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This section will be updated with links to applicable sections when completed. Plant Physiology & Nutrition Transport Plant Development (seed to fruit) Plant Nutrition (NPK) Plant Management Plant Deficiencies, Disease & Pest Click for a video on learning. Plant Physiology & Nutritional Transportation Fundamental Gardening Knowledge Pre-Introduction As I began to learn this information it had an effect I did not count on. It applied to my health as well and as I learned and began to appreciate more about plant nutrition I got much better at human nutrition. In this way we grow each other and goes to examples of how plants farm and manage us. By learning about plant nutrition it has enabled me to understand and appreciate how bad my personal diet was and what that diet did and did not do for me. I was consuming an average diet in regular society and thus nutrition should not of been a cause of concern. As a result of this diet I suffered the typical afflictions associated with such a "normal" diet that the medical community was willing to offer a wide variety of pharmaceutical solutions except for explaining nutrition, diet and simply instructed to check out the internet for such questions. Well profits skew that way of thinking and a grey area has been created and we end up with socially acceptable foods that actually harm us as honesty about the frequency of those foods would potentially be damning to foods in question. All things competent those foods really should not be so easily accepted, except for the fact someone makes money off it, so it is ok. I hope these words reach, for those it does it can help far more than just with growing a healthy garden but also a healthy you in many more ways than we tend to think when looking about plant nutrition. We are actually talking about living nutrition as it applies in general to most thing. I shared the above with you with the idea that learning this can potentially help others how it helped me in more ways than one. I will now discuss only plant physiology and plant nutrition from here and apologize if the above is unwelcome herein. Plant Physiology Introduction The following information can be complex and confusing. It is more important that you understand the basics and the follow up sections will be far less complex as we get into the growth aspects. Please do your best to understand the basics of this information. If I can help better explain a confusing subject please let me know and we will find solutions as I am able. Before we can learn how nutrition helps a plant we need to understand how the plant grows and functions throughout its various stages. In knowing this we can better apply other management practices as to optimally garden. Plant physiology is the basis for which the rest of the information will be based on. We will start by discussing the basic plant structure in terms of energy production and nutritional transportation system of a plant. It will help if you understand a bit of thermodynamics and kinetics but this is for more advanced understandings. As we progress to the nutritional segments of these lessons we will discuss the different varieties of plant foods from organics to salts and their qualities, their benefits, their negatives, how to use, why to use and when to use. In so doing you will be able to gain knowledge on how to evaluate the many fertilizer options and select from a learn-id position rather than a marketed direction. This is a compilation of information from a variety of sources with the intention of effective instruction. I have tried to give all credit for materials used. Any error is just that, an error and is unintentional and once brought to attention will be correct as appropriate. This is a not a money/profit generating enterprise. Plant Tissue Types & Structure Dermal - Epidermis, Periderm = Prevents loss of water and protects the plant like a skin. Ground - Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Schlerenchyma = Metabolism, Storage & Support. Vascular - Xylem, Phloem = Transport water and sugar. Plant Environments (Roots & Shoots) We often think of the plant environment as one thing but it is really two different environments. Above and below the ground and is referred to as "roots' and "shoots." By understanding these environments and how it affects plant biology we can better understand how nutrition affects the plant and can begin to better understand how to manage a plant in various stages and environments for optimal growth. Ground (Roots) Environment This is the area of the roots and media layer. Regardless if hydroponic or soil based it is considered ground or roots. In following sections we will discuss the different aspects of hydroponic and soil based system medias but for this specific lesson we will consider it one medium type of simply "ground" or "roots" when referencing this area of the plant. This is the area where plants store energy, the roots. Roots transportation process: Water/Salts/Oxygen > Root hairs > Xylem > Leafs > Evaporate > Pressure moves water up each evaporation like a chain. Water/salts move upward via pressure controlled in part by osmotic pressure via water evaporation humidity and temperature. Notice that oxygen is taken up by the roots. This Oxygen is used in cell respiration, discussed later. This is a key reason why it is important for good drainage for the type of plant you are gardening/landscaping. Type of roots Root Examples Monocot root illustration Tap root - Dicot plants & ferns. Is the main root and will sprout other roots laterally. Anchors the plant Can grow deep in search of water and begin to break up lower harder soil layers and initiate the tapping of lower minerals within the lower soil column. Fibrous roots - Monocot & cloned plants. Fine roots that extend from the main stem of the plant. Trees 30–50 m tall has a root system that extends horizontally in all directions as far as the tree is tall or more, but around 95% of the roots are in the top 50 cm depth of soil. Plants can be managed to be better drought resistant by training the plants to dig deeper before it makes fibrous roots as to increase the depth of the roots at the top of the media column. This is only effect if water is accessible via water table, in low water areas this may or may not be as effective depending on the plant type. Parallel venation plants have fibrous roots. Reticulated venation seed plants have tap roots. Adventitious roots (clones and stress roots) Adventitious roots (clones and stress roots) are plant roots that form from any non-root tissue and are produced both during normal development and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. We will discuss the rooting due to stress aspect in more depth in a future writing. All plant cells have the DNA to create a cloned plant besides the root. Can be induced by ECMs or Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Bacteria that transfer DNA to plant and create root hairs, used in study and in instances as managing for drought resistence.) Age‐dependent process. Auxin cross talks with other hormones to control adventitious rooting. Adventitious rooting is a complex quantitative genetic trait. Unstressed and stressed roots via flooding illustrations Adventitious root development in response to flooding. Under aerated conditions, gaseous ethylene escapes from plant tissues, but during flooding, water acts as a physical barrier, trapping ethylene in the plant. Gibberellic Acid or GA enhances the ethylene-promoted adventitious root growth, Abscisic acid reduces the effect. Ethylene triggers reactive oxygen species production, and together they trigger epidermal programmed cell death for root emergence and cortical programmed cell death lysigenous aerenchyma formation. The main difference in some eudicots (e.g. tomato) is the requirement for de novo adventitious root initiation via auxin and ethylene signaling. In the cross section, epidermis and exodermis are combined, but the exodermis can be several cell layers adjacent to the epidermis. Yellow roots are adventitious roots, (diagram above) blue and pink roots are lateral roots, (diagram above) and white roots are primary roots. (diagram above) Pointed arrows represent positive interactions, and flat-ended arrows represent negative interactions. (diagram above) Adventitious root emergence Physical Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjFaU87t6M2d3xPH8m30goQ Clones I discuss cloning a bit but will cover this topic in more practical detail in following writings. This compiled section is intended to instill an understanding of the internal processes during a typical cloning process. Regardless of cloning method this information is valid. To create clones of plants a chemical imbalance must occur. This can be created in various ways but in this instance we will discuss traditional cloning. While the method of cloning may vary the chemical process is similar in rooting and the type of roots being created for the plants. The figure below will help illustrate this process well. By understanding this process you will begin the basis of learning how to create the type of roots you desire in a "best practice" or "optimized" process. The graph above and below explanation from http://www.plantphysiol.org Pointed arrows represent positive interactions, and flat-ended arrows represent negative interactions. Yellow roots are adventitious roots, the white root is a primary roots, and blue roots are lateral roots. Below explains the illustration above. Adventitious root formation on cuttings. In intact plants, cytokinin and strigolactones are predominantly produced in the root Auxin is predominantly produced in the shoot. On wounding, jasmonic acid peaks within 30 min and is required for successful root development. Reactive oxygen species, polyphenols, and hydrogen sulfide also increase and promote adventitious rooting. Polyphenols do this via reducing auxin degradation. Auxin builds up in the base of the cutting, acting upstream of nitric oxide to promote adventitious root initiation. Auxin, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increase soluble sugars, which can be used for root development. The cloning act removes the original root system and thus levels of cytokinin and strigolactone (they inhibit root growth) are reduced removing this natural counter too root growth in a normal plant. At later stages, Auxin inhibits primordia elongation (reduced shoot growth) while ethylene promotes adventitious root emergence. As the new root system establishes, The production of cytokinin and strigolactones is restored and the plant will begin to function normally. General Cloning information Staminate (male) plants have higher average levels of carbohydrates than pistillate (female) plants, while pistillate plants have higher nitrogen levels. Almost all plant cells contain the DNA and "capability" to create a whole plant. (Clone and petri-dish) Not all plant species and phenotypes clone equally. Selection of rooting material is important. Selected that have finished growing up and start growing to the sides or radial growth.Younger, firm, vegetative shoots, Top of the plant is not ideal. the secondary tops or crown of a plant is ideal. Cuttings of relatively young vegetative limbs 10 to 45 centimeters or 4 to 18 inches and are made with a razor blade and immediately placed in a container of pure water so the cut ends are covered to prevent an embolism (air bubble). 3 to 7 millimeters (1/8 to 1/4 inch) in diameter. The medium should be warm and moist before cuttings are removed from the parent plant. Feed rooting cloning parental plants, a balance of low nitrogen to high carbohydrate is desired and achieved in several ways. Higher carbohydrate to Nitrogen is ideal. Iodine and Starch test. (video below) Highly impractical and unnecessary for most growers but I put in this writing for information and for the curious and those who are optimizing in their growing methods and systems for "best practice" with specific/known plants or crops. Reduce nitrogen and allow for carbohydrates to build up. Crowded roots will increase carbon due to competition for the nitrogen in medias. The carbohydrate to nitrogen ratio rises the farther distance between the tip of the limb, Cuttings are not made too long. Etiolation Etiolation is a condition caused by the growth of plants in the absence of light. It is characterized by a pale yellow coloring, sparse leaves, and weak, elongated stems. The stems of a plant grown in darkness grow longer and thinner in order to reach a potential light source. Its stems will also grow faster than those of a plant exposed to adequate sunlight. Since leaves grow at the internodes of a plant's stems, a plant suffering from etiolation will have less leaves than a normal plant. Chloroplasts that have never been exposed to light remain immature and non-pigmented and are known as etioplasts. When a plant suffering from etiolation is exposed to sunlight, a process known as de-etiolation occurs. In de-etiolation, a plant begins producing chloroplasts, becomes greener in color, and produces fuller and more plentiful leaves. Over time, the internodes of the stem will become a normal length. Inhibiting rooting factors Woody Stems. High nitrogen in parent plant. High nitrogen in clone leaves. Iodine Starch Test Ibn Sahlan - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwMOknYVLikEwhODDSlEhiQ Cloning 101 Everest Fernandez - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC65Wtjuej_YyOOxg4PC-uhA Root growth in time lapse Gregor Skoberne https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCnDrhu5DCQpD1VB3I3bVJJQ Root growth of transformed Cichorium Intybus grown in a medium. Corn roots in time lapse MicropolitanMuseum https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGFFFsNZoZahwQ8UPFIWhFA Time lapse fast growing corn, roots and leaves growing Mindlapse - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEPvisw_QQ_anAwxdklxm1Q Union Break! Air (Shoots) Environment Shoots, is the above ground parts of the plants. We will discuss plant cell structure and nutritional transportation within the plants. This is the area where the plant energy is made. Some of the videos will repeat similar information but they all offer extra bits of information that all combined offer a higher benefit. In addition, if one video style is not effective in understanding than the virtual reality video/app may be more effective in illustrating for you. Plant Cell Structure Crayonbox - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9Kk19SMbIuqcNI4lew96kA Plant cells are more complicated and exciting than you might think! This video shows you the structure of the plant cell. Sam introduces you to the cell organelles and their functions. You learn about cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus and nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, vacuole, chloroplasts, and mitochondrion. Sam explains how proteins are produced inside the cell. The NAMOO app features beautiful encyclopedia-inspired interactive simulations you can use to learn about plants. Plant science is fun! Download your NAMOO and play with roots, stems, flowers, and other plant parts! Virtual tour of a plant cell This is a virtual tour of a plant cell you can control by the upper right toggle on the screen of the video. If your computer is strong enough you can enlarge to full screen (may need to go to youtube site, double click video and it will show link on bottom right of video). This is a great tool for understanding plant cells and photosynthesis. Plant Energy Biology Leaf Anatomy Upper epidermis is a single layer of cells containing few or no chloroplasts. The cells are quite transparent and permit most of the light that strikes them to pass through to the underlying cells. The upper surface is covered with a waxy, waterproof cuticle, which serves to reduce water loss from the leaf. Epidermal cells are on the upper and lower surfaces of a leaf. The epidermis usually consists of a single layer of cells., Some specialized leaves of some desert plants and in cold environment plants can have epidermal layers which are several cells thick. Cuticle - Waxy layer that prevent water loss within the leaf. Plants that live in water do not have a cuticle, waxy layer. They have two features which prevent evaporative water loss: they are packed densely together and they are covered by a cuticle, a waxy layer secreted by the cells. Flavonoid pigments are contained in large vacuoles inside the epidermal cells. Flavonoids absorbs ultraviolet radiation, Similar to a sunscreen or tanning lotion for internal layers of the leaf, by filtering out harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. Palisade layer consists of one or more layers of cylindrical cells oriented with their long axis perpendicular to the plane of the leaf. The cells are filled with chloroplasts (usually several dozen of them) and carry on most of the photosynthesis within the leaf. Palisade cell layer at top of leaf - To absorb more light Palisade cells contain many chloroplasts to absorb all the available light. Spongy layer beneath the palisade layer, its cells are irregular in shape and loosely packed. Although they contain a few chloroplasts, their main function seems to be the temporary storage of sugars and amino acids that were synthesized in the palisade layer above the spongy layer of the leaf. They also aid in the exchange of gases between the leaf and the environment. During the day, these cells give off oxygen and water vapor to the air spaces that surround them. They also pick up carbon dioxide from the air spaces. The air spaces are interconnected and eventually open to the outside through pores called stomata. Collectively, the palisade and spongy layers make up the mesophyll. A single vascular bundle, no matter how large or small, always contains both xylem and phloem tissues. xylem - Consists of tracheids and vessels that transport water and minerals to the leaves. Phloem - Transports the photosynthetic products from the leaf to the other parts of the plant. Lower epidermis contains most of the stomata (thousands per square centimeter) which are located in the lower epidermis. Although most of the cells of the lower epidermis resemble those of the upper epidermis, each stoma is flanked by two sausage-shaped cells called guard cells. These differ from the other cells of the lower epidermis not only in their shape but also in having chloroplasts. . Stomata Open in light and closed during night. Transpiration is when the plants intakes carbon dioxide, releases via evaporation water and oxygen. More plentiful on the underside of the leaves but are all over the leaf. Approximately 95% of water in the plant transportation system is lost due to transpiration. Water evaporation from stomata as part of the osmatic pressure system. Guard cells when open accumulate potassium salts, causing an osmotic pressure that uptakes water. Guard cells control the open and close stomata function and is influenced largely by the environment (light, temperature and humidity) and results in osmotic pressure. Guard cells can detect blue light and varied levels of CO2 (carbon dioxide). Guard cells are the only epidermal cells to contain chloroplasts. Some chloroplasts are found in the cells of young stems and immature fruits but do not play a large role in photosynthesis. During drought stress guard cells release abscisic acid. It inhibits plant cell growth and is is in part responsible for fruit drop, leaf death and seed dormancy. and helps plants respond to water loss and seasonal changes. Its effects can be reversed with gibberellins. Abscisic acid is a hormone that will trigger dormancy. Often growers tend to think of dry soil negatives as reducing media microbe and fungal life, concentrating salts but few know or appreciate the abscisic effect on plants as only by knowing plant physiology will one tend to appreciate this outside of experience in the field with drought conditions. Do not allow young plants to dry out in their media unless that is part of that natural environment for your plant. Example of cactus. I have also added trichomes as they are part of some plants more than others in significance. However, this is not part of plant physiology and I will discuss more on this subject in future compilations. Trichomes - Help to avert being eaten or invaded by some pests by restricting insect movements and/or by storing toxic or bad-tasting compounds. The rate of transpiration can be reduced due to a reduction in air flow across the leaf surface. Leaf Anatomy graphic illustrations Plant Biology with NAMOO: Leaf Anatomy - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9Kk19SMbIuqcNI4lew96kA Leaves are beautiful and industrial. Located within every leaf is a fully functional food factory. This production process is called photosynthesis. Sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide are used to produce glucose (food!) and oxygen. Leaf Types - Monocot & Dicot Monocots vs Dicots Explained It is really easy to determine a monocot and a dicot. However, first, it is important to understand that monocots and dicots actually represent the two main branches of flowering plants. That means that almost all flowering plants can be divided into one of these two groups. Of course, the key word is almost all. There are some that don't fit into the two groups all that well. The five main characters I like to use are Leaves, Roots, Stems, Cotyledons, and Flowers. For a more detailed description, visit our page at http://www.untamedscience.com/biology... Watermelon Plant Time Lapse Learjet15 - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCv5UDsFrvS1Mh838rVJuJSw The video below explains more of the plant structure. This is a good video to gain an appreciation of a plant structure as it is in that knowledge that can better not just understand the structure but how nutrition plays its role in building the structure. By understanding a plants development at the various stages of growth nutrition can be accurately adjusted optimally for the development of the plant. In short, this knowledge will help you speak plant. Plant Structure Video Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains the major plants structures. He starts with a brief discussion of monocot and dicot plants. He then describes the three main tissues in plants; dermal, ground and vascular. He also describes the plant cells within each of these tissues; epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerencyma, xylem and phloem. He describes both primary and secondary growth in plants. He finishes the podcast with a discussion of double fertilization in plants. Plant Nutrition and Transport Since many people will already understand plant structure I have added that section below even though it would be more appropriate before this section. However, their is very good information in the plant structure section I recommend watching the videos. Very few people will not learn something from the videos to the writings (compilation). Regardless of water and nutrition, a plants transport system depends on a correct growing environment in terms of temperature and humidity as this directly affects the internal and external functions of the plant system. Basic Plant Nutrition - We often think of plant nutrition and NPK but this is not wholly correct at the cellular level as far as the plant cares about specifics. For example, we need protein, be it from meat or milk all things correct we can utilize protein in that form. Our body only cares it has a protein. Generically stated for illustration. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, Oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur. We will discuss plant nutrition in all its details in later sections but for the intention of understanding how a plant internally functions in transporting and in creating energy the above will be the main subject of plant nutrition within this specific section. Union Break! ~Have a laugh with Rodney. I did, thanks Rodney! The Video below illustrates with excellent visuals/graphics and explains above and nutritional transportation. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCCmNq4uCgWjpvoTpbphih3g - Transcript is available at youtube site, select more and transcripts under the video. All organisms require food and water for their survival. Transportation is the process of transporting water,food and minerals to the different parts of the plant body. Xylem, transports water from the roots to all parts of the plant through root hairs. Raw materials such as carbon dioxide, water and other minerals are used to prepare food in the presence of sunlight through photosynthesis.This food is then transported to all parts of the plant by the Phloem. Below you will find a video that will explain in an easy to understand format what the plant needs nutritionally and how it transports nutrition and utilizes it. While it may seem a bit a redundant the videos compliment each other and together equal a quality lesson. The top video has superior visuals but the bottom has more information and is an effective illustrative video as well. Paul Andersen explains how nutrients and water are transported in plants. He begins with a brief discussion of what nutrients are required by plants and where they get them. He shows you dermal, vascular and ground tissue in monocot and dicot roots, stems and leaves. He then explains how water is pulled up a tree in xylem and how sugar is pushed in a plant through phloem. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains how nutrients and water are transported in plants. He begins with a brief discussion of what nutrients are required by plants and where they get them. He shows you dermal, vascular and ground tissue in monocot and dicot roots, stems and leaves. He then explains how water is pulled up a tree in xylem and how sugar is pushed in a plant through phloem. Oxygenic Photosynthesis & its equation During oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy transfers electrons from water (H2O) to carbon dioxide (CO2), which produces carbohydrates. In this transfer, the CO2 is "reduced," or receives electrons, and the water becomes "oxidized," or loses electrons. Ultimately, oxygen is produced along with carbohydrates. Oxygenic photosynthesis functions as a counterbalance to respiration as it intakes carbon dioxide it reintroduces oxygen into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide exhale by many living things and oxygen released by the oxygenic photosynthesis process. Their are other types of photosynthesis and other energy generation but we are mainly going to discuss oxygenic photosynthesis in plants. Light-dependent reactions (also called light reactions): Light photons contacts the reaction center a chlorophyll pigment releases an electron. The electron in the chlorophyll makes an electron hole and the electron wants to escape and is released via an "electron transport chain" which generates the energy to make ATP "adenosine triphosphate" which is energy and NADPH. The electron hole in the chlorophyll pigment is filled from electron from water and oxygen is then released into the atmosphere via the stomata. Photosynthesis Equation In photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the form of glucose (sugar). Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are used to produce glucose, oxygen, and water. The chemical equation for this process is: 6CO2 + 12H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Six molecules of carbon dioxide (6CO2) and twelve molecules of water (12H2O) are consumed in the process, while glucose (C6H12O6), six molecules of oxygen (6O2), and six molecules of water (6H2O) are produced. This equation may be simplified as: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2. Photosynthesis video that better illustrates and effectively teaches the above and more. Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains the process of photosynthesis by which plants and algae can convert carbon dioxide into usable sugar. He begins with a brief description of the chloroplast. He describes the major pigments in a plant (like chlorophyll a and b). He then describes both the light reaction and the Calvin cycle. He finishes with a discussion of photorespiration and strategies for avoiding this problem evolved in CAM and C4 plants. Cellular Respiration I know we think of plants and us as very different as they use photosynthesis but we both use cell respiration very similarly and few actually understand nor appreciate that understanding but it is important to understand this aspect as when it comes to evaluating various traits of plants this information is vital if you understand how to "see" it and "use" it. By understanding this we can better acclimate a growing environment for optimal levels for specific plants in greenhouses and indoor gardens based on observations and adjustments of your plants and not following a generic guide. By learning to identify plants that have strong photosynthesis and cellular respiration rates in selecting genetics for clones or breeding is often an desirable but under looked trait. The video below further explains photosynthesis and respiration and discusses how photosynthesis played a role in early life on the planet. For many this video may seem a bit much and that is ok. It is mainly listed for those who want more information and understanding with more details. He also explains different versions of energy creation but is not a large portion. I highly recommend this video but for your average gardener this information is overly technical for that need. The plant cell video prior in this thread is similar however there is additional information when viewing both lessons. Paul Andersen details the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in this video on free energy capture and storage. Autotrophs use the light reactions and the Calvin cycle to convert energy from the Sun into sugars. Autotrophs and heterotrophs use cellular respiration to convert this sugar into ATP. Both chemosynthesis and fermentation are discussed. The evolution of photosynthesis is also discussed. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla... I post the translate request even though the posting is old, the link is still good as of the time of this compilation. The following video explains processes of cellular respiration in an easy to understand lesson. Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen covers the processes of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. He starts with a brief description of the two processes. He then describes the important parts of the mitochondria. He explains how energy is transferred to ATP through the processes of glycolysis, the Kreb cycle and the Electron Transport Chain. He also explains how organisms use both lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. Summary The knowledge base of plant physiology is currently growing at fast rate. As such each year they are learning more and more about the physiology of plants and some of these are not listed above as science has not yet determined what those functions truly are or what they are doing outside just learning they exist. As a result, the older this work is, it might need a revision or update depending on the extent new knowledge that will be learned as science as whole learns more. This is compiled January 2017 You should now have a working understanding of plant physiology and if you understand how environment and basic nutrition plays a role. You use this information and apply it to your garden. By utilizing all this information you can grow your plants to "best practice" as is possible for your growing areas limitations. Often we go to stores and see a massive variety of fertilizers with all kinds of claims and fancy graphics and names. Few people can see past the advertising as it is the advertisers and/or other equally untrained to moderately skilled gardeners who teach most home gardeners, outside of a family/friend dynamic with access to experienced gardeners. Many gardeners are at a knowledge disadvantage. This information is compiled in part as an attempt to answer this issue by working to instill fundamental knowledge so that home gardeners can learn what is gimmick and what is a good product and how to use it properly for their crops. A benefit of these lessons if learned is freedom from false advertising as you will not be easily fooled as knowledge can work to prevent emotional and impulse sales based on "adjective" sales tactics. By understanding plant physiology you understand how plants transport nutrition and create energy. This knowledge base will serve you well in future management practices as you can better attune your environment, nutrition and management to optimize your specific crop. This is more desirable in high value crops. By optimizing the plants ability to transport nutrients and generate energy you can begin to obtain the plants potential. However, by allowing negative factors to act against early plant physiology during its early growth stages can have significant limiting factors that the plant cannot fully recover from and thus the plant will not obtain its potential no matter the betterment after the shock. Plant Physiology in breeding, generically you first want to select plants that illustrate early strong plant physiology traits from roots to leaf health and vigor. Often in plant breeding plants will be selected for other traits and not consider plant physiology traits as they should, often taking this aspect for granted. This is in part a reason why some plants seeds offered for sale are not good at rooting equally from a package of seeds. These seeds were potentially not correctly bred for optimum plant physiology. However, most amateur seed makers may not understand and/or appreciate this aspect. In the following sections we will discuss plant development from roots to fruit and discuss the nutritional and environmental aspects for typical garden variety plants. If this work has helped you, please share what you learn with others. It is in that energy that this has come to you and I thank you for your time. ~Hempyfan. Congratulations for finishing Plant Physiology. Advanced Section for those who need more! If you would like to learn more on Plant Physiology I highly recommend: BIOPL3420 - Plant Physiology - Video Lecture/Class 28 videos long - Thomas Owens - Cornell University Plant Physiology Taiz and Zeiger - https://ia802504.us.archive.org/16/items/PlantPhysiologyTaizZeiger1/Plant_Physiology_(Taiz_&_Zeiger).pdf Click to go to video series Credits and appreciation: ~ I sincerely respect and thank them. The Science Media Production Center at Cornell - https://www.youtube.com/user/CornellTL/about Plant Physiology Taiz and Zeiger - https://ia802504.us.archive.org/16/items/PlantPhysiologyTaizZeiger1/Plant_Physiology_(Taiz_&_Zeiger).pdf https://www.scribd.com/ http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0002075.html http://www.askiitians.com/revision-notes/biology/ Bozeman Science:https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw http://biology.about.com/od/plantbiology/a/aa050605a.htm http://www.livescience.com/51720-photosynthesis.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/differences-and-similarities-between-chemosynthesis-and-photosynthesis.html One Drop Forward - https://www.youtube.com/user/onedropforward/videos Plant Energy Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEIGuXCAGkkHgAZP9LWbXgA http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0002061.html http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/170/2/603.full#sec-13 Everest Fernandez - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC65Wtjuej_YyOOxg4PC-uhA Freesciencelessons - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCqbOeHaAUXw9Il7sBVG3_bw Physical Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjFaU87t6M2d3xPH8m30goQ ~A Proud Cultural Healing and Life Compilation. FIN