for Crop Production (PDF) - Penn State Extension Credits: CropNutrition http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/nutrient-management/potassium/potassium-for-crop-production/ https://extension.psu.edu/programs/nutrient-management/educational/soil-fertility/managing-potassium-for-crop-production Univ of Wisconsin Integrated Pest and Crop Management Alex Clare Gary Pilarchik (The Rusted Garden) Overheard LDSPrepper https://www.todayshomeowner.com/organic-sources-of-potassium-for-your-lawn-or-garden/ NRateliffVEVO School of Life congratulations for learning about Potassium in soils and plants Links Nitrogen Potassium A proud cultural healing and life compilation.
  5. Versaland Farm - A permaculture and local government story.

    UPDATE TO VERSALAND Farm Johnson County denies Versaland farm rezoning application that sparked online controversy Written by and copied from Stephen Gruber-Miller, sgrubermil@press-citizen.com Original post: http://www.press-citizen.com/story/news/local/2017/09/14/johnson-county-supervisors-versaland-grant-schultz-zoning-application/668317001/ Johnson County supervisors on Thursday night unanimously voted to deny a rezoning application from a farmer who claimed local foods were under assault by regulations in the county. After an hours-long meeting that drew an overflow crowd, the Johnson County Board of Supervisors denied the application from farmer Grant Schultz of Iowa City, who was seeking to rezone 62.5 acres at 5133 Strawbridge Road, near the village of Morse in rural Johnson County, from agricultural to agricultural residential so he could build housing for agritourism and hired help, as well as operate a retail orchard and fish farm. Interest in the zoning application spiked after Schultz posted a 25-minute Facebook video on Sept. 8 complaining of his treatment by the Johnson County Planning, Development and Sustainability staff. Schultz farms Versaland — a 143-acre farm where he said he raises a mix of organic crops and livestock. Schultz's video has more than 88,000 views and has been shared over 1,400 times. The application had raised concerns from community members that a rezoning could lead to more extensive housing development than Schultz currently had planned for the farm. Once the land is rezoned, there would be nothing stopping a future owner from developing it to the full extent allowed. Supervisors received over 150 emails and phone calls — including some that were rude or disparaging — ahead of the meeting as a result of the attention garnered by Schultz's video, and several people spoke for and against the application at the meeting. In denying Schultz's zoning application, supervisors emphasized their support for local foods, pushing back against some of the emails they received. But they said the vote was a simple zoning decision and was not related to whether they approve of Versaland or local foods. "I want to see farm incubators in Johnson County and all over Iowa. I think it’s very important work, but I can’t find a way to make it work here in this scenario at least," said Supervisor Kurt Friese. "I wish I was wrong." County staff had recommended denying Schultz's application based on several factors, including the concern that his proposed development of up to 36 cabins for farmer housing and agritourism would be out of character in Morse, a community of fewer than 100 people whose population has remained static for over a century. Staff also recommended Schultz share the cost of infrastructure improvements, including a bridge upgrade and widening Strawbridge Road due to the increased traffic that would result from additional housing units. To mitigate those concerns, Schultz at the meeting offered to assist with the cost of bridge upgrades and some road improvements, and to cap the number of cabins at 14 — the number he said he needs to house farm workers in an incubator-style farm model. One of the points of contention at the meeting was that while Schultz has a purchase agreement and has said he intends to buy the land, he does not hold the title. The landowners, Suzan Erem and Paul Durrenberger, oppose the rezoning application out of concern that his plan to use so much of the land for cabins, fishing docks and ponds is not in keeping with their purchase agreement, which specifies the land be used for crops and livestock. "Crops do not grow under cabins. Cows cannot graze on front porches," Erem said. The two parties have had legal disputes over the property, which were settled out of court earlier this year. Several supervisors expressed willingness to hear more about Schultz's plans once he has the title to the land. Schultz declined to comment after the meeting about his plans for purchasing the land or submitting a new zoning application. He had asked the board to essentially defer his application while he worked out a conditional zoning agreement with county staff that would address those issues, but the board instead denied the rezoning application. A deferral would have saved Schultz from spending over $1,500 on a new rezoning application, he said. Erem said Schultz had not presented his plans for rezoning the property to her and Durrenberger and that the issue of rezoning did not come up during the mediation of their legal dispute. Although the board denied Schultz's application, Erem said she was sad to see the issue lead to community in-fighting. "There’s nothing about this entire process that can make anybody happy," Erem said. "It’s polarized the entire community, it’s cast doubt on our commitment to local foods, it’s confused the issue completely." The larger issue, Schultz said, is not about Versaland specifically, but land use planning that allows for more nontraditional farms. "This is not about me and this farm," Schultz said. "This is about a big thing that affects everyone in the county, and (that's) antiquated land use planning that doesn’t properly accommodate people outside of nuclear families or the uber-wealthy." The board of supervisors is in the process of working on a countywide comprehensive plan that will be voted on in 2018. Reach Stephen Gruber-Miller at 319-887-5407 or sgrubermil@press-citizen.com. Follow him on Twitter: @sgrubermiller.
  6. Natural farming section Indoor gardening environment Biochar Compost extract & Compost teas Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings - Part 1 Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings - Part 2 Soil recipe Vermiculture & Vermicompost Part 2 Worm Bin Building Section DIY Worm Composting Bin to Rehab Your Garden Lia Andrews - DIY Worm Composting Bin to Rehab Your Garden The COMPREHENSIVE Beginners' Guide to Vermicomposting (Set up a bin & more!) WormPost SE - The COMPREHENSIVE Beginners' Guide to Vermicomposting (Set up a bin & more!) Building a home size DIY worm bin. I AM ORGANIC GARDENING - How to Build My ALL-in-ONE Worm Bin Composting & Worm Casting Harvester Worm Bin DIY - All in One - Easy Composting & Harvesting Casting I AM ORGANIC GARDENING - Worm Bin DIY - All in One - Easy Composting & Harvesting Casting Worm barrel for lawn clippings & garden scraps Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics - How to make a worm farm.. Easy as worm barrel for lawn clippings & garden scraps.. How to build a bathtub worm farm from recycled materials Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics - How to build a bathtub worm farm from recycled materials Bathtub worm farm update.. Harvesting the castings & battling bugs Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics - Bathtub worm farm update.. Harvesting the castings & battling bugs Harvesting worm castings from the Bathtub Worm farm Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics - Harvesting worm castings from the Bathtub Worm farm Worm Tower System In garden use, similar to a key garden compost systems The Abled Gardener - Worm Towers from 5 gallon buckets Update from worm tower video above The Abled Gardener - Worm Tower Update/Harvesting Worm Castings Another construction video of the in-ground worm tower using pvc pipe GreenShortz DIY - How To Make A DIY Worm Tower How To Make A Worm Tower from wood (wont last as long but is nature friendly) GreenShortz DIY - How To Make A Worm Tower from wood Larger DIY Worm Bin for small farm or large garden with extensive instruction. The Growing Club - How to Build the Ultimate Plastic Free Worm Composting Bin Farm Size Worm Bin and information with a different design The Farm at South Mountain - How to build a Vermiculture/Vermicomposting/Worm bin at The Farm at South Mountain Harvesting castings and separating worm eggs cocoons. Matthew WormsEtc - Separating and harvesting worms and worm castings. Separating worm egg cocoons. Using Vermicompost Vermicompost is a fully stabilized organic soil amendment that is much more microbially active than the original organic material that was consumed. It has a fine particulate structure and good moisture-holding capacity. Vermicompost contains nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in forms readily taken up by plants. It also has plant growth hormones and humic acids, which act as plant growth regulators. You can either use your vermicompost immediately or store it and use it later. The material can be mixed into the soil in your garden and around your trees and yard plants. You can also use it as a top dressing on outdoor plants or sprinkle it on your lawn as a conditioner. It’s best to protect the vermicompost from direct sunlight by incorporating it in soil or covering it with mulch. You can also make “vermicompost tea” to spray on your plants. Simply add two tablespoons of vermicompost to one quart of water and allow it to steep for a day, mixing it occasionally. Water your plants with this “tea” to help make nutrients in the soil available to the plants. Be sure to use the vermicompost tea on your plants within 24 hours of making the batch of solution. Do not use vermicompost tea on the edible portion of a plant unless you are absolutely certain that the solution does not contain pathogens. Mixing castings for use in starting a garden Pauly Piccirillo - How To Mix Worm Castings For the Garden. The way to much information section Worm farming information: A special thank you to Rhonda Sherman for all her work in the industry. Worms Can Recycle Your Garbage (Rhonda Sherman, 2017, AG-473-18). How to set up and maintain a worm bin in your home or office to compost food scraps. https://composting.ces.ncsu.edu/vermicomposting-north-carolina/ "Vermicompost for Healthier Plants" JC Raulston Arboretum - "Vermicompost for Healthier Plants" Worm Bin Troubleshooting Bin smells bad Overfeeding Stop feeding for 2 weeks Non-compostables present Remove non-compostables Food scraps exposed to air Bury food completely Bin too wet Mix in dry bedding, leave lid off Not enough air Drill more holes in the bin Bin attracts flies Food scraps exposed to air Bury food completely Rotten food Avoid putting rotten food in bin Too much food Don't overfeed worms Worms are dying Bin too wet Mix in dry bedding; leave lid off Bin too dry Thoroughly dampen bedding Extreme temperatures Move bin where temperature is between 59° and 77°F Not enough air Drill more holes in bin Not enough food Add more bedding and food Worms are crawling away Bin conditions are not right Review above; Leave lid off and worms will burrow back into bedding as they escape the light. Mold is forming Conditions are too acidic Cut back on acidic foods; remove mold; moisten bread products Bedding is drying out Too much ventilation Mist bedding keep lid on the worm bin Liquid collecting in bottom Poor ventilation and/or over-watering Leave lid off for a couple of days and add dry bedding Feeding too many watery scraps Cut back on coffee grounds and food scraps with high water content Mix food with bedding material before feeding To prevent unwanted seeds, generally a professional for profit operation. Compost traditionally until the internal compost pile temperature reaches 131 °F to 170 °F for 3 days. Remove composting material (is not done we only want to kill the seeds and pests) Spread around and let the compost cool or you can cook your worms. Add this compost as feed stock to the worms. Pests - Not all are harmful but annoying Potworms Potworms are common in worm bins and enjoy slightly acidic conditions. Potworms are small white worms commonly found in soil. They can develop into massive populations, especially in compost piles or in earthworm farms. They’re scientifically known as enchytraeids (enn-kee-TRAY-ids) and are segmented relatives of the earthworm. They are often thought to be baby red wigglers, but baby red wigglers are reddish even when they are tiny. The name “potworms” comes from the fact they inhabit the soil in pots and containers. There is some unnecessary worry that overpopulation will choke out the worm population. That is typically not the case as potworms and a host of other creatures, including those that cannot be seen except under a magnifying glass or microscope, reside peaceably with earthworms, often in great numbers. When a potworm invasion occurs, they can number as many as 250,000 in a ten-square-foot area. Adults measure about a quarter of an inch, and can literally appear to be in the millions in comparison to your red wiggler worm population. Potworms tend to congregate together under food. Potworms feed on the same type of litter as earthworms and inhabit rich organic environments such as a compost heap or worm composter. They are efficient at aerating soil and breaking down just about any organic material. This species prefers an acid environment that is moist. When lots of acidic materials are added to the bin, or when starchy materials are added and allowed to ferment. If the bin is too dry, they will die. The easiest way to reduce potworm populations is with bread soaked in milk. They will flock to a piece of soaked bread and can be lifted out and destroyed in large batches Just as potworms won’t harm other living worm species, they do no damage to living plants. The only possible problem that could occur with potworms in a worm bin is if their population grows so large that they compete for food with the red wiggler composting worms. However, this rarely happens and potworms generally help with the composting process. Spider mites (Brown and white) Mites are the most common pests to show up in your vermicomposter. Most worm beds usually contain several species of mites. Earthworm mites are small and are usually brown, reddish or somewhere in-between. They tend to concentrate near the edges and surfaces of the worm beds and around clusters of feed. They are not known for attacking the earthworms but do eat the worm’s food. When the mite population is too high the worms will burrow deep into the beds and not come to the surface to feed, which hampers worm reproduction and growth. Mites can compete with the worms for available food if the population spirals too high. High mite populations usually result from: Feeding the earthworms overly moist garbage and vegetable refuse as feed. Over-watering. Keep the beds damp but not wet. Poor bed drainage. Ensure that there are adequate drainage holes at the bottom of your worm bin or housing. Remember, the same conditions that ensure high worm production will be less favorable to mites. If you find your worm farm overrun by mites, expose the beds to the sun for light for a few hours. Cut back on water and feed and then, every 1 to 3 days, add calcium carbonate. Add additional shredded paper or coconut coir to absorb any excess moisture. Drain off any liquid that has collected in the base and check to make sure the spigot is not plugged. They seem to love cantaloupe and watermelon. Place the rinds on top of the compost (after you have enjoyed the fruit of course). Leave it over night and the next day you will have mites covering the rind from top to bottom. Wash the mites off over the sink. Keep repeating the process until you are satisfied with the results. When you're done leave the rinds in for your worms to enjoy. Christy Ruffner - ControllingSpiderMitesInTheWormBin Fruit Flies Not a friend, neither an ally, just plane annoying. A common method for ending the cycle of nature on these worm farming pests mainly in your house. Fill a small bowl with apple cider vinegar, wrap it with plastic wrap and punch a couple of small holes in the middle about the size of a toothpick. They will fly into the hole and eventually drown. They are attracted to the acid in the vinegar. This is probably what attracted them to the bin in the first place. Remember to add the food in small layers to avoid rapid bacteria growth and pungent odor. A way to prevent their eggs from hatching can be to boil it before feeding it to the worms or freeze it but only if you see them in the fruit. Freezing will probably only kill the larvae and not the cocoons. Make sure to bury the food under at least 2 inches of bedding to eliminate any flies from getting in. This will also mask the smell from emanating from the bin and attracting other worm farming pests. Springtails Springtails are tiny, wingless insects, usually white in color but may also be yellow, gray, red, orange, metallic green and lavender. They feed on mold, fungi, bacteria and decomposing plant material so they are harmless to earthworms. Springtails can “jump” about 75 mm. They have a tiny spring-like structure under their bellies that causes them to jump when disturbed. Springtails are most numerous in wetter bedding, while numbers decrease as the bedding dries out. Although they have on occasion been observed to eat dead or weak worms, springtails are primarily a nuisance because they eat the worm’s food and can, when the populations are big enough, drive the worms deep into the beds and keep them from coming to the surface to feed. One deals with them the same way one deals with mites Earwigs They are not harmful in a worm composter but may eat some of the earthworm food. Earwigs are outdoor insects usually found under mulch, logs or dead leaves. They both need and are very attracted to moisture. Earwigs are rapid runners, and are easily identified by the prominent pincers on the end of the abdomen. The common earwig is a light, reddish brown flattened insect, up to one inch in length. Most species of earwigs are scavengers that feed on dead insects and decaying plant material but some species are predators. Earwigs may try to pinch if handled carelessly, but are harmless to people. Beetles Beetles are not harmful in the worm composter. The most common beetles in compost are the rove beetle, ground beetle and feather-winged beetle. Feather-winged beetles feed on fungal spores, The larger rove and ground beetles prey on insects, worms, snails, slugs and other small animals. Rove beetles are the most common group of beetles found in composting bins. They are slender, elongated beetles with wing covers (elytra) that are much shorter than the abdomen; over half of the top surface of the abdomen is exposed. Their tail often bends upwards and they can be mistaken for earwigs. Most rove beetles are black or brown. Most rove beetles are medium sized beetles; a few species are up to one inch long. Rove beetles are active fliers or runners. When they run they often raise the tip of the abdomen. Rove beetles don’t sting, but can give a painful bite. They are found in or near decaying organic matter and feed on other insects such as fly maggots. Centipedes - Remove these pests Centipedes are fast moving predators that will kill worms and should be removed. Centipedes resemble millipedes, but their bodies are more flattened and less rounded at either end. Centipedes have one set of legs per segment on the bodies and a pair of pincers which originate behind the head. The centipede is generally more reddish than the millipede. The stingers behind their head possess poison glands that they use to paralyze small earthworms, insect larvae and small insects and spiders. The only way to control centipedes is to remove them by hand which should be done carefully. They will use the pincers to sting. Millipedes They are harmless to earthworms. Millipedes have worm like segmented bodies with each segment having two pairs of walking legs. Millipedes move much more slowly than Centipedes and have a rounder body. Colors range from black to red, but those species found in the worm bin are commonly brown or reddish-brown. Millipedes are vegetarians that break down plant material by eating decaying plant vegetation. They will roll up in a ball when in danger. Sow Bugs and Pill Bugs They are highly beneficial in the worm composter but can harm young plants. Sow Bugs, also known as a “wood louse” are fat bodied crustaceans with delicate plate like gills along the lower surface of their abdomens which must be kept moist and a segmented, armored shell similar in appearance to an armadillo. They are brown to gray in color and have seven pairs of legs and two antennae. They move slowly, grazing on decaying vegetation. They shred and consume some of the toughest materials, those high in cellulose and lignins. Sow bugs are usually found in the upper areas of the worm composter where there is an abundance of unprocessed organic matter. Pill bugs, or “roly polly bugs” look similar to sow bugs but roll up in a ball when disturbed. Slugs & Snails Slugs and snails can be found in your vermicomposter. While they will not harm the worms they will eat any fresh kitchen waste in the composter. The biggest detriment is the eggs they lay. The eggs can be transferred into your plantings in the compost providing them with a meal of succulent young plants. It is best to remove any slugs or snails you find immediately. If they become a problem you can make a slug trap as follows: Cut several 1 inch opening in the sides of a clean, covered plastic container. Sink the container into the bedding of the top tray of the worm composter so that the holes are just above the level of the compost. Remove the lid and pour in ½ inch of beer or a yeast mixture of 2 tablespoons flour, ½ teaspoon baker’s yeast, 1 teaspoon sugar, 2 cups warm water. The slugs will be attracted to the beer or yeast mixture, fall in and drown. Check the container regularly. Ants Ants are attracted to the food in a worm bin. They feed on fungi, seeds, sweets, scraps, other insects and sometimes other ants. Try not to spill anything near your bins and clear away any spillage as soon as it is spotted. The presence of ants is an indication of dry bedding. Moisten the bedding and turn it with a trowel to disrupt their colonies and most ants will find some place else to live. One way to keep ants out of your worm composter. Put each of your bin’s legs in a dish of water that has had a drop of dish soap placed in it to reduce the surface tension of the water. This prevents the ants from walking across the water. Alternatively, most of the garden centers sell ant goo, a sticky substance that is painted around the stems of rose bushes to trap ants. It is eco friendly as it doesn’t contain any insecticide poisons. If all else fails and the ant invasion has already become serious, Dust the area around your beds with pyrethrum dust or douse the ant nest and the trails leading to your bin with a granular insecticide, or use commercially available ant traps, which contain slow release poisons that the ants take with them back into their nests. Please be sure not to use any insecticide on the actual worm bed soil or you will kill your worms. If ants are already established inside the beds soak the section they are in with water and they will usually go away. The ants don’t bother the worms and they actually benefit the composting process by bringing fungi and other organisms into their nests. The work of ants can make worm compost richer in phosphorus and potassium by moving minerals from one place to another. Blow and House Flies Excess flies buzzing around your worm bins or worm farms are usually the result of having used meat, greasy food waste, or pet feces as feed. They spread disease and can also result in maggots if the beds aren’t properly sealed. If your farm is kept indoors or under some sort of shading Hang up some fly strips, which will draw them away from the farms. A properly maintained worm farm will normally not stink and therefore not attract flies. Soldier flies Soldier fly larvae are harmless to you, your worms and your plants. They are very good decomposers and, if allowed to stay in your vermicomposting system, will help to recycle your waste. Just be sure that your worms get plenty to eat as well. The soldier fly manure does make good worm feed as well. Soldier flies are true flies that resemble wasps in their appearance and behavior. Adult flies vary in color from black, metallic blue, green or purple, to brightly colored black and yellow patterns. The larvae of the fly are a type of small maggot that feeds exclusively on putrescent material. They are often found in worm composters but are not a real threat to the worms. They do not attack them or compete with them for food and may in fact complement the compost worms activities. Like the vermiculture worms their feces make excellent compost. They can best be kept out of the worm composter by not using meat and fatty waste and by keeping the moisture on the dry side. Make sure that there is a good cover of bedding material over the feeding area. These remarkable creatures, unlike the common housefly, do not spread bacteria or disease. The larvae ingest potentially pathogenic material and disease-causing organisms and thus render them harmless. Moreover black soldier flies exude an odor which positively discourages houseflies and certain other flying pests. When the larvae reach maturity they leave the feeding area to pupate. The adult fly is nocturnal and characterized by very fast and rather clumsy flight. It has no mouth and cannot bite or sting. Maggots or larvae The most common type of maggots found in a worm bin are grey-brown and about 1/2″ long. These are the larvae of the soldier fly, a large pretty, blue/black fly. These larvae are attracted to compost piles and to the worm bin, and will not harm you or your worms. In fact, they are good decomposers and, like the redworms, will produce a high quality casting. If you haven’t added animal proteins, and don’t have any foul odors in the bin, then in all likelihood the maggots you are seeing will be soldier flies. Once your bin has soldier flies, it can be difficult to say goodbye to them. Your best tactic is to simply allow them to grow out of the larval stage (which they do quickly) and fly off. If you really can’t stand them, you’ll have to harvest the worms and get rid of all your vermicompost material (put it in an outdoor compost pile, or bury it in the garden). Then put your worms back into fresh bedding. Flatworms and Planarians Land Planarians are extremely destructive to earthworm populations and need to be removed and destroyed upon sight. Land Planarians, also called Flatworms, are iridescent slimy worms with a hammer or disk shaped head. They eat slugs, each other, and are voracious predators of earthworms. Much like slugs, they hide in dark, cool, moist areas during the day and require high humidity to survive. They are rare in rural sites. Feeding and movement occur at night. They can survive desiccation only if water loss does not exceed 45 percent of their body weight. They are thought to primarily be distributed by tropical plants. Planarians are a predator that you will want to remove and destroy every time you see one. Spray with orange oil or bleach, or collect to dry out in hot sun. Summary Utilizing worm castings in the garden is an excellent way to ensure balanced plant nutrition and maintaining a healthy soil web. Castings are sometimes referred to as "black gold" due to the plant and soil benefits but also its economic value as high quality worm castings can be profitable. Additionally, vericulture works to remove food and other organic waste products from landfills where it does not assist nature. Today more and more restaurants, schools, farms, military and many other businesses and institutions are utilizing vermicomposting and truly making a greener world! For this, they have our respect! Depending on the food stock that you feed the worms the traits of the castings can be different. Such as more manure based castings are different than vegetable based worm castings but they all work great. Their is also not much data available on this aspect but I do know that is a thing. In time when more data is more accessible I will update this compilation. I hope you have a positive view of worms and perhaps become friends with them. We owe much to the not so lowly earthworms and I thank them! Congratulations for learning about composting worms! Credits - Please support these people and organizations directly. Dave http://floridanativeplantseeds.com/perennial_seeds_A-L.htm https://liaandrews.com/episodes/ WormPost SE - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WormPostSE Larry Hall DownToTheRoots Home Farm Ideas Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics The Abled Gardener GreenShortz DIY Gregor Skoberne I AM ORGANIC GARDENING The Growing Club The Farm at South Mountain Pauly Piccirillo JC Raulston Arboretum Rhonda Sherman geobeats Christy Ruffner http://www.wormfarmingrevealed.com/ The Record Company ChetFakerVEVO Links Natural farming section Indoor gardening environment Biochar Compost extract & Compost teas Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings - Part 1 Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings - Part 2 Soil recipe ~A Proud Cultural Healing and Life compilation
  7. Versaland Farm - A permaculture and local government story. The story is ongoing. The following story has two sides and both appear to have some merit and strong points. I ask that all sides be weighed and that people work together to find real solutions if that is even possible after everything has happened. We here are about cultural healing and life and in that we all must learn to walk together, especially when our views and wants go in separate directions if such a thing can be achieved. The Versaland Call for Help https://permies.com/t/70332/Call-Action-Versaland-Farm-threatened When I learned of this yesterday my soul shed a tear and I felt a little less American than I ever did. However, as I said my soul shed a tear and this is kinda foolish as what we did to the American Indians so I will use the words less humanity now. So I will not pout and get in line behind them and put on my thinking hat! With that said lets us remember, their are two sides of a story and many perspectives to consider and this is not a cut and dry issue. Well let me stop here for a bit and let Versaland Farm tell their own story. More information to consider The Iowa Citizen Press Article Stephen Gruber-Miller, sgrubermil@press-citizen.comPublished 7:06 p.m. CT Sept. 11, 2017 | Updated 9:55 p.m. CT Sept. 11, 2017 http://www.press-citizen.com/story/news/local/2017/09/11/johnson-county-agricultural-zoning-versaland-grant-schultz-josh-busard/653692001/ Johnson County Re-Zoning Application Goes Viral https://blogs.extension.iastate.edu/planningBLUZ/2017/09/12/johnson-county-re-zoning-application-goes-viral/ September 12, 2017 Goto comments Leave a comment by Eric Christianson An Iowa City resident’s attempt to rezone 63 acres of rural Johnson County has attracted international attention. Grant Schultz manages a 143 acre farm he calls Versaland in northeastern Johnson County. He is seeking the zoning change to allow him to build rental cabins and worker housing in addition to other accessory uses. Staff recommended against the rezoning because of the potential impact of a large land use change in a rural part of the county and the infrastructural improvements that would be needed to support the potential new uses. On August 14 the planning and zoning commission voted 5-0 to recommend to the board of supervisors that the rezoning be denied. In response on September 8, Schultz created a 25 minute video with the headline “Johnson County Assaults Local Foods“. The video has, as of today, been viewed over 80,000 times and received comments of support from all over the world. Johnson County has since published a memo refuting many of the points made in the video. Additionally, Paul Durrenberger and Suzan Erem, founders of the Sustainable Iowa Land Trust, and owners of the property in question have published a blog post of their own entitled, “Grant Schultz: Facts to Consider”. They are opposed to the proposed rezoning. The Johnson County Board of Supervisors will vote on the rezoning request Thursday September 14, 2017. For more information read the Press Citizen article about the fight. As they say, always two sides of each story. I post this ethically to the story. The Other Side Johnson County Memo to the video https://blogs.extension.iastate.edu/planningBLUZ/files/2017/09/358643971-Johnson-County-responds-to-Grant-Schultz-s-video.pdf Date: Sept 8, 2017 To: Board of Supervisors From: Josh Busard, Director Re: Video Made by Grant Schultz regarding Rezoning Application 27281 On Sept. 8, 2017, Mr. Schultz posted an approximately 25-minute video on Facebook about his rezoning application 27281. In the video, a number of claims are made. The Planning, Development and Sustainability Department would like to provide a response. The application will be heard by the Johnson County Board of Supervisors at 5:30 p.m. on Sept. 14, 2017. Part One of this memo will provide background and timeline for the application process to date. Part Two addresses topics, primarily by the order in which they were raised in the video. This is not meant to be a comprehensive review of the entire application that will be considered by the Board on September 14. PART ONE: TIMELINE AND BACKGROUND Grant Schultz submitted to Johnson County Planning, Development and Sustainability an application on July 11, 2017 to reclassify 62.54 acres from A-Agricultural to AR-Agricultural Residential for “diverse organic farm hosting education, fishing, camping, and cabins for agritourism.” The property at 5133 Strawbridge Road NE is owned by Edward Paul Durrenburger and Suzan Erem. The County believes that Mr. Schultz leases the farm, and intends to purchase it at the end of 2017. Mr. Schultz’s application was heard by the Johnson County Planning and Zoning Commission on August 14, 2017. Ms. Erem, as the property owner, stated at the meeting that she did not support Mr. Schultz’s rezoning application. In their report, staff recommended denial. The complete staff report is attached; however, here is an excerpt from the conclusion highlighting staff concerns: While a smaller-scale rezoning request at this location may be appropriate, staff is not comfortable recommending approval of this request as presented given the scale of potential development that could result from rezoning 62 acres of land to ARAgricultural Residential. Staff has significant concerns with how out-of-character a large scale development would be with the historical development patterns of Morse, and also with the potential impacts development could have on Strawbridge Rd, Putnam St, and the Strawbridge Rd bridge over Rapid Creek. These concerns exist not only in regards to a large-scale residential development, but also for the 36-unit rental cabin development at the site proposed by the applicant – staff would prefer to see a more measured and incremental approach to development of this site. The Planning and Zoning Commission voted 5-0 to deny approval. This vote serves as a recommendation to the Board of Supervisors, which, as noted, will hear the application at its 5:30 p.m. formal meeting on Thursday, Sept. 14, 2017 PART TWO: ADDRESSING CLAIMS MADE BY MR. SCHULTZ The following responses are relative to the order in which they were raised in the video. Retail Orchard / You-Pick Operations: The County has not banned retail orchards. However, on April 20, 2017, the County established a 12-month moratorium on the creation of new retail orchards (Res 04-20-17-01). “You-pick” farm operations are not part of the moratorium. Mr. Schultz at this time could invite the public to personally pick apples (or any other fruit, vegetables or nuts he grows on site) and buy them from him. Aqua-Culture: (“Fish Farms”): Fish Farms are considered agriculture in Johnson County. Mr. Schultz could raise fish on his property right now if he wanted to. If he wants to have a “fish your own” operation along with selling bait for others to fish, he would need to follow the same regulations others have and rezone the property to Agricultural Residential and get a conditional use permit. Morse Village Boundary and Plan: As Mr. Schultz’s states, the property is within the Morse village boundary. The County Land Use Plan (2008) directed the County to develop plans for each unincorporated village, including Morse. That directive include the following item: “Encourage sustainability within villages by promoting mixed-use developments that foster live/work arrangements which are appropriate for the village-area being considered.” Mr. Schultz claims he is supporting the Land Use Plan by fostering live/work arrangements. However, as seen above the goal statement goes on to mention that the live/work arrangements should be appropriate as determined by the Morse Village Plan. The Morse Village plan states: “Future housing stock should not conflict with historic village development.” Historically, the village has not grown from a population of approximately 85 people in the past 100 years, and the traditional growth area of the village is small-lot development along Putnam Road to the north. Development in Morse traditionally has been a mix of low-intensity commercial and residential uses. The build-out for the 62 acres, if zoned Agricultural Residential is as many as 50 homes before density bonuses (see staff report). Housing for Seasonal Agricultural Labor: Johnson County allows “seasonal agricultural camps” that must follow 14 requirements, including fire and other safety aspects. Strong regulation on temporary quarters for agricultural workers is necessary to ensure farm workers are not forced to live in sub-standard conditions just to work. It is true that the seasonal housing for agricultural workers is limited to June 1 and Sept. 15. There has been discussion about changing this time-period when the ordinance is reviewed. Mr. Schultz’s referenced a lawsuit. Staff has no direct knowledge of a lawsuit, but is fairly certain that there was a migrant camp in the late 1980s south of Lone Tree, and this camp necessitated the seasonal agricultural labor ordinance to protect farm workers. Responsiveness to Mr. Schultz: Staff have remained available by phone and email, as well as in person, to Mr. Schultz. The last in-person contact was August 31 Cost of Application and Project Scope: Prior to Mr. Schultz submitting the rezoning application dated July 11, Nate Mueller, Assistant PDS Director, emailed him on July 10, 2017, to caution him about requesting a rezoning while he was not the property owner, and moreover, the current owner had stated she was opposed to the rezoning. Specifically, Nate wrote: “You are welcome to request the rezoning even though you are not currently the deed holder, but in our experience when that kind of request comes through and the deed holder is opposed to the change, the Supervisors take that very heavily into account. I just want to make sure you’re aware of this potential issue before you commit $1400+ to the application filing fee.” In addition, Josh Busard, PDS director, had personal conversations with Mr. Schultz, where he recommended that the rezoning application be scaled down, and that it might be more appropriate to seek rezoning of eight (8) acres to better support his goal of obtaining a conditional use permit for his intended development (cabins, etc.). Mr. Schultz did not follow that advice, and he repeatedly stated that he needed to rezone the entire property because his timeline did not permit a subdivision application. Josh also told him that before any building permit, he would need a subdivision, but Mr. Schultz said he would address that later. Mr. Schultz indicated in the video that he wishes to have 14 cabins for resident farm workers and 22 for rental. This statement in the video is the first time staff have heard these specific details. Strawbridge Road and Infrastructure Costs: This road floods regularly as shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map. The County’s Land Use Plan (2008) contains the following two policies: “Ensure transportation demands can be accommodated when evaluating rezoning requests” (p. 22). “Ensure that new residential areas are responsible for a share of development costs” (p. 23). The County has worked with property owners and developers to improve roads prior to development projects (e.g., Harry Ambrose on Curtis Bridge Road; Stringtown Grocery and Kalona Cheese Factory on 500th Street; S&G Materials on Isaak Walton; Celebration Farm (turn lanes) on Highway 1) Additionally, the County’s Floodplain Development Regulations states that “Subdivision proposals intended for residential development shall provide lots with a vehicular access that will remain passible during occurrence of the 100-year flood” – because of this, staff historically does not recommend approval of rezoning applications that do not meet this standard. The property in question does not meet this standard and staff does not feel that transportation demands can be accommodated without future road upgrades. County Historic Poor Farm: The property Mr. Schultz is requesting to rezone is in the unincorporated area of Johnson County, and thus subject to its regulations. The Johnson County Historic Poor Farm is located within the city limits of Iowa City, and is regulated under the City Zoning Ordinance. Contrary to Mr. Schultz’s claim, the County Farm is subject to zoning and other city regulations, and comparisons between the two is not a simple as presented in the video. County staff, the Board of Supervisors and consultants on the project have communicated with City staff about the many city regulations. Respectfully, Josh Busard Director Planning and Development & Sustainability As they say, always two sides of each story. I post this ethically to the story. Those who currently own the land are opposed, their view Grant Schultz – Facts to Consider http://dracohill.org/blog/grant-schultz-facts-to-consider/ We hope these documents that constitute every legal agreement and disagreement we’ve had with Grant Schultz over the last 4 years help clarify any misinformation floating around the internet. By the way, we own the property. So if you believe in property rights, you should allow us to do as we please with our own land, and we don’t want it rezoned as a resort. And for those who believe assertions that we are out to steal this farm from Grant and somehow get rich from it, rest assured – the annual payment is more than we make on our fixed income. We cannot afford this farm and never wanted to own it. We have given him every opportunity to purchase it from us and continue to do so. We regret having to engage Mr. Schultz because he has treated us like trash for 2 years, and posting this will only motivate him to do it again. We are sorry for the ill-will and anger he is stirring up against good people, including those elected by the people of Johnson County and those they appoint to enforce county ordinances. We apologize to our neighbors in Morse who have had to suffer livestock visiting their homes, yards, sheds and garages, cars parked along a road making it nearly impassable, guns going off at all hours of the night, the years-long saga to get a proper septic installed on this land that Rapid Creek runs through, the unkempt farmstead, the overgrown fences and more. But the time has come to stand up to this bully. We do so at great personal risk, including fear for our safety and fear that he will trash the farm we own out of spite and anger. But we have talked with more than a half dozen young farmers who’ve lived and worked at Schultz’s farm, and they all fear he will retaliate against them with his “worldwide network” on social media. Therefore, we must do the talking for them, and for all young farmers who have asked us not to let this man stand for them, because they are ashamed of what he is doing to us. Please read the documents and see where: We bought this farm to sell to him at the same price 5 years later, knowing the value would likely go up. We didn’t care. We wanted to help him get started. We give him the Farm Credit Services patronage rebate every year instead of keeping it. We paid $24,000 of a $32,000 high-powered livestock well (the other $8K coming from the government he so despises) that he now plans to use for his cabins instead for livestock, according to his testimony at the Planning and Zoning Commission. We gave him an additional $50,000 to purchase a building and install a septic system so he could live there legally. How we moved to terminate the lease when we learned the sheer number of violations he had committed of the document he wrote. How we moved to evict when he didn’t pay his rent – something every farmer in Iowa understands is the one thing you do no matter what – sticking us for the $52,000 payment to the lender last year. What’s not in the documents, so you don’t have to believe us but consider it food for thought: his threats to drag our names through the mud if we didn’t agree to what he wanted, how he has repeatedly misrepresented his rent per acre to make us sound like we were gouging him, how he has claimed that HE has poured hundreds of thousands into this property when the government and Paul and I paid for almost everything, how he gave his best helper three days’ notice for his 40 head of cattle and all the other livestock the man was tending, because Grant decided to change their arrangement and the man refused. how he uses his nursery to be a middleman, purchasing wholesale and selling retail to unsuspecting customers who likely thought he was selling trees he had grown himself. (He tried to convince us at one time to create the nursery business so he could “buy” from us in some kind of shell game we couldn’t understand). how he poses in front of paw paw trees and apple trees that aren’t his to make people believe his plants are fruiting when in fact they were still sticks that are barely leafing out and that there hasn’t been any livestock on the farm all summer. how all of this “shit storm” he promised to rain down on the board of supervisors is smoke and mirrors for the fact that he could buy this land from us today and hasn’t. Why hasn’t he? And why is he trying to rezone it before he owns it? We hope people who care about the truth can learn a few more facts and decide for yourselves. Thank you and we hope to see you at the Johnson County Board of Supervisors hearing Thursday, Sept. 14, 5:30 pm in the county administration building. Versaland’s hoop house, from the day it was built until today, has not grown a single vegetable. The building he bought with our money for himself and his interns – no insulation, thin walls. And piles of junk in overgrown weeds. The bee enterprise one volunteer took on fell apart like every other enterprise, not because of the government or onerous ordinances, but because of Grant Schultz. Almost every volunteer who has ever lived at Versaland has moved to another state and won’t speak up for fear of retaliation by Mr. Schultz. We set aside $50,000 so Grant could live on the farm legally, something we never anticipated because he said he would commute from his apartment in Coralville, but within months was living there illegally. He chose to buy this monstrosity and plant it directly in front of our neighbor’s picture window. The hoop house at Versaland – fronted by Paul Durrenberger because Grant had already used up the one he had coming to him at another failed farm – paid for by NRCS and never used for vegetable production. Bad fences make bad neighbors. Our neighbor, River Products, built this fence for us. Grant Schultz then trespassed on their property, added extensions, electrified them AND then let the fence get overgrown. This photo taken in 2016. These are some of the “100,000 trees” Grant Schultz claims to have planted and desperately needs workers for to harvest. Statements below are taken from the Press-Citizen Iowa newspaper http://www.press-citizen.com/story/news/local/2017/09/11/johnson-county-agricultural-zoning-versaland-grant-schultz-josh-busard/653692001/ My View & Opinion Is the versaland farm video wholly factual? Are the views of those involved directly factual? From where I sit and likely for all others we cannot truly tell so I offer my best to illustrate both sides and encourage positive solutions to a fruitful end. To me, my opinion is several aspects and I have seen similar behaviors by governments, internationally from Europe to America take this kind of action though in different industries and it was what I call a money grab. The current owners make a very strong case against this view and they appear to have much merit. I speak further generically due to their rebuttal and will accept an outcome that weighs this aspect. Unethical and unreasonable justification for road improvements, as I see it. However, the rebuttal in the memo has some legal merit. The town is attempting to make a similar type of farm and may appear to see this as competition. This may be more speculation. The town may see this farms value and by working to ensure it fails will likely be able to obtain the property and the book numbers are likely to be far cheaper to secure this type of farm for the town utilizing that tactic rather than building their own for which they have plans to build. This is the aspect I have seen in other industries internationally. The current owners speak on this but I still have seen similar situations so I cannot say with my opinion I wholly agree or disagree. This issue has become more diverse than how I first came to understand it. I hope all sides can sit down and work out solutions so that betterment can come. In these things, their are at many times no real villains and no real victims but emotion can cause varied illustrations that perhaps can stretch the truth. My interest is just a generic one. cultural healing and life and we must all work together correctly and wisely to do this. Sometimes things do not work out how we want and as fast as we may want but we must remain stern towards the direction in life we sail in. Sometimes the seas are choppy and sometimes smooth and what defines the type of captain we are is how we act under pressures and storms. I do not mean to throw gas on a fire and my blabbering will not help but I will say to look at the wily ape compilation we have made. I feel it will help explain this a bit if is what I fear is true. Specifically this section: http://culturalhealingandlife.com.www413.your-server.de/index.php?/topic/32-the-story-of-the-wily-ape-section-5-society-market-and-governance/ - I recommend the whole story of the wily ape but that section applies foremost. What to do? View all available information before deciding or truly forming an opinion or we may end up being the fool in the room. The following is from versaland. https://www.versaland.com/ To donate to their legal fight: https://secure.squarespace.com/commerce/donate?donatePageId=59b493056f4ca36cb5fc813d 1) Watch the ENTIRE Video. 2) SHARE the video on Facebook, Twitter, email, etc 3) WRITE AN EMAIL to the Supervisors. Contact list below. Share why you support the rezoning to AR, and how affordable farmworker housing, agritourism, and ecological businesses matter to you. Explain your connection to Versaland - as customer, student, or admirer - perhaps you've purchased plants, pastured meat, or engaged in the social fabric with a workshop or field day. If you're presently an admirer - share why you'd visit and how you'd benefit Johnson County while here. Share your unique perspective and engage respectfully, we're all humans.4) CALL IN PERSON Engage with a personal phone call and talk through why you value Versaland, how it adds to the quality of Johnson County, Iowa, and the social, economic, and ecological benefits it brings via land access, organic food, improved water quality, and climate and flood resilience. 5) ATTEND THE MEETING on Thursday, September 14th at 5:30PM, 913 S Dubuque Street, Iowa City, IA 52240 - Facebook event here Office Phone: 319-356-6000 Janelle Rettig 319-356-6000 email: jrettig@co.johnson.ia.us Kurt M. Friese 319-356-6000 kfriese@co.johnson.ia.us Mike Carberry Home: I do not feel correct about posting home numbers mcarberry@co.johnson.ia.us Rod Sullivan Home: I do not feel correct about posting home numbers e-mail:rsullivan@co.johnson.ia.us Lisa Green-Douglass (319) 936-0175 e-mail: lgreendouglass@co.johnson.ia.us RESOURCE DOWNLOADS Versaland Design (north half of farm) Poor Farm Design/"New Century Farm" ESTABLISHING A TEMPORARY 12 MONTH MORATORIUM ON THE ISSUANCE OF CONDITIONAL USE PERMITS FOR RETAIL ORCHARDS (Page 4) Retail Orchard Moratorium (Page 3) Versaland Zoning Application Johnson County Iowa Unified Development Ordinance Morse Village Plan 2011 Food Policy Council Recommendations for the 2018 Comprehensive Plan Johnson County Greenwashing Report Allowing Country Inns as a Conditional Use in the A, AR, & R Zoning Districts: 09-19-13-Z2 09/19/2013 Planning, Development, and Sustainability Staff Opinion (8/11/17 opinion) Lawsuit Evincing Purchase Agreement in 2016 Johnson County Board of Supervisors What I think to do. As they are a small town. Lets gather the funds and legal representation and be willing to go to the supreme courts if necessary. Perhaps find some help from the ACLU or other pro-bono legal representation. This not only brings the legal fight to the courts. It can work to bleed them back financially as they hope to do them (my view on that) and this can have a big impact on the towns finances potentially causing their taxes and fees to increase upsetting their voting base. Get politically involved placing candidates and work to actually get correct people to run against this type of town management direction. Speak at all public events possible and join the same political party as to gain voter information as then you can talk directly to their base. Informing them correctly can do much and also brings a certain pressure they like underestimate. Contact the businesses that support those local politicians and ask them to explain why they support such efforts and make that public, they likely will not speak back if they do not support this can lead to public pressure. I do not advocate boycotts or anything like that, just discussion in attempt to gain support. Enough pain. Let the courts, education, ethics and morals win the day. All that said, I hope they all sit down and genuinely work together to find realistic solutions but also this will likely be a give and take. Lets not fight, lets work together and do something great! One Drop Forward sings us out! One Drop Forward - Knowledge - Message Video Thank you for your time and energies, JJ the Gardener. ~Cultural Healing and Life.
  8. Natural farming section Indoor gardening environment Biochar Compost extract & Compost teas Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings - Part 1 Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings - Part 2 Soil recipe Vermiculture & Vermicompost Part 1 Vermicomposting is a quick, efficient way to convert kitchen scraps into a rich soil amendment using composting earthworms that break down organic matter into worm poop known as worm castings. A very valuable commodity. The following information is compiled as to enable you to have the ability to successfully raise worms and harvest their castings. It is extensive as to account for most situations and interest levels. If this compilation is helpful to you, please support those in the credits directly. Worm castings are a rich source of plant growth hormones, humic and fulvic acids along with nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium (dependent on feed stock) with microbiology which enables ready to use nutrition for the plant and the soil web. Worm castings are rich in essential plant nutrients and many beneficial microorganisms in a fully stabilized organic soil amendment. Worm castings will not burn your plants and is excellent for starting seeds. PH is near neutral. Increases germination rates due to its growth hormones. Assist in reducing transplant shock. Plants grow strong roots and helps during periods of plant stress. Assist in raising the brix levels of the plants. Works to create healthy a soil web which can reduce plant pest. General Worm information geobeats - 10 Little Known Facts About Earthworms Worms bins and castings do not have a foul odor, smells like a forest soil. Worms can be kept indoors year round. Utilize kitchen scraps and garden waste. Feed regularly at around one half pound of food scraps per pound of worms per day. Do earthworms have eyes? No, instead they have receptor cells that are sensitive to light and touch. These cells allow earthworms to detect different intensities of light and to feel vibrations. They will move away from light, if they can. If earthworms are exposed to light for too long (about an hour), they will become paralyzed and die when their skin dries out. This is often the reason after a rain you can find dead worms on the sidewalk, bad timing with the morning light. Can earthworms smell? They do not smell like we do but earthworms have chemo-receptors in the anterior region that react to chemicals. This is how they can detect food and other environmental aspects. How do earthworms breathe? They do not have lungs; instead, they breathe through their skin. Their skin needs to stay moist to allow the passage of dissolved oxygen into their bloodstream. They coat their skin with mucus and need to live in a humid, moist environment. If the environment is to wet the they cannot breath effectively or at all. This is why in part in worm bins to ensure drainage. If I cut an earthworm in half, will it regenerate into two earthworms? No. The half with the earthworm’s head can grow a new tail if the cut is after the segments containing vital organs. The other half of the earthworm cannot grow a new head or the other organs needed to sustain the earthworm. Which end is the head? The head is at the end closest to a swollen band encircling the earthworm. How do earthworms eat? They have tiny mouths and no teeth.. An earthworm will push its pharynx (throat) out, grab microorganisms and little bits of organic matter, and pull them into it’s mouth. The food is coated with saliva, pushed down the esophagus into the crop and on to the gizzard, where it is crushed and ground apart. Next, it moves into the intestine, where food is broken down more by digestive enzymes. Some of the food is passed into the bloodstream for use by the earthworm and the rest passes out the anus as castings (worm poop). This is why introduce "grit" to the worm bins as to help them eat and process the food internally. What is the swollen band near the head called and what is it for? It is called a clitellum and it contains eggs and sperm for reproduction. How do earthworms reproduce? Earthworms are hermaphrodites, so individuals have both female and male reproductive organs. They mate by joining their clitella and exchanging sperm. Each earthworm will form an egg capsule in its clitellum and pass it into the vermicompost 7 to 10 days later. The egg capsule is golden-brown colored and looks like a tiny lemon the size of a match head. Two to seven Eisenia fetida babies will hatch from an egg capsule in 30 to 75 days. Can you vermicompost in cold climates? Yes! However, to actively eat and reproduce, Eisenia fetida (red wigglers) needs their environment to be between 59 and 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Worms Hatching. Dave - Worms hatching from eggs. 20 Day Time Lapse of Vermicomposting Gregor Skoberne - Worms At Work - 20 Days Time Lapse Of Vermicomposting Composting Worms and sources Finding suitable worms for vermiculture. It takes one pound of worms (1,000 individuals) to start a good-sized compost bin. You may find redworms near compost, under rotting logs or similar decomposing situations. You won’t be able to tell the difference between Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida. Composting worms can be purchased either locally or order via the Internet. If a shop cannot tell you the scientific name of the worms do not purchase. Worms suitable for vermicompost are from the epigeic class of worms. Eisenia fetida - Red Wigglers Eisenia Hortensis - European Nightcrawler Eudrillus Eugeniae - African Nightcrawler Lumbricus rubellus - Red worms, often confused with red wigglers or Eisenia fetida Amynthus Gracilus - Alabama Jumpers Attracting compost worms & a worm barrel update... Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics - Attracting compost worms & a worm barrel update... 4 Different Kinds Of Composting Worms Larry Hall - Why Am I Raising 4 Different Kinds Of Composting Worms? Well Let Me Tell You Why! Feeding worms Once the earthworms have settled into their new home (after a couple of days) Add a small amount of food scraps on the surface of the bedding. The amount should not exceed 1-inch high. This will prevent the food scraps from building up heat which is detrimental to the worms. Feed your earthworms any non-meat foods such as vegetables, fruits, crushed eggshells, tea bags, coffee grounds, shredded paper coffee filters, and shredded garden debris. Red wigglers especially like cantaloupe, watermelon, and pumpkin. Do not add citrus fruits or fruit peels to the bin They can cause the bin environment to become too acidic. Never add meat scraps or bones, fish, greasy or oily food, onions, garlic, fat, tobacco, citrus, salty foods, or pet or human manure. They can bring in pathogens and attract pests. Chop or blend food scraps into small pieces so they break down easier. This is not necessary but will help the food stock become consumed faster. Once you have fed your earthworms, use a three-prong garden tool to cover the food scraps completely with 1 to 2 inches of bedding to prevent fruit flies from finding the food. Food scraps can be stored for a few days before adding them to the worm bin. Store in container with a lid next to or under their kitchen sink. Coffee containers are excellent. Food scraps can also be stored in a container or bag in the freezer. The worms may be fed any time of the day Earthworms can be fed as seldom as every two to three weeks, depending on how many earthworms are in the bin. If you are going away for a couple of weeks, apply 1⁄2-inch layer of food scraps and cover it with two inches of moistened, shredded paper. Manure can be used but is recommended to compost it first. Non composted manure can be used but it can make the worm bin to hot. Worm Chow Recipe by down to the roots. Adding a spoonful of this sprinkled over the food stock will ensure a balanced and healthy nutrition for your worms which ensure quality castings. Think quality in and quality out! 1 Part-Whole Wheat Flour 1 Part-Corn Meal 1 Part-Ground Oats 1/2 Part-Ground Oyster Shell/Egg Shell - Eggshells need to be cleaned and dried before using. Feeding composting worm bins video section DownToTheRoots - How I feed my composting worm bins. Homemade dry worm food (Worm Chow) DownToTheRoots - Homemade dry worm food (Worm Chow) Processing eggs shells for worm bin DownToTheRoots - How I process egg shells for my worm bins. Utilizing fish manure. Home Farm Ideas - What to feed worms Worm Slushies Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics - How we feed our compost worms, worm slushies anyone ? Harvesting the Vermicompost You may harvest the vermicompost by one of three methods After a few weeks, you will begin to see vermicompost on the bottom of the bin. Vermicompost is soil-like material containing a mixture of earthworm castings (feces) and partially decomposed bedding and food scraps. In about four months, it will be time to harvest the vermicompost. : Method 1: Sideways Separation. Feed the earthworms on only one side of your worm bin for several weeks, and most of the worms will migrate to that side of the bin. Then you can remove the vermicompost from the other side of the bin where you have not been adding food scraps, and add fresh bedding. Repeat this process on the other side of the bin. After both sides are harvested, you can begin adding food scraps to both sides of the bin again. Method 2: Light Separation. Empty the contents of your worm bin onto a plastic sheet or used shower curtain where there is strong sunlight or artificial light. Wait five minutes, and then scrape off the top layer of vermicompost. The earthworms will keep moving away from the light, so you can scrape more vermicompost off every five minutes or so. After several scrapings, you will find worms in clusters; just pick up the worms and gently return them to the bin in fresh bedding (with the old bedding mixed in). Method 3: Vertical Separation. Before you begin vermicomposting, either buy a manufactured stacking bin or make your own. Set one bin aside and vermicompost in the other bin for a few months. When the bedding in the bin fits snug against the bottom of the bin you set aside, simply fit the second bin inside the first one, and begin only feeding in the top bin for the next several months. Most of the earthworms will move up into the upper bin to eat, and eventually the lower bin will just contain vermicompost. Be on the lookout for earthworm egg capsules; they are lemon-shaped and about the size of a match head, with a shiny appearance and light-brownish color. The capsules contain between two and seven baby earthworms. Place the egg capsules back inside your bin so they can hatch and thrive in your bin system. Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings - Part 2 Natural farming section Indoor gardening environment Biochar Compost extract & Compost teas Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings - Part 1 Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings - Part 2 Soil recipe
  9. Building them up : ) I had had to go with wire nails , as I could not get screws thin enough , we shall see if they last , if not I can beef them up later : )
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  12. This so makes my day and I thank you! I look forward to your collections.
  13. I have enough wood for 5 boxes and three lids so I can leave two and when I come back a week later I can exchange for another two ( cycle ) the extra box I shall experiment with ( holes etc ) i got 3 lids too , two for the coming home boxes to protect the contents and the spare I shall put on my experimental box , to see if I get a good collection with a wooden lid instead of paper towel If it works with a wooden lid that means no anti animal cage would be required and it would make them more rain proof ( easier to set up on site )
  14. Nails or screws are fine. I like screws for better stability over time. The boxes get bumped and moved and with cheap nails can become flimsy but this is not an issue if box is not in danger of falling apart, I speak more out of caution than practical issue that I have seen. Remember to leave a bit of a gap on the bottom as to help facilitate easier microbe movement to the rice food source but they can travel through the wood no problem anyways. I speak on that due to Chris Trumps advice. I have no gaps in the ones I had and worked as it should! Making the box is a neat thing as it makes it more personal and feels more you did this than if bought. Bravo!!!!
  15. Composting, Compost Extract & Compost Tea

    Natural farming section Indoor gardening environment Biochar Compost extract & Compost teas Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings Soil recipe Compost Extract and Compost Tea Compost extract and compost tea is a method of inputting nutrients and microbiology to your soils or growing media of choice. Compost extract and compost tea is a tool that enables the gardener to assist the plants development with more accuracy and support as the grow season and plant further develops. Compost extract works to maintain your soils and is dependent on the quality and condition of your living soil. Compost tea is best used for foliar applications and in the soil. Things to consider are the environment, the period of plant growth, soil condition and your plants condition. By understanding this and how to tailor your compost extracts and teas to address and support these aspects you can take a leading role in working towards a great harvest! In order to do that, we need to understand the soil food web and how that applies to compost tea and extract usage. The following video is excellent on explaining the soil food web, compost making, making humic acid (than can be used immediately and how it helps to lock up chlorine and chloramine), making compost extract and compost tea. This information is vital in understanding how to make effective high quality compost extracts and teas. Elaine Ingham Soil Food Web Compost and Compost Tea Lonnie Gamble - Elaine Ingham Soil Food Web Compost and Compost Tea Their are many ways to create a compost tea with some being aerobic and some being anaerobic but they both can lead to the same end. What is more important than the method (as long as the method is effective) of making extracts or tea is the quality and type of the compost and ingredients. Additionally with using the right compost and ingredients for the time period and the state of your garden plants. The quality and effectiveness largely dependent upon the microbiology and catalyst ingredients combining to create a garden tea that optimizes and/or supports your plants life cycle and to help maintain vigor during times of stress by strengthening your living soil with inputs of beneficial bacteria and fungus. For some, compost extracts and teas work and for others it does not. This is a factor more so when the type of extract or tea is made with ineffective methods and/or the soil does not work effectively together. Just making a tea and applying it to the plants does not equate to effectiveness. We need to ensure the biology in the tea is correct for your situation such as plant stage and that the soil biology needs are infused with the right biology that will strengthen your soil. Compost extract and tea is a management tool and not something that should be used only in emergency situations and/or only during times of stress. I view managing compost teas very similar to natural farming inputs. It should be regularly used as a maintenance to reinforce the soil biology matching the life cycle of the plant and in this way I have seen great success with compost extracts and teas. Their are many types of compost teas one can purchase commercially and the options are almost unlimited in what a gardener can craft at home. Determining if it is better to select a ready to use compost tea or to make your own can be a difficult endeavor depending on ones knowledge and skill as a gardener and in understanding the applicable microbiology. This question can be complicated with that perspective. While making the tea is simplistic, making effective teas is potentially an entire different thing. The following video will help address some aspects of commercial compost tea products compared to making your own. The answer on what is the best option for you depends on you. This is not about making your own garden teas or buying ready to make garden teas. It is about working to instill enough information and knowledge to help you determine what is best for your situation. We advocate what is effective for you and thus we are fans of quality commercially ready to make compost teas and fans of making your own. Our concern is the living soils and the plants and helping gardeners gain knowledge and not be reactive to marketing information. Their are fantastic and effective compost teas you can purchase and you can also make fantastic effective gardening teas with your own ingredients but in reality many gardeners do not have the quality ingredients to brew an effective tea. Think quality in and quality out kind of thing. The following video is not placed as an advertisement as it is for the information and knowledge that is discussed. It just happens to be from Josh Cunnings from boogie brew - http://www.boogiebrew.net/open-source-compost-tea/ We are appreciative for his videos. ~JJ the Gardener. Why Compost Tea is NOT Created Equal & How to Make the Best Compost Tea Learn Organic Gardening at GrowingYourGreens - Why Compost Tea is NOT Created Equal & How to Make the Best Compost Tea Determining what kind of compost tea you need is the first step such as more bacterial, fungal or a blend. This is will largely be determined by the type of plants you are growing and the current state of the plants and soil. In later compilations we will discuss making composts to enhance various microbiology that will help you better make your own quality compost varieties as to enable you to construct your garden teas to better meet your specific needs. Green compost component - leaves and green parts of the plants while still green. Brown compost component - plants after seed production and nutrition is located more in the roots. Woody compost component. Elaine Ingham on Compost Ingredients ThePermacultureStudent - Elaine Ingham on Compost Ingredients To make your own compost teas we recommend that you have access to quality ingredients such as rich compost (forest, sea/ocean-for chitin and mushroom compost combined are best practice), rich worm castings, rich soils, fish hydrolysate (unheated or its useless), kelp, humic acids (best made from your own compost) and utilizing a bit of sea water 1:30 dilution/mineralized-fermented water, a bit of rock dust, a pinch of biochar a pinch of yeast and protein powder can also be added. Elaine Ingham on Mollases in your Compost Tea? How to make Fungal Composts ThePermacultureStudent - Elaine Ingham on Mollases in your Compost Tea? How to make Fungal Composts We will discuss various garden teas recipes further below and explain the reasoning. While it is common for people to obtain these ingredients they often do not have them all in an effective quality. Then their is the method of brewing the tea. About brewing compost teas Many gardeners who make their own compost teas often make errors in the brewing. This is largely due to improper to negligent cleaning of the brewing equipment that leads to pathogens and thus problems. Using sugars and molasses are not generally recommended as they work towards bacterial growth. The common air-stone and 5 gallon containers method is often a culprit. We have no problem with the 5 gallon and air stone method but in its maintenance specifically in cleaning aspects that can lead to problems. Sometimes when people get sick from eating produce from organic farms this is a potential factor. We have seen many garden teas made by a variety of methods work well but these have a higher margin of error for the ordinary gardener when not maintained correctly. Dangers of making compost tea Back 2 Organics - Why Brewing Compost Tea is Dangerous The following video is the follow video from above and illustrates a recipe that is considered more safe in regards to e-coli and similar pathogens. Any method can be utilized similarly by not adding sugar/molasses. The Simplest and Easiest compost tea Back 2 Organics - The Simplest and Easiest compost tea Garden tea can be made by steeping compost/ingredients and daily stirring in clock wise direction making a vortex and making teas with aeration from air pumps with constant mixing. Both methods are viable but both require proper management and care to ensure proper quality. Stirred Compost Tea vs Pump Bubbled Compost Tea! With Results! Work With Nature - Stirred Compost Tea vs Pump Bubbled Compost Tea! With Results! While many utilize the air stone in a bucket method safely we advocate a more effective process of instilling higher oxygen and mixing which intern leads to higher populations of microbiology by making a higher populated AACT or activated aerated compost tea. We are not saying the air-stone in a bucket or even just manually stirring each day will not make a good garden tea but we are speaking on aspects regarding them in regards to the common gardener so that they may be accounted for. We are for whatever brewer or method you use as it is the knowledge we hope to instill as to assist you making effective garden teas. The following videos illustrates tea brewers people can make themselves with great amounts of information on the subject of Compost extracts and teas. Dr. Elaine Ingham discusses and illustrates making compost tea with various compost brewer sizes. Ong Th - Dr Elaine Ingham – Compost Tea download Larger Homemade Brewer Learn Organic Gardening at GrowingYourGreens - Best DIY Compost Tea Brewer made with a Garbage Can & PVC Pipe Compost recipe and process Compost tea for 5 gallon bucket with store bought or your own made ingredients with lots of even aeration from bottom. Humic acid - 1 drop per gallon, 1 tsp is ok. (breaks down chloramine), Liquid kelp (fungus and some bacterial growth), 2 tsp Humic acid again to feed fungi, 1/4 cup Unsulphored Molasses. (use little 1/4 to 1/2 tsp) This is to help start the bacteria growth but not overwhelm it. Too fast bacterial growth will utilize the food source for fungal growth that comes a bit later in the process. Film on the sides of the brewer indicate dead biology. Next time reduce sugar input Check your brewing times and adjust accordingly. Compost in a tea bag/panty hose, 1/2 pound. Hang compost in the middle of the container. the color of the water should change quickly. This is humic acids and biology going into the tea. 8 hours later Remove tea bag from brewer. A majority of the microbes will have been released into the water. Remove compost from the bag and place it back into the compost pile you took it from. Resume brewing for 12 to 16 hours Total of 24 hours since starting the brew. Brewing for 24 hours favors more bacterial and longer such as 36 to 48 hours brewing favors more fungal life. Adjust per your needs. Turn off aerator and rinse and clean. Very important to rinse and clean to prevent future negative issues in following brews. collect the compost tea. Apply immediately. Soil and leaf surfaces. Immediately thoroughly clean everything. Compost Extract Compost extract for 5 gallon bucket, no food is added. The biology is not active and thus not viable for foliar uses but is good for soil use. 4 gallons of water. 4 drops of homemade humic acid per gallon of water to manage chlorine and chloramine. (1 drop per gallon, a little extra is ok) Do not use humic acids from leanardite or coal based as these are not usable to the microbiology or your plants due to its form being not usable for about 6 plus months. Place compost in tea bag, panty hose, paint strainer. Then massage the compost tea bag in the water for 1 minute. The water will turn brown in color. After one minute you are done. Return the compost back to the compost bin. The used compost will again be colonized by microbiology and its humic and fulvic acids will be replenished in time. use the compost extract immediately for in soil use only. The microbiology is not active so it is not sticky and is not beneficial as a foliar input. Advanced Information Innovative Farmers - Dr. Elaine Ingham Compost Tea Audio Summary You should now have an understanding about compost qualities and the differences of the types of composting materials. An understanding of how to make and the uses of compost extract and compost teas and how to make and safely utilize them. In this you should have an effective base in which to better manage your garden utilizing compost extracts and compost teas. In following compilations we will discuss how to better shape your compost teas as to better address the life cycle of the plants such as vegetative, transition and flowering phases of plant growth. For you! Credits gvozdi7 - Of Monsters and Men – Dirty Paws Lonnie Gamble Learn Organic Gardening at GrowingYourGreens ThePermacultureStudent Back 2 Organics Ong Th Work With Nature Innovative Farmers Dr. Elaine Ingham http://www.boogiebrew.net The School of Life Links: Natural farming section Indoor gardening environment Biochar Compost extract & Compost teas Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings Soil recipe ~A proud Cultural Healing and Life Compilation
  16. Just got my cedar in the post for my boxes , the wood smells lovely lol ? going to use metal nails or screws to assemble them I think ? Or should I use wooden dowels and some wood glue ? Im thinking screws will grip better and help keep the box from warping / twisting over time and if I need to fix the boxes for any reason , the screws will allow for easy dismantle i shall see what the finest thin one inch screws the shop sells and if there is nothing suitable I shall use fine gripper type nails ( like normal nails only ribbed for extra wood pleasure lol ) : )
  17. Biochar

    Natural farming section Indoor gardening environment Biochar Compost extract & Compost teas Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings Soil recipe Biochar Biochar is a carbon rich product made from any organic substance by thermal decomposition without oxygen. Ok, its a type of charcoal that will work to stabilize soil conditions and when the soil environment is healthy and soil thrives for a long period of time the biochar plays a role in increasing soil productivity by promoting positive living conditions and soil environment for beneficial soil microbiology. Biochar is mainly utilized as a soil amendment, in waste management, energy generation and in sequestering carbon. In gardening biochar is used as a soil amendment that becomes homes homes for microorganism. Biochar is most effective in tropical areas due to leaching aspects of rain and runoff. Biochar is also beneficial in temperate areas but its benefits are more noticeable in the tropical regions or where monsoons are a factor. Biochar increases soil moisture and germination rates when at the 1 and 2% rate. It can be made by a variety of methods but it is typically made from a waste products such as the manufacture of biofuels. However, Bamboo and hardwoods that are waste products are typically used in making a gardening biochar. Depending on your soils and farming needs a combination of high ash biochar from manure and bone mixed with hardwood or bamboo biochar can be a consideration. Biochar made from manures and bones, are mainly composed of ashes “high mineral ash biochars,” and thus can effect crops differently than hardwood biochar. High ash type of biochars will be a short-lived benefit as they contain less carbon compared to say bamboo and hardwoods. Understanding the effect of the type of biochar (such as in high ash biochar or hardwood biochar) with alkaline soils to determine if biochar can impact PH as to ensure the biochar does not increase the PH to levels to cause micro-nutrient lockouts however this is not typically an issue with healthy soils as they will tend to be more PH stable. Essentially utilizing hardwood and bamboo biochar will have less impact in PH than high ash biochar made from manure and bone. Depending on soil situations a mix of biochar types could be better than one or the other alone. Methods for making biochar vary from traditional pits in the ground, utilization of various barrel techniques and on large industrial scales. Basically to make biochar the idea is to remove all the volatile or "fuels" in the organic substance and leave just the carbon. This is then inoculated, often with a nitrogen source and then pulverized into a powder. One once of biochar has the surface area of approximately an American football field. This is wonderful news to microbiology. International Biochar Initiative - Guidelines on Practical Aspects of Biochar Application to Field Soil in Various Soil Management Systems This video is excellent in understanding about biochar USU Extension Forestry - Biochar Basics Biochar and Mycorrhizal Fungi Mycorrhizal fungi effectiveness can be reduced in plant benefit. Their is not yet a very good understanding why or how long this aspect can be. In the video above (biochar basics) it is theorized that bacteria displaces the fungi. I suspect that inoculation of high nitrogen is a negative factor in mycorrhizal and plant interactions and this initially could slow that process. The video below is only a 4 week study and they suspect that initially mycorrhizal activity initially alters the patina of the biochar which enables a later positive interactions but further study is needed. We place this information herein as to address this issue and will update as we learn more regarding this aspect of mycorrhizal fungi, biochar and plant interaction. Climate State - Biochar and Mycorrhizal fungi (2014) Biochar Creation Methods Below we illustrate various types of biochar creation and some advanced information for those who would like more information than the basics. Biochar can be simply made in a pit, with a top lite up draft, bottom fed barrel systems and kiln systems at the farm or garden location. We will spend more time on pit biochar and tlud barrel systems and tlud kiln systems that can be easily constructed on site and is mobile. Biochar can also be made in large industrial systems and larger stationary type of ovens. Mostly in this compilation we will discuss what small farmers and gardeners can create for themselves. Traditional Pit Biochar - Bamboo and wood sticks. The Natural Farmer - John Kaisner The Natural Farmer - Tropics - #18 Making Biochar from Bamboo Barrel System Top Lid Up Draft or TLUD Barrel System This system uses a chimney effect and the main heat for making the biochar comes from gas contained naturally in the wood. By design the gas comes from the bottom of the inner barrel and and is ignited in the outer barrel causing the necessary heat at a good temperature to make the biochar. How to make biochar reactor - TLUD barrel THEGREENCABBY - How to make biochar reactor - TLUD barrel Another construction video Guy Langlois - Building a Biochar Reactor Small Farm Production AnnMAugustine - Making Biochar For Small Farms Making Biochar and Charcoal with the TLUD Brick Chimney Kiln O.J. Romo - Making Biochar and Charcoal with the Brick Chimney Kiln Small home garden kiln brianzaro - TLUD stove for biochar Quality of testing created biochar Quality of biochar varies due to several factors, the material used and how well the tars and resins are removed (mobile matter) that can be toxic to plants. Their are a few ways to evaluate the quality of your biochars and should be done on home made biochar before use. Appearance and sound Black and look almost like black glass. Biochar should almost make a clinking noise when rubbing between each other. The soap test Wash hands, well made biochar will wash off easily with just water. If mobile matter is present then you will need to use soap to wash your hands clean. This mobile matter is from tars and resins that have not cooked off. Germination test. (it is not necessary to inoculate biochar for the germination test.) Germinate seeds in a germinating soil with and without biochar. Mix a bit of biochar with your germinating soil. Use only normal germinating soil. If biochar mix does not germinate it is a problem. Worm test. Do worms avoid the biochar areas? If worms avoid the biochar it is not good. If worms like it, all is well! Biochar water retention test Fill water glass 3/4 full of water Fill water glass 3/4 full of biochar Pour water glass into the biochar glass. The water should not overflow and be the same level as the water. Biochar moisture test video Ultra Compost - Demonstration on how Biochar holds moisture Inoculating or priming biochar Inoculating or priming biochar is necessary as to prevent the biochar for initially drawing nutrients into the char from the soil, this drawing effect will prevent the plants gaining access to those nutrients and can cause initial nutritional deficiencies for your plants. Inoculate by making a liquid nitrogen source from compost/garden/compost teas, FAA and/or liquid IMO. You can tailor your inoculation to best suite your needs of the biochar. Additionally you can place fresh biochar in your compost piles and spread over your animal and chicken coup floors. Takes longer before inoculation but it will help with controlling smells. Liquid IMO - http://culturalhealingandlife.com.www413.your-server.de/index.php?/topic/48-inputs-section-12-imo-4-liquid-imo/&tab=comments#comment-100 FAA - http://culturalhealingandlife.com.www413.your-server.de/index.php?/topic/43-inputs-section-8-faa-fish-amino-acids/ FFJ - http://culturalhealingandlife.com.www413.your-server.de/index.php?/topic/42-inputs-section-7-ffj-fermented-fruit-juice/ Compost tea example - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDVP8QPXrk0 Ready made organic vegetative fertilizer can be used as well. Video on different inoculation methods THEGREENCABBY - Activate & Inoculate Biochar Applying Inoculated Biochar When applying biochar to soil for improving its fertility, the biochar should ideally be located near the soil’s surface in the root zone, where the bulk of nutrient cycling and uptake by plants takes place. Certain systems may benefit from the application of biochar in layers below the root zone, for example during landscaping for carbon sequestration or if using biochar for moisture management. When biochar is to be applied to soil solely for carbon sequestration purposes, placement deeper in the soil, for example in new landscaping or construction areas, would be desired since microbial activity that can degrade biochar carbon is reduced deeper in the soil profile. Biochar Bob - Biochar Bob 101: Episode 1 - How to Apply Biochar to a Garden Biochar workshop - A must watch series full of information Biochar Workshop Part 1, How to Make Biochar Living Web Farms - Biochar Workshop Part 1, How to Make Biochar Biochar Workshop Part 2, Why to Make Biochar Living Web Farms - Biochar Workshop Part 2, Why to Make Biochar Biochar Workshop Part 3, The carbon cycle Living Web Farms - Biochar Workshop Part 3, The carbon cycle Biochar Workshop Part 4, The biochar facility Living Web Farms - Biochar Workshop Part 4, The biochar facility Biochar Workshop Part 5, Biochar and the greenhouse Living Web Farms - Biochar Workshop Part 5, Biochar and the greenhouse What happens to carbon after applying biochar A study in biochar. NSW DPI Agriculture - What happens to carbon in the soil after biochar is applied? Test results using biochar ebsmsa - Field Test Biochar with Corn and Sunflowers (final) Test without inoculating char over time period of 3 years SkillCult - Leeks in Biochar Test Bed Much Larger and Greener Biochar - Split Garden Comparison Scott Laskowski - Biochar - split garden comparison BONUS SECTION Biochar and Hugelkultur in a food forest The Natural Farmer - John Kaisner The Natural Farmer - Tropics - #15 Food Forest with Biochar Hugelkultur Biochar and Charcoal differences There is a difference in how biochar and regular charcoal is made. Biochar is made for use in agriculture. It is specifically pyrolized or charred to support the improvement of soil. Charcoal can have additive binders and/or tars and resins that are not agriculturally compatible as the charcoal product is going to be optimized for its energy value Biochar is considered sustainable due to utilization of waste resources and the carbon sequestering aspects but charcoal will release into the air instead of being stored in the soils. In addition Charcoal production is classically an unsustainable trade, and one of the biggest drivers of deforestation, particularly in developing country contexts. Commercial charcoal products, as I mentioned before, are often petroleum-based—another unsustainable, unrenewable resource. Carbon storage is different between charring and burning. Burning is a combustion reaction of combustible material in the presence of air (nitrogen and oxygen), but charring is a degradation of material due to heating in absence of oxygen. The products from burning and charring are also different. The burning of plant matter produces carbon dioxide and water; whereas, charring produces a complex form of carbon and low molecular weight compounds (smoke). Burning charcoal returns carbon, as part of carbon dioxide (27%) gas to the atmosphere, however, charring returns carbon to the land as a solid, char. Biochar and Activated Carbon differences Biochar is a precursor to activated carbon. Activated carbon has a heavy carbon footprint and is expensive to make and utilized chemicals. For information please visit this link: http://fingerlakesbiochar.com/biochar-vs-activated-carbon/ The following video is listed as to illustrate activated carbon creation. How to make survival activated charcoal PHOENIX SURVIVAL - Survival Activated Charcoal Made Naturally Summary Biochar is just simple carbon with great potential benefit when utilized correctly. When it is not it may not be the benefit, at least initially that many have made it out to be. The commercialism of biochar has sort of made biochar appear like a super hero amendment but biochar works best for improving poor soils and maintaining soil environments over long periods of time with proper management and technique. Due to that aspect we have created this compilation as to better impart realistic information and knowledge regarding biochar. We hope that this work helps you, your soils, your plants and the environment. A song for you! Credits - Please support these below directly. OMC VIDEOS - Old Man Canyon - Wiser http://www.biochar-international.org USU Extension Forestry Climate State THEGREENCABBY SkillCult Living Web Farms Guy Langlois O.J. Romo AnnMAugustine PHOENIX SURVIVAL The Natural Farmer Scott Laskowski Ultra Compost brianzaro ebsmsa NSW DPI Agriculture Biochar Bob Swedish House Mafia - Save The World The School of Life Links: Natural farming section Indoor gardening environment Biochar Compost extract & Compost teas Vermiculture & Vermicompost, worm castings Soil recipe ~ A Proud Cultural Healing and Life Compilation
  18. Inputs - Section 13 - IMO 5

    Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Inputs - Section 13 - IMO 5 IMO 5 is essentially taking a nitrogen rich source such as manure, compost, food scraps, bone meal for example and using IMO4 to break it down to a usable media that will not harm plants nor lose or lose as much nitrogen due to the nitrogen cycle compared to other traditional mainstream farming methods. Not only is IMO5 ideal for plants but also the environment. Chris Trump - How To IMO5 IMO 5 Ingredients IMO4 Nutrient rich material such as compost, food scraps, manure, bone meal, etc. FPJ 1:500 BRV 1:500 OHN 1:1000 SW 1:25 Humic acid 1:500 Water "approximately" 1GAL/25LB My wife and I met the base player of Deep Purple from when this song was made. I post in loving memory of my wife. IMO 5 Process How much moisture to add will vary depending on how dry or moist the IMO4 is. Create your IMO5 water solution Per gallon of water FPJ 1:500 BRV 1:500 OHN 1:1000 Sea Water 1:25 Humic acid 1:500 Mix the IMO4 and the compost, manure or whatever media you are using Make a divot into the middle of the mixed soil & added dry materials. Then mix in the IMO5 water solution Pour water solution into the divot. Mix very well and repeat until evenly mixed. Careful not to make too wet or the temperature will increase (130f to 140f temperature is too high). Manure and high nitrogen additions keep more dry than wet. Mix so the media holds slightly together but crumbles apart, it should not clump or hold its shape. In about 7 to 10 days the IMO5 will be ready to use. Application Use IMO-4 by top dressing the soil around plants and top dressing fields before planting. Chris Trump - How to apply IMO4 Why to Natural Farm “Farmers have lost their independent authority which they have in the farming techniques of the old days. Farmers became dependent in buying almost everything that they need in farming, and they just engaged in farming by role according to the program presented by the seller.” “I insist to recover the spirit of farmers. To achieve it is impossible until the exhilarated farming that farmers can recover subjectivity in the farming technique is realized.” “New vision of farming techniques is needed to recover the true nature of farming. There is a hidden possibility to realize a new vision in the ways that farmers make and apply which are necessary farming materials by making use of local materials actively.” Dr. Han Kyu Cho A word from us. Cultural Healing and Life has compiled this information in the hopes that it will help not just to grow high quality plants and trees but that we begin to heal the lands and soils and by working from the bottom of the food chain up can nutritionally begin to heal ourselves. We see the microorganisms as part of the food chain that proactively works to increase the mineral density of our food and thus we increase the brix levels of our plants and the health of our animals. In so doing, we can restore true nutritional health. It has been a pleasure compiling this and it is with respect and gratitude that I thank all those who were used in this compi`lation. Please support them directly. ~Cultural Healing and Life, JJ the Gardener. Credits Dr. Han Kyu Cho Chris Trump http://www.cgnfindia.com/index.html The School of Life Reggaeville - Natali Rize - One people Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 ~ A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation
  19. Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Inputs - Section 12 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO Korean Natural Farming How to : IMO 4 Chris Trump - Korean Natural Farming How to : IMO 4 IMO 4 Mixing should be done on the soil floor and not on concrete in a heap of this mixture not more than 20 cm in height. Mix 1 part IMO 3 to 1 parts rice bran Now mix one part IMO 3 with one part soil. 50% of the soil should be from the crop field and 50% should be from fresh new soil (mountain soil, red fine clay, etc). Mixing the soils will harmonize the imo and soils. To control moisture "best practice" using natural farming inputs. When needed, control moisture with Natural Farming inputs such as FPJ, FFJ, FAA, Lab, Sea Water. Ratio of 1:1000 dilution with diluted seawater. It is necessary to add sea water for the IMOs to work best, when they are inoculated to the soil. Keep the mixture covered for two days. The end product is called IMO- 4. HOW TO STORE IMO- 4 Moisture may be evaporated during storage. Adjust the moisture content to 65-70% by adding nutrient liquids of natural farming inputs just before using IMO-4. Application Use IMO-4 by top dressing the soil around plants and top dressing fields before planting. Chris Trump - How to apply IMO4 HOW TO UTILIZE IMOs In order to be effective, IMOs should be used in a proper manner. Use IMOs continuously. Since IMOs are used to make soil fertile and healthy, these should be collected and prepared every year. In order to bring about continued results. IMOs must be maintained in the soil. Maintain IMO diversity. Avoid being choosy in collecting microorganisms. Instead, microorganisms from different environments should be collected and mixed. It is recommended to collect IMOs from all four directions of the field. We can also collect microbes from mountain, summit, valley and trench. To obtain strong microbes obtain from areas that has distinct environmental conditions. For example, the sunny side of the field will have different IMOs from the shaded side. Altitude will also affect the variety of microorganisms at every level. To include "tough guys" into the IMO mixture, samples from the high mountains or uncontaminated regions can also be collected. Liquid IMO Chris Trump - How to Liquid IMO with Chris Trump Ingredient list for LIMO: IMO3 or Imo2 or IMO4 can also be used. FPJ 1:500 BRV 1:500 OHN 1:1000 SW 1:25 (1:20 is ok too) Humic acid 1:500 (optional) Fulvic acid 1:2000 (optional) Brown sugar 1:1500 (by volume, optional) Water (non-chlorinated) Liquid cultures of IMOs is similar to brewing a compost tea. Fill a pair of fine net bag with IMO3. Pantyhose Paint strainer bag Room temperature of around 20 degrees C and a PH between 6 and 7 is sufficient. You will then need a 250L opaque container with an air compressor. Add inputs at 0.5L Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), 2L Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ), 700-800 grams of brown sugar to 150-160L of water. Turn on air pump and and put the IMO 3 in the solution. Making IMOs and making actively aerated compost teas are similar but the main differences seem to be the source materials and the IMO fermentation process as opposed to composting. Depending on the the culture temperature the fermentation process takes between 5 and 7 days in Spring and Fall and 10 and 30 days in winter. Depending on the cultivated state the resultant mixture can smell either sweet or nasty, Sweet smell is desirable. Often a sludge will appear on the surface. This sludge is composed of microorganism corpses. This can occur when food or air is lacking in the solution. If it occurs add more air, and/or add more FPJ. Replacing the IMO in the sack every once in a while can also be beneficial. Compost removed IMO 3 Refill the tank with water while adding more food for microorganisms. The basic dilution is 1000 times, but can be as strong as 500 times depending on the need. Regular Dilute rate is 1:1000 with water when using. Using LIMO Use the same way you would a compost tea or garden tea. Foliar spray or with treat soil before planting or anytime you need to increase the biology. Additional, you can utilize chemical fertilizers and liquid IMO. Chemical fertilizer can be added to the solution. The solution can then be used 7-10 days later after the IMO has had time to act on the chemicals. Adding too much chemical fertilizer at once can stop the fermentation process. Introduce the chemical fertilizer to the tank in adequate amounts slowly. The yeast bacteria abundant in FPJ are excellent decomposers of chemical fertilizers converting them to easily absorbable mineral forms. Using chemical fertilizer in this way will greatly reduce soil degradation and the nutrients will also be better absorbed by plants. To duplicate the effect of nitrogen use ammonium sulphate or urea. To duplicate the effects of phosphorus, use superphospate or double superphospate. To duplicate the effects of calcium use quick lime. Credits Chris Trump http://www.cgnfindia.com/imos.html http://www.kswcd.org/conference/Dr Hoon Park III - Indigenous Microorganism(IMO).pdf https://rooftopecology.wordpress.com Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 ~ A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation
  20. Americans paying more in taxes than for food, clothing By Brooke SingmanPublished August 31, 2017 Fox News Source: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2017/08/31/americans-paying-more-in-taxes-than-for-food-clothing.html Americans spent more money on taxes than they did on food and clothing last year, according to data released earlier this week. In an assessment of “Consumer Expenditures” for 2016, the Bureau of Labor Statistics showed the average bill for federal, state and local taxes was $10,489. By comparison, Americans spent $9,006 on food and clothes, with most of that going toward food. CNSNews.com first pointed out the findings. While it may not come as a surprise that American households are shelling out to Uncle Sam, the data showed that bill has risen sharply in recent years -- the average tax bill rose 41 percent overall since 2013. According to the BLS, federal income taxes rose from $5,743 to $8,367 in that period. State and local income taxes rose from $1,629 to $2,046. The stats come as President Trump prepares to pressure Congress to pass tax reform. In a Missouri speech on Wednesday, he called for simplifying the system and lowering rates. "This enormous complexity is very unfair," the president said. "It disadvantages ordinary Americans who don’t have an army of accountants while benefiting deep-pocketed special interests." According to BLS, the largest expense for Americans in 2016 was on “housing,” costing an average consumer unit $18,886 during the year. Brooke Singman is a Politics Reporter for Fox News. Follow her on Twitter at @brookefoxnews.
  21. Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Inputs - Section 11 IMO 3 Cultivated Indigenous Microorganisms IMO 3 is essentially a concentrated stock of cultivated indigenous microorganisms that is then placed into a dormancy state that can be furthered processed into liquid IMO and imo 4. IMO 3 with Chris Trump Chris Trump - IMO #3 (part 1) with Chris Trump. This is a short video about the finishing/end day of IMO #3. If you using this method then this is a great little informative section on what IMO3 looks like as it finishes. By Chris Trump. Chris Trump - How to : IMO 3 (Part 2) with Chris Trump Materials for IMO 3 IMO2 Rice bran or similar media on which the microbes will grow FPJ 1:500 BRV 1:500 OHN 1:1000 SW (sea or mineral water) 1:30 Humic acid 1:500 Water (non-chlorinated) approximately 1GAL/25LB IMO 3 Method Dilute IMO-2 with water (1:1000) and mix with rice bran or flour. Use diluted natural farming inputs such as FPJ, FAA, OHN, plus some humic acid while adding water. After evenly mixing with diluted IMO-2 This process is very important and must be done on a soil floor and not on a concrete floor and in a place with good ventilation. As time passes, the temperature rises within the pile of the rice bran mixture, because it undergoes fermentation. On a dirt floor make a heap 13-15 inches (30 to 40 cm) height, and cover it with straw, straw mat or leaf litter to prevent moisture evaporation and to provide shade from direct sunlight. 70% shade and 30% light is recommended, since it creates favorable conditions for useful microbes in paddy straw, Microorganisms such as Aspergillus’s oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, etc. Be sure to press several spots with weights or soils over the straw, This is due to straw being too light to be fixed on the top of the rice bran mixture. It is best to use straw mats or straw bags (gunny bags) for covering. The moisture level can be measured by forming a rice bran ball and twisting it. If the moisture level is around 65 -70 % the ball can be easily divided into two halves. However, it is better to use the moisture meter (hygrometer) to get accurate data. When the temperature reaches 40-50 °C Turnover the rice bran mixture evenly so that the temperature does not rise further and also in order to prevent moist clusters. If the temperature is below 40 °C, The mixture may be in an anaerobic condition due to the excessive moisture. If the temperature rises up above 70 °C, Proteins may be broken down by thermophilic microbes and nutrients released into the air resulting in loss of fertilizer effect. Turn over the rice bran mixture in order to control temperature. It takes about 7 days for this process. Cultivation speed can vary depending on the outside temperature, but it usually takes 5-7 days for the surface to be covered with whitish IMO spores. When the temperature stops rising the fermentation process is finished and you have IMO3. Chris Trump - IMO #3 with Chris Trump. Natural Farming on our farm. Storing IMO 3 Keep the IMO 3 bags in shaded and cool place. Make sure that the air is well circulated by keeping IMO-3 in a ventilated container such as jute / gunny / cloth bags. Spread rice straw or leaf litter at the bottom of the container, Place in IMO-3. During storage, the IMO-3 may become dry (moisture level 20-30%) as the moisture gets evaporated. It means that the IMO had entered a state of dormancy. Pile up containers into 3 layers and shield them from direct sunlight and rain. At this point, there is no need to turn over, because of the convection currents that are created through the gaps of containers. Can be stored for 6 months to a year. Credits Chris Trump https://rooftopecology.wordpress.com http://www.cgnfindia.com/imos.html http://www.kswcd.org/conference/Dr Hoon Park III - Indigenous Microorganism(IMO).pdf The School of Life The Revivalists Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 ~ A Proud Cultural Healing and Life Compilation
  22. Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Inputs - Section 10 IMO - Cultivated Indigenous Microorganisms Natural farming is based around creating a soil environment and healthy microbiology which enables the Microorganisms to play an important role in making quality soil for growing plants. These microorganisms can also be collected and cultured. EnigmaVEVO - Enigma - Return To Innocence Microorganisms have two major functions in farming Microorganisms decompose complex organic compounds such as dead bodies of plants and animals and wastes into nutrients, making them easily absorbed by plants. They can create compounds such as antibiotic substances, enzymes and lactic acids that can suppress various diseases and promote healthy soil conditions. Act as a catalysis for natural chemical processes in the soil. IMOs are used primarily to create fertile and healthy soil condition that is ideal for farming and to prevent plant diseases. In Natural Farming, IMOs are used in treatments applied to the soil in order to improve its fertility and health. By collecting and making IMO's we can create not just healthy growing media but also heal sick land and begin to restore nature at its core. All about IMO by Chris Trump Chris Trump - All about IMO Cho Global Natural Farming(CGNF) - Dr. Hoon Park PDF - IMO from University of Hawaii Indigenous Microorganisms: Grow Your Own Beneficial Indigenous Microorganisms and Bionutrients In Natural Farming Dear Future Generations, Sorry Gabriel Greiner - Dear Future Generations, Sorry. About collecting IMO Indigenous microorganisms from the environment Natural farming promotes the use of Indigenous Microorganisms (IMOs). The microorganisms that have been living in the local area for a long time are best for farming because they are very powerful and effective. They have survived and can survive the extreme climatic conditions of the local environment much better than artificially produced microorganisms Microorganisms (microbes) may be cultured at any time of the year; however, avoid wet, rainy seasons. The collection process takes approximately 7–10 days in cooler weather (Below 68°F, 20°C) and 3–4 days under warmer conditions ( above 68°F, 20°C). Organisms that are found under the heat of the sun are largely different than those found in shaded areas such as under the bamboo trees. Dr. Cho advocates that it is better to culture microorganisms from different areas in order to collect different kinds of microorganisms. Beneficial microbes are highly concentrated under undisturbed forests or other vegetated areas. Combining microbes collected from multiple sites will likely result in a more robust culture. It is also good to culture microorganisms at different weather conditions and to mix different types of microorganisms. It will take 3 days in summer and 5 days in winter. Black molds on the steamed rice indicate that you have exceeded the number of days. The collected IMO should smell like yeast. Excellent illustration and overview of collection & making of IMO 1 and 2, the videos below are more detail. Chris Trump - How to: IMO 1 and 2 on our farm Selecting collection sites Collect from a variety of sources and areas, going higher up in elevation from the planting area. This works to ensure that you are collecting stronger microbiology. Select areas in forests and fields. Old trees Old areas of growth. Areas of good mycelium growth. Collecting from sites that are not nutritionally rich is better than high nutrient areas. This is how to collect stronger microorganisms as only the stronger microbes can survive those areas. Collect near the roots of bamboo and leaf molds from broad leaf trees and plants. Leaf molds showing white hypha. Avoid places of regular human activity. Secluded areas are best. The idea of taking from famous sites may not be an ideal location if the microbiology is not healthy and strong. Select locations for merit only. Making of a collection box Made of Wood or Bamboo is recommended, preferably made of cedar. A small wooden/bamboo box, 12 x 12 x 4 inches deep. Ensure small holes or gaps on the bottom to promote microbiology ease to rice. Collection Box Building video Guardeners of the Land - IMO box build How to: IMO 1 Chris Trump - How to: IMO 1 IMO Collection Process Fill the wooden box with 3 inches of steamed rice. Prime the rice (optional) Add 1ml of OHN and 2ml of FPJ Ensure rice is not overly wet but more not quite done or harder. Allows adequate air supply by not stuffing the rice higher than 3 inches. Excessive moisture promotes growth of fungi that are less desirable for the intended uses. Fill rice half way with rice. Cover the box with white paper towel, being careful not to let the towel touch the rice. There should be at least an inch or so of air space between the rice the paper towel. Loosely place rice in the box ensuring not to press the rice hard into the box. Without sufficient supply of air, the anaerobic IMOs will get collected. Use rubber bands around the top of the box to secure the paper towel in place. Label date and area collected. Cover the top of the box with wire screen to prevent animals from tampering with the rice. Top the wire with a sheet of clear plastic to protect the box from rain, and place it under trees or in another secluded area. The box should not be in direct sunlight or water. Cover with leaves or plastic. Mark an area 12 inches x 8 inches in the soil and make a 2 inch pit into the soil. Place the rice-filled wooden box in this pit, where IMOs abound, such as in a forest and/or field or at the site where many decomposed leaf molds are found. Cover the box with leaves. Cover the box with fallen leaves from the harvest location. Anchor the plastic sheet on all sides with small rocks to prevent it from being dislodged by wind. Leave the box undisturbed for a minimum of 4–5 days. After that time, check to see whether the moist rice is covered with white mold. It will take 3 days in hot summer and 5 days during cooler time periods. If mold growth is sparse, re-cover the box and wait an additional 2–3 days before re-checking. If the mold is a color other than white (other colors indicate growth of less effective fungi). Multi colors are normal and usable. You want to more white and grey like with spider web or cotton candy growth is ideal. Collected IMO should smell like yeast. If rain has entered the box, the contents should be discarded and the process repeated. Black molds on the steamed rice indicate that you have exceeded the number of days How to make IMO2 by Chris Trump Chris Trump - How to: IMO2 Culturing and making IMO 2 Once collected this is referred to IM01. The next step is to culture and increase the population of this collection of Indigenous Microorganisms and create IMO2. Materials to use: A clean clay pot (hard-fired, glazed, or terra cotta) A wooden spoon white paper towels rubber bands A large clear bowl, big enough to hold contents of rice mixture A small food scale A straw mat A shovel A composting thermometer Raw, granulated brown sugar is advisable, but crude and unrefined sugar (jaggery) is better. The closer the state of sugar is to nature, the better. The less process the sugar has undergone, the more effective it is. Therefore, white refined sugar is not recommended. Wheat mill run* or, if available, mushroom growth medium waste. Mixing Process Tare the scale for the mixing jar. Weigh the filled bowl and calculate the weight of the rice mass by subtracting the weight of the empty bowl from the filled bowl. Weight out equal amounts of sugar to the amount of molded rice. The use of sugar is used for osmotic pressure and not as a food source. Gradually mix 1 to 1 with sugar or Jaggery. You can mix IMO collections. Diversity is a strength in natural farming. This will put the microbes into a dormant state for later use. Hand knead and massage, not smashing hard the sugar and rice until the material has the consistency of gooey molasses. It is ok to mix in more brown sugar if the mix is too wet. If it starts to bubble you have lost quality and will not be as effective. This is from being too wet and it started to ferment. Place the mixture in jar 2/3 full. Use the wooden spoon to move the molded rice into the jar. The 1/2 air space is necessary for the process. Clean the top of the container with vinegar. Cover it with paper towel secured in place with rubber bands. Store the pot in a cool area away from direct sunlight for 7 days. This will allow the mixture to ferment. Working in a shaded area: Add a small amount of water to the fermented rice mixture in a 1:500 ratio. Then, slowly blend in wheat mill run (or used mushroom medium) until mixture is of semi-moist but not wet consistency 65–70% moisture content of the media mixture. Place a mound of the mixture on a soil surface and cover it. Use a tarp, straw mat or leaves, protecting it from sunlight. Allow the microbes to propagate for 7 days. Periodically examine the external surface of the pile for white mold growth, monitor internal temperature of the pile with a composting thermometer so as not to exceed 122°F (50°C), Turn the pile with a shovel (a minimum of three to four times during the week) to keep fermentation temperatures from getting too high. When the fermentation process is finished, internal temperature will stabilize, indicating cultivation is complete and ready to use. Application and use This biological soil amendment is expected to enhance soil microorganism activity. This is a concentrated inoculate. Dilute the final product (1 to 1 by volume) with soil and incorporate this mixture into the surface soil as a topdressing for crop production, Add it to your compost pile. Further processing into into IMO3. Congratulations for learning about IMO 1 & 2 Credits EnigmaVEVO Chris Trump Guardeners of the Land Gabriel Greiner Cho Global Natural Farming(CGNF) University of Hawaii Gil A. Carandang Herbana Farms Burol, Calamba City Laguna, Philippines Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 ~ A Proud Cultural Healing and Life Compilation
  23. Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Inputs - Section 9 S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment Reggaeville - Sistah Awa - Roots and Culture About S.E.S. By utilizing vinegar, OHN and FPJ at the right ratios and soaking for effective periods of time based on seed size and germination period (short, medium and long) the natural farming input seed and seedling treatment (SES) will work to ensure that planted seeds and transplanted trees and bushes start off with strong vigor and a healthy start. This solution is extremely powerful. The difference in seed shape as well as root development and in leaf thickness is easily visible. Chris Trump video on S.E.S. Chris Trump - How To: Seed Treatment Solution S.E.S. Materials Vinegar Brown rice vinegar or apple cider vinegar is typical but any fermented vinegar can be used. Helps break up the cotyledon FPJ Is used to add heath and vigor. OHN Is used for good redevelopment and pest resistance. Water A mineral rich water is ideal or a diluted seawater. Regular water without chlorine is fine. Instruction for making SES. Mix together the vinegar and FPJ with water at a dilution of 1 to 500. Mix OHN with water at a rate of 1 to 1000. The dilution rate is weaker than vinegar and FPJ. If you have year old OHN dilute a bit more as OHN strengthens over time. Once mixed, you can store SES in a sealed jar until ready to use. Store out of direct sunlight. Instruction for seeds Soak seeds by size and time of germination. Seeds which germinate quickly (turnip, chinese cabbage, bean) should be soaked for 10 minutes to two hours; Seeds which germinate more slowly (cucumber, melon, squash, lotus) should be soaked for 20 minutes to four hours. Seeds which germinate very slowly (rice, barley, tomato) should be soaked for 30 minutes to 7 hours. A half to one hour is sufficient for potatoes, ginger, taro and garlic. Plant the seeds while wet and do not allow to dry. Instruction for Seedlings and potted plants. In 3 liters of water mix 2 tablespoons of vinegar, 2 tablespoons of FPJ and 2 tablespoons of OHN. OHN is higher as the plants are seedlings or established plants rather than seed. Before transplanting seedlings do not water for 2 days. Remove dirt by gently shaking, try not to damage the roots. You can also rinse the soil off from roots. Tree transplants, remove any dirt. Can use water to rings soil away. Allow roots to dry two days. This ensures the plant will strongly uptake the SES solution. Soak for desired time. Put in a container and soak the seedlings for 15 seconds. Immediately transplant the seedlings. The seeds will develop thick cotyledons making it immune to worms. They will also have good root development making them resistant to diseases. Foliar spray the remaining mixture on plants after they are transplanted. Credits Chris Trump https://rooftopecology.wordpress.com http://www.cgnfindia.com/index.html The School of Life Reggaeville - Sistah Awa Congratulations for learning about S.E.S. Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation
  24. Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Inputs - Section 8 - FAA - Fish Amino Acids The Fish Amino Acid (FAA) is a liquid made from fish and used largely in the vegetative state. FAA is of great value to both plants and microorganisms in their growth, because it contains and abundant amount of nutrients and various types of amino acids (will constitute a source of nitrogen (N) for plants). FAA is used in conjunction with other Natural Farming inputs and applied as either a light foliar mist or a soil drench to maximize uptake and minimize runoff or leaching, providing just enough N to the plant for optimum uptake and the production of chlorophyll to maintain plant health. PDF - University of Hawaii Video of Fish Amino Acid FAA Recipe Drake - CGNF Fish Amino Acid FAA recipe FAA video with great information Hybrid Agri - Hybrid Tutorial: How To Make FAA Fish Amino Acids for Organic Gardening Materials Fish trash (head, bone, intestine, etc.) Jagerry / Brown sugar / Molasses can be used. IMO-3 (for smell and to help dissolve fish fats) LAB (optional, for smell and to help dissolve fish fats) Mosquito net Rubber band / thread Clay pot / plastic jar (PE container) or glass jar Instructions Cut fish into pieces and put in a clay pot or plastic jar. Do not use hands. The smaller the pieces the easier it is to dissolve. All parts of fish are usable, tails, gills, guts, eggs, fins, heads, bones. Blue backed fish are best such as mackerels, sardines, skipjack tuna and similar. Place a layer of large rocks at the bottom to provide aeration, minor minerals, and an area where the liquids will collect during the fermentation process. Add Jagerry of an equal amount (1:1 weight ratio). Molasses can also be used. Fill the jar up to 2/3 of its volume. Add 2 to 3 tea spoons of IMO-4, and LAB to dissolve the fat. This will prevent a smell. Add a little OHN. Do not leave any fish exposed above the sugar. Cover the opening of jar with a breathable cover. After approximately 3 to 5 days, the fish waste will begin to break down and liquefy through fermentation and the osmotic pressure generated by the addition of brown sugar. However, the process takes 2 to 6 months to produce mature FAA that is ready to use. FAA, when completely fermented, will have a sweet, slightly fishy odor Big bubbles are indicative of a weak enzyme reaction. Small bubbles are indicative of a strong enzyme reaction. Drain and extract the solution. After small bubbles have stopped Bottle and store. Leave lid loose for two weeks as to prevent pressure build up and a sticky explosion. Store in a cool dry place out of direct sunlight. The remaining solids can be used to make IMO#5 or composted. Tips and use FAA is rich with nitrogen. It is good fertilizer for applying both to soil and foliage since it enhances the growth of crops during their vegetative growth period when used with other Natural Farming Materials. When making IMO or mixed compost apply the FAA after diluting it with water 1:1000 ratio. Then the FAA will help activate the micro organisms. For leafy vegetable, it is possible to use FAA continuously to increase yield and improve taste and fragrance. For leafy vegetables, spray weekly to improve yields, fragrance, and taste. Avoid spray applications during full sunlight hours to prevent foliar burning and evaporation of the solution before the plant has had a chance to absorb it. Do not use FAA during the reproductive growth stage as it may induce over growth and extend harvest dates. Put the bones left over from creating FAA into the brown rice vinegar (BRV). The bones will decompose and produce a quality water-soluble calcium phosphate. Blue, back color fishes will make ideal FAA as they have high amounts of amino acid). Mackerel FAA is very effective in getting rid of mites and the green house whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Dilute FAA with water and spray it on both sides of the leaf. Do not use after the vegetative stage. The effects of FAA are more observable when mixed with a pinch of urea. Study on rice grown with Natural Farming Fish Amino Acids. Drake - ISNSF16 - Rice Growth w/ Fish Amino Acid - Julius Sugue Congrats for learning about FAA! Credits Drake Hybrid Agri https://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/ Julius Sugue http://www.cgnfindia.com Monty Python The School of Life Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 ~ A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation
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