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This section will be updated with links to applicable sections when completed. Plant Physiology & Nutrition Transport Plant Development (seed to fruit) Plant Nutrition (NPK) Plant Management Plant Deficiencies, Disease & Pest Click for a video on learning. Plant Physiology & Nutritional Transportation Fundamental Gardening Knowledge Pre-Introduction As I began to learn this information it had an effect I did not count on. It applied to my health as well and as I learned and began to appreciate more about plant nutrition I got much better at human nutrition. In this way we grow each other and goes to examples of how plants farm and manage us. By learning about plant nutrition it has enabled me to understand and appreciate how bad my personal diet was and what that diet did and did not do for me. I was consuming an average diet in regular society and thus nutrition should not of been a cause of concern. As a result of this diet I suffered the typical afflictions associated with such a "normal" diet that the medical community was willing to offer a wide variety of pharmaceutical solutions except for explaining nutrition, diet and simply instructed to check out the internet for such questions. Well profits skew that way of thinking and a grey area has been created and we end up with socially acceptable foods that actually harm us as honesty about the frequency of those foods would potentially be damning to foods in question. All things competent those foods really should not be so easily accepted, except for the fact someone makes money off it, so it is ok. I hope these words reach, for those it does it can help far more than just with growing a healthy garden but also a healthy you in many more ways than we tend to think when looking about plant nutrition. We are actually talking about living nutrition as it applies in general to most thing. I shared the above with you with the idea that learning this can potentially help others how it helped me in more ways than one. I will now discuss only plant physiology and plant nutrition from here and apologize if the above is unwelcome herein. Plant Physiology Introduction The following information can be complex and confusing. It is more important that you understand the basics and the follow up sections will be far less complex as we get into the growth aspects. Please do your best to understand the basics of this information. If I can help better explain a confusing subject please let me know and we will find solutions as I am able. Before we can learn how nutrition helps a plant we need to understand how the plant grows and functions throughout its various stages. In knowing this we can better apply other management practices as to optimally garden. Plant physiology is the basis for which the rest of the information will be based on. We will start by discussing the basic plant structure in terms of energy production and nutritional transportation system of a plant. It will help if you understand a bit of thermodynamics and kinetics but this is for more advanced understandings. As we progress to the nutritional segments of these lessons we will discuss the different varieties of plant foods from organics to salts and their qualities, their benefits, their negatives, how to use, why to use and when to use. In so doing you will be able to gain knowledge on how to evaluate the many fertilizer options and select from a learn-id position rather than a marketed direction. This is a compilation of information from a variety of sources with the intention of effective instruction. I have tried to give all credit for materials used. Any error is just that, an error and is unintentional and once brought to attention will be correct as appropriate. This is a not a money/profit generating enterprise. Plant Tissue Types & Structure Dermal - Epidermis, Periderm = Prevents loss of water and protects the plant like a skin. Ground - Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Schlerenchyma = Metabolism, Storage & Support. Vascular - Xylem, Phloem = Transport water and sugar. Plant Environments (Roots & Shoots) We often think of the plant environment as one thing but it is really two different environments. Above and below the ground and is referred to as "roots' and "shoots." By understanding these environments and how it affects plant biology we can better understand how nutrition affects the plant and can begin to better understand how to manage a plant in various stages and environments for optimal growth. Ground (Roots) Environment This is the area of the roots and media layer. Regardless if hydroponic or soil based it is considered ground or roots. In following sections we will discuss the different aspects of hydroponic and soil based system medias but for this specific lesson we will consider it one medium type of simply "ground" or "roots" when referencing this area of the plant. This is the area where plants store energy, the roots. Roots transportation process: Water/Salts/Oxygen > Root hairs > Xylem > Leafs > Evaporate > Pressure moves water up each evaporation like a chain. Water/salts move upward via pressure controlled in part by osmotic pressure via water evaporation humidity and temperature. Notice that oxygen is taken up by the roots. This Oxygen is used in cell respiration, discussed later. This is a key reason why it is important for good drainage for the type of plant you are gardening/landscaping. Type of roots Root Examples Monocot root illustration Tap root - Dicot plants & ferns. Is the main root and will sprout other roots laterally. Anchors the plant Can grow deep in search of water and begin to break up lower harder soil layers and initiate the tapping of lower minerals within the lower soil column. Fibrous roots - Monocot & cloned plants. Fine roots that extend from the main stem of the plant. Trees 30–50 m tall has a root system that extends horizontally in all directions as far as the tree is tall or more, but around 95% of the roots are in the top 50 cm depth of soil. Plants can be managed to be better drought resistant by training the plants to dig deeper before it makes fibrous roots as to increase the depth of the roots at the top of the media column. This is only effect if water is accessible via water table, in low water areas this may or may not be as effective depending on the plant type. Parallel venation plants have fibrous roots. Reticulated venation seed plants have tap roots. Adventitious roots (clones and stress roots) Adventitious roots (clones and stress roots) are plant roots that form from any non-root tissue and are produced both during normal development and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. We will discuss the rooting due to stress aspect in more depth in a future writing. All plant cells have the DNA to create a cloned plant besides the root. Can be induced by ECMs or Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Bacteria that transfer DNA to plant and create root hairs, used in study and in instances as managing for drought resistence.) Age‐dependent process. Auxin cross talks with other hormones to control adventitious rooting. Adventitious rooting is a complex quantitative genetic trait. Unstressed and stressed roots via flooding illustrations Adventitious root development in response to flooding. Under aerated conditions, gaseous ethylene escapes from plant tissues, but during flooding, water acts as a physical barrier, trapping ethylene in the plant. Gibberellic Acid or GA enhances the ethylene-promoted adventitious root growth, Abscisic acid reduces the effect. Ethylene triggers reactive oxygen species production, and together they trigger epidermal programmed cell death for root emergence and cortical programmed cell death lysigenous aerenchyma formation. The main difference in some eudicots (e.g. tomato) is the requirement for de novo adventitious root initiation via auxin and ethylene signaling. In the cross section, epidermis and exodermis are combined, but the exodermis can be several cell layers adjacent to the epidermis. Yellow roots are adventitious roots, (diagram above) blue and pink roots are lateral roots, (diagram above) and white roots are primary roots. (diagram above) Pointed arrows represent positive interactions, and flat-ended arrows represent negative interactions. (diagram above) Adventitious root emergence Physical Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjFaU87t6M2d3xPH8m30goQ Clones I discuss cloning a bit but will cover this topic in more practical detail in following writings. This compiled section is intended to instill an understanding of the internal processes during a typical cloning process. Regardless of cloning method this information is valid. To create clones of plants a chemical imbalance must occur. This can be created in various ways but in this instance we will discuss traditional cloning. While the method of cloning may vary the chemical process is similar in rooting and the type of roots being created for the plants. The figure below will help illustrate this process well. By understanding this process you will begin the basis of learning how to create the type of roots you desire in a "best practice" or "optimized" process. The graph above and below explanation from http://www.plantphysiol.org Pointed arrows represent positive interactions, and flat-ended arrows represent negative interactions. Yellow roots are adventitious roots, the white root is a primary roots, and blue roots are lateral roots. Below explains the illustration above. Adventitious root formation on cuttings. In intact plants, cytokinin and strigolactones are predominantly produced in the root Auxin is predominantly produced in the shoot. On wounding, jasmonic acid peaks within 30 min and is required for successful root development. Reactive oxygen species, polyphenols, and hydrogen sulfide also increase and promote adventitious rooting. Polyphenols do this via reducing auxin degradation. Auxin builds up in the base of the cutting, acting upstream of nitric oxide to promote adventitious root initiation. Auxin, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increase soluble sugars, which can be used for root development. The cloning act removes the original root system and thus levels of cytokinin and strigolactone (they inhibit root growth) are reduced removing this natural counter too root growth in a normal plant. At later stages, Auxin inhibits primordia elongation (reduced shoot growth) while ethylene promotes adventitious root emergence. As the new root system establishes, The production of cytokinin and strigolactones is restored and the plant will begin to function normally. General Cloning information Staminate (male) plants have higher average levels of carbohydrates than pistillate (female) plants, while pistillate plants have higher nitrogen levels. Almost all plant cells contain the DNA and "capability" to create a whole plant. (Clone and petri-dish) Not all plant species and phenotypes clone equally. Selection of rooting material is important. Selected that have finished growing up and start growing to the sides or radial growth.Younger, firm, vegetative shoots, Top of the plant is not ideal. the secondary tops or crown of a plant is ideal. Cuttings of relatively young vegetative limbs 10 to 45 centimeters or 4 to 18 inches and are made with a razor blade and immediately placed in a container of pure water so the cut ends are covered to prevent an embolism (air bubble). 3 to 7 millimeters (1/8 to 1/4 inch) in diameter. The medium should be warm and moist before cuttings are removed from the parent plant. Feed rooting cloning parental plants, a balance of low nitrogen to high carbohydrate is desired and achieved in several ways. Higher carbohydrate to Nitrogen is ideal. Iodine and Starch test. (video below) Highly impractical and unnecessary for most growers but I put in this writing for information and for the curious and those who are optimizing in their growing methods and systems for "best practice" with specific/known plants or crops. Reduce nitrogen and allow for carbohydrates to build up. Crowded roots will increase carbon due to competition for the nitrogen in medias. The carbohydrate to nitrogen ratio rises the farther distance between the tip of the limb, Cuttings are not made too long. Etiolation Etiolation is a condition caused by the growth of plants in the absence of light. It is characterized by a pale yellow coloring, sparse leaves, and weak, elongated stems. The stems of a plant grown in darkness grow longer and thinner in order to reach a potential light source. Its stems will also grow faster than those of a plant exposed to adequate sunlight. Since leaves grow at the internodes of a plant's stems, a plant suffering from etiolation will have less leaves than a normal plant. Chloroplasts that have never been exposed to light remain immature and non-pigmented and are known as etioplasts. When a plant suffering from etiolation is exposed to sunlight, a process known as de-etiolation occurs. In de-etiolation, a plant begins producing chloroplasts, becomes greener in color, and produces fuller and more plentiful leaves. Over time, the internodes of the stem will become a normal length. Inhibiting rooting factors Woody Stems. High nitrogen in parent plant. High nitrogen in clone leaves. Iodine Starch Test Ibn Sahlan - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwMOknYVLikEwhODDSlEhiQ Cloning 101 Everest Fernandez - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC65Wtjuej_YyOOxg4PC-uhA Root growth in time lapse Gregor Skoberne https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCnDrhu5DCQpD1VB3I3bVJJQ Root growth of transformed Cichorium Intybus grown in a medium. Corn roots in time lapse MicropolitanMuseum https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGFFFsNZoZahwQ8UPFIWhFA Time lapse fast growing corn, roots and leaves growing Mindlapse - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEPvisw_QQ_anAwxdklxm1Q Union Break! Air (Shoots) Environment Shoots, is the above ground parts of the plants. We will discuss plant cell structure and nutritional transportation within the plants. This is the area where the plant energy is made. Some of the videos will repeat similar information but they all offer extra bits of information that all combined offer a higher benefit. In addition, if one video style is not effective in understanding than the virtual reality video/app may be more effective in illustrating for you. Plant Cell Structure Crayonbox - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9Kk19SMbIuqcNI4lew96kA Plant cells are more complicated and exciting than you might think! This video shows you the structure of the plant cell. Sam introduces you to the cell organelles and their functions. You learn about cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus and nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, vacuole, chloroplasts, and mitochondrion. Sam explains how proteins are produced inside the cell. The NAMOO app features beautiful encyclopedia-inspired interactive simulations you can use to learn about plants. Plant science is fun! Download your NAMOO and play with roots, stems, flowers, and other plant parts! Virtual tour of a plant cell This is a virtual tour of a plant cell you can control by the upper right toggle on the screen of the video. If your computer is strong enough you can enlarge to full screen (may need to go to youtube site, double click video and it will show link on bottom right of video). This is a great tool for understanding plant cells and photosynthesis. Plant Energy Biology Leaf Anatomy Upper epidermis is a single layer of cells containing few or no chloroplasts. The cells are quite transparent and permit most of the light that strikes them to pass through to the underlying cells. The upper surface is covered with a waxy, waterproof cuticle, which serves to reduce water loss from the leaf. Epidermal cells are on the upper and lower surfaces of a leaf. The epidermis usually consists of a single layer of cells., Some specialized leaves of some desert plants and in cold environment plants can have epidermal layers which are several cells thick. Cuticle - Waxy layer that prevent water loss within the leaf. Plants that live in water do not have a cuticle, waxy layer. They have two features which prevent evaporative water loss: they are packed densely together and they are covered by a cuticle, a waxy layer secreted by the cells. Flavonoid pigments are contained in large vacuoles inside the epidermal cells. Flavonoids absorbs ultraviolet radiation, Similar to a sunscreen or tanning lotion for internal layers of the leaf, by filtering out harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. Palisade layer consists of one or more layers of cylindrical cells oriented with their long axis perpendicular to the plane of the leaf. The cells are filled with chloroplasts (usually several dozen of them) and carry on most of the photosynthesis within the leaf. Palisade cell layer at top of leaf - To absorb more light Palisade cells contain many chloroplasts to absorb all the available light. Spongy layer beneath the palisade layer, its cells are irregular in shape and loosely packed. Although they contain a few chloroplasts, their main function seems to be the temporary storage of sugars and amino acids that were synthesized in the palisade layer above the spongy layer of the leaf. They also aid in the exchange of gases between the leaf and the environment. During the day, these cells give off oxygen and water vapor to the air spaces that surround them. They also pick up carbon dioxide from the air spaces. The air spaces are interconnected and eventually open to the outside through pores called stomata. Collectively, the palisade and spongy layers make up the mesophyll. A single vascular bundle, no matter how large or small, always contains both xylem and phloem tissues. xylem - Consists of tracheids and vessels that transport water and minerals to the leaves. Phloem - Transports the photosynthetic products from the leaf to the other parts of the plant. Lower epidermis contains most of the stomata (thousands per square centimeter) which are located in the lower epidermis. Although most of the cells of the lower epidermis resemble those of the upper epidermis, each stoma is flanked by two sausage-shaped cells called guard cells. These differ from the other cells of the lower epidermis not only in their shape but also in having chloroplasts. . Stomata Open in light and closed during night. Transpiration is when the plants intakes carbon dioxide, releases via evaporation water and oxygen. More plentiful on the underside of the leaves but are all over the leaf. Approximately 95% of water in the plant transportation system is lost due to transpiration. Water evaporation from stomata as part of the osmatic pressure system. Guard cells when open accumulate potassium salts, causing an osmotic pressure that uptakes water. Guard cells control the open and close stomata function and is influenced largely by the environment (light, temperature and humidity) and results in osmotic pressure. Guard cells can detect blue light and varied levels of CO2 (carbon dioxide). Guard cells are the only epidermal cells to contain chloroplasts. Some chloroplasts are found in the cells of young stems and immature fruits but do not play a large role in photosynthesis. During drought stress guard cells release abscisic acid. It inhibits plant cell growth and is is in part responsible for fruit drop, leaf death and seed dormancy. and helps plants respond to water loss and seasonal changes. Its effects can be reversed with gibberellins. Abscisic acid is a hormone that will trigger dormancy. Often growers tend to think of dry soil negatives as reducing media microbe and fungal life, concentrating salts but few know or appreciate the abscisic effect on plants as only by knowing plant physiology will one tend to appreciate this outside of experience in the field with drought conditions. Do not allow young plants to dry out in their media unless that is part of that natural environment for your plant. Example of cactus. I have also added trichomes as they are part of some plants more than others in significance. However, this is not part of plant physiology and I will discuss more on this subject in future compilations. Trichomes - Help to avert being eaten or invaded by some pests by restricting insect movements and/or by storing toxic or bad-tasting compounds. The rate of transpiration can be reduced due to a reduction in air flow across the leaf surface. Leaf Anatomy graphic illustrations Plant Biology with NAMOO: Leaf Anatomy - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9Kk19SMbIuqcNI4lew96kA Leaves are beautiful and industrial. Located within every leaf is a fully functional food factory. This production process is called photosynthesis. Sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide are used to produce glucose (food!) and oxygen. Leaf Types - Monocot & Dicot Monocots vs Dicots Explained It is really easy to determine a monocot and a dicot. However, first, it is important to understand that monocots and dicots actually represent the two main branches of flowering plants. That means that almost all flowering plants can be divided into one of these two groups. Of course, the key word is almost all. There are some that don't fit into the two groups all that well. The five main characters I like to use are Leaves, Roots, Stems, Cotyledons, and Flowers. For a more detailed description, visit our page at http://www.untamedscience.com/biology... Watermelon Plant Time Lapse Learjet15 - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCv5UDsFrvS1Mh838rVJuJSw The video below explains more of the plant structure. This is a good video to gain an appreciation of a plant structure as it is in that knowledge that can better not just understand the structure but how nutrition plays its role in building the structure. By understanding a plants development at the various stages of growth nutrition can be accurately adjusted optimally for the development of the plant. In short, this knowledge will help you speak plant. Plant Structure Video Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains the major plants structures. He starts with a brief discussion of monocot and dicot plants. He then describes the three main tissues in plants; dermal, ground and vascular. He also describes the plant cells within each of these tissues; epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerencyma, xylem and phloem. He describes both primary and secondary growth in plants. He finishes the podcast with a discussion of double fertilization in plants. Plant Nutrition and Transport Since many people will already understand plant structure I have added that section below even though it would be more appropriate before this section. However, their is very good information in the plant structure section I recommend watching the videos. Very few people will not learn something from the videos to the writings (compilation). Regardless of water and nutrition, a plants transport system depends on a correct growing environment in terms of temperature and humidity as this directly affects the internal and external functions of the plant system. Basic Plant Nutrition - We often think of plant nutrition and NPK but this is not wholly correct at the cellular level as far as the plant cares about specifics. For example, we need protein, be it from meat or milk all things correct we can utilize protein in that form. Our body only cares it has a protein. Generically stated for illustration. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, Oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur. We will discuss plant nutrition in all its details in later sections but for the intention of understanding how a plant internally functions in transporting and in creating energy the above will be the main subject of plant nutrition within this specific section. Union Break! ~Have a laugh with Rodney. I did, thanks Rodney! The Video below illustrates with excellent visuals/graphics and explains above and nutritional transportation. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCCmNq4uCgWjpvoTpbphih3g - Transcript is available at youtube site, select more and transcripts under the video. All organisms require food and water for their survival. Transportation is the process of transporting water,food and minerals to the different parts of the plant body. Xylem, transports water from the roots to all parts of the plant through root hairs. Raw materials such as carbon dioxide, water and other minerals are used to prepare food in the presence of sunlight through photosynthesis.This food is then transported to all parts of the plant by the Phloem. Below you will find a video that will explain in an easy to understand format what the plant needs nutritionally and how it transports nutrition and utilizes it. While it may seem a bit a redundant the videos compliment each other and together equal a quality lesson. The top video has superior visuals but the bottom has more information and is an effective illustrative video as well. Paul Andersen explains how nutrients and water are transported in plants. He begins with a brief discussion of what nutrients are required by plants and where they get them. He shows you dermal, vascular and ground tissue in monocot and dicot roots, stems and leaves. He then explains how water is pulled up a tree in xylem and how sugar is pushed in a plant through phloem. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains how nutrients and water are transported in plants. He begins with a brief discussion of what nutrients are required by plants and where they get them. He shows you dermal, vascular and ground tissue in monocot and dicot roots, stems and leaves. He then explains how water is pulled up a tree in xylem and how sugar is pushed in a plant through phloem. Oxygenic Photosynthesis & its equation During oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy transfers electrons from water (H2O) to carbon dioxide (CO2), which produces carbohydrates. In this transfer, the CO2 is "reduced," or receives electrons, and the water becomes "oxidized," or loses electrons. Ultimately, oxygen is produced along with carbohydrates. Oxygenic photosynthesis functions as a counterbalance to respiration as it intakes carbon dioxide it reintroduces oxygen into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide exhale by many living things and oxygen released by the oxygenic photosynthesis process. Their are other types of photosynthesis and other energy generation but we are mainly going to discuss oxygenic photosynthesis in plants. Light-dependent reactions (also called light reactions): Light photons contacts the reaction center a chlorophyll pigment releases an electron. The electron in the chlorophyll makes an electron hole and the electron wants to escape and is released via an "electron transport chain" which generates the energy to make ATP "adenosine triphosphate" which is energy and NADPH. The electron hole in the chlorophyll pigment is filled from electron from water and oxygen is then released into the atmosphere via the stomata. Photosynthesis Equation In photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the form of glucose (sugar). Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are used to produce glucose, oxygen, and water. The chemical equation for this process is: 6CO2 + 12H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Six molecules of carbon dioxide (6CO2) and twelve molecules of water (12H2O) are consumed in the process, while glucose (C6H12O6), six molecules of oxygen (6O2), and six molecules of water (6H2O) are produced. This equation may be simplified as: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2. Photosynthesis video that better illustrates and effectively teaches the above and more. Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains the process of photosynthesis by which plants and algae can convert carbon dioxide into usable sugar. He begins with a brief description of the chloroplast. He describes the major pigments in a plant (like chlorophyll a and b). He then describes both the light reaction and the Calvin cycle. He finishes with a discussion of photorespiration and strategies for avoiding this problem evolved in CAM and C4 plants. Cellular Respiration I know we think of plants and us as very different as they use photosynthesis but we both use cell respiration very similarly and few actually understand nor appreciate that understanding but it is important to understand this aspect as when it comes to evaluating various traits of plants this information is vital if you understand how to "see" it and "use" it. By understanding this we can better acclimate a growing environment for optimal levels for specific plants in greenhouses and indoor gardens based on observations and adjustments of your plants and not following a generic guide. By learning to identify plants that have strong photosynthesis and cellular respiration rates in selecting genetics for clones or breeding is often an desirable but under looked trait. The video below further explains photosynthesis and respiration and discusses how photosynthesis played a role in early life on the planet. For many this video may seem a bit much and that is ok. It is mainly listed for those who want more information and understanding with more details. He also explains different versions of energy creation but is not a large portion. I highly recommend this video but for your average gardener this information is overly technical for that need. The plant cell video prior in this thread is similar however there is additional information when viewing both lessons. Paul Andersen details the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in this video on free energy capture and storage. Autotrophs use the light reactions and the Calvin cycle to convert energy from the Sun into sugars. Autotrophs and heterotrophs use cellular respiration to convert this sugar into ATP. Both chemosynthesis and fermentation are discussed. The evolution of photosynthesis is also discussed. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla... I post the translate request even though the posting is old, the link is still good as of the time of this compilation. The following video explains processes of cellular respiration in an easy to understand lesson. Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen covers the processes of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. He starts with a brief description of the two processes. He then describes the important parts of the mitochondria. He explains how energy is transferred to ATP through the processes of glycolysis, the Kreb cycle and the Electron Transport Chain. He also explains how organisms use both lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. Summary The knowledge base of plant physiology is currently growing at fast rate. As such each year they are learning more and more about the physiology of plants and some of these are not listed above as science has not yet determined what those functions truly are or what they are doing outside just learning they exist. As a result, the older this work is, it might need a revision or update depending on the extent new knowledge that will be learned as science as whole learns more. This is compiled January 2017 You should now have a working understanding of plant physiology and if you understand how environment and basic nutrition plays a role. You use this information and apply it to your garden. By utilizing all this information you can grow your plants to "best practice" as is possible for your growing areas limitations. Often we go to stores and see a massive variety of fertilizers with all kinds of claims and fancy graphics and names. Few people can see past the advertising as it is the advertisers and/or other equally untrained to moderately skilled gardeners who teach most home gardeners, outside of a family/friend dynamic with access to experienced gardeners. Many gardeners are at a knowledge disadvantage. This information is compiled in part as an attempt to answer this issue by working to instill fundamental knowledge so that home gardeners can learn what is gimmick and what is a good product and how to use it properly for their crops. A benefit of these lessons if learned is freedom from false advertising as you will not be easily fooled as knowledge can work to prevent emotional and impulse sales based on "adjective" sales tactics. By understanding plant physiology you understand how plants transport nutrition and create energy. This knowledge base will serve you well in future management practices as you can better attune your environment, nutrition and management to optimize your specific crop. This is more desirable in high value crops. By optimizing the plants ability to transport nutrients and generate energy you can begin to obtain the plants potential. However, by allowing negative factors to act against early plant physiology during its early growth stages can have significant limiting factors that the plant cannot fully recover from and thus the plant will not obtain its potential no matter the betterment after the shock. Plant Physiology in breeding, generically you first want to select plants that illustrate early strong plant physiology traits from roots to leaf health and vigor. Often in plant breeding plants will be selected for other traits and not consider plant physiology traits as they should, often taking this aspect for granted. This is in part a reason why some plants seeds offered for sale are not good at rooting equally from a package of seeds. These seeds were potentially not correctly bred for optimum plant physiology. However, most amateur seed makers may not understand and/or appreciate this aspect. In the following sections we will discuss plant development from roots to fruit and discuss the nutritional and environmental aspects for typical garden variety plants. If this work has helped you, please share what you learn with others. It is in that energy that this has come to you and I thank you for your time. ~Hempyfan. Congratulations for finishing Plant Physiology. Advanced Section for those who need more! If you would like to learn more on Plant Physiology I highly recommend: BIOPL3420 - Plant Physiology - Video Lecture/Class 28 videos long - Thomas Owens - Cornell University Plant Physiology Taiz and Zeiger - https://ia802504.us.archive.org/16/items/PlantPhysiologyTaizZeiger1/Plant_Physiology_(Taiz_&_Zeiger).pdf Click to go to video series Credits and appreciation: ~ I sincerely respect and thank them. The Science Media Production Center at Cornell - https://www.youtube.com/user/CornellTL/about Plant Physiology Taiz and Zeiger - https://ia802504.us.archive.org/16/items/PlantPhysiologyTaizZeiger1/Plant_Physiology_(Taiz_&_Zeiger).pdf https://www.scribd.com/ http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0002075.html http://www.askiitians.com/revision-notes/biology/ Bozeman Science:https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw http://biology.about.com/od/plantbiology/a/aa050605a.htm http://www.livescience.com/51720-photosynthesis.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/differences-and-similarities-between-chemosynthesis-and-photosynthesis.html One Drop Forward - https://www.youtube.com/user/onedropforward/videos Plant Energy Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEIGuXCAGkkHgAZP9LWbXgA http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0002061.html http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/170/2/603.full#sec-13 Everest Fernandez - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC65Wtjuej_YyOOxg4PC-uhA Freesciencelessons - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCqbOeHaAUXw9Il7sBVG3_bw Physical Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjFaU87t6M2d3xPH8m30goQ ~A Proud Cultural Healing and Life Compilation. 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Lighting ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Emoticons are safe bonus links, most youtube, click them. Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. Indoor Garden Environment Light Section III - Advanced Plant Growth and Light Click on the emoticon Plant growth is driven by three processes which are responsive to light: Photosynthesis (metabolism) Photomorphogenesis (form development) Photoperiodism (daylength reaction) Photosynthesis The most important of these processes is the photosynthesis: the basis for plant growth and development. More simply, it is a process that all plants use, to collect the energy from the sunlight. The plants store the collected energy as carbohydrates, so that the sunlight basically serves as food for the plant. The light is absorbed with the aid of the pigment chlorophyll. The two most important chlorophylls are chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B. Chlorophyll A absorbs the light in the blue and red wavelengths. Green and far-red light however, are little or not absorbed. Chlorophyll B uses a similar range, with absorption peaks closer to the blue end of the spectrum. So right there if we are custom designing a light spectrum we want to hit blue and red. Absorption Spectrum Chlorophyll A, B and Beta-Carotene The "action spectrum" is the sensitivity curve of the light on plant's photosynthesis. In order to make accurate statements about the light absorption of different pigments, scientists undertook a complex measurement process using a spectrophotometer where each wavelength was tested for the specific absorption rate. The result of the activity of main pigments and auxiliary pigments is shown graphically in the action spectrum. action spectrum graph Comparing the action spectrum with the corresponding absorption spectrum of chlorophyll you will note that they do not match. In fact, the absorption spectrum leads to the conclusion that photosynthesis is primarily driven by blue and red light and we believe this is true in cannabis photosynthetic response - depending on the phase of plant growth. A plant will benefit to some degree from all the light wavelengths or spectra that the eye sees, but they respond best to spectral regions at the outer edges of peak human vision. If the artificial light spectrum is narrowly emitted, or missing altogether, then the plants will not develop to the fullest leafy vegetative, or bulky flowering stages that natural sunlight would have provided. Photomorphogenesis (form development) Young plants such as newly rooted clones prefer the Action Spectrum. In fact too much light intensity on the red wavelengths is harmful to young cannabis plants. On the other hand as plants grow in the 20-24 hour vegetative stage they move from only being able to handle the Action Spectrum, to very much being driven by the Absorption Spectrum. And this makes sense because this is when plants are growing like crazy, absorbing the light to create chlorophyll A & B. Photoperiodism (daylength reaction) Now what is really fascinating is that when it is time to turn the lights down to a 12 hour day which will induce the reproductive or flower phase then we've found that the plants are firmly desirous of the spectrum weighted to chlorophyll A and in fact prefer much more red wavelengths. They produce flowers as a means to pass on their genetic heritage. So stressing cannabis is important just as it is when making wine with grapes. https://aaronberdofewine.com/tag/stressing-the-vine/ za Red light seems to trigger a response in plants that they need to stretch to out compete their neighbors. And to produce the largest flowers possible. Cannabis in the flowering stage of growth will be looking for between 800-1000 umol. (par) Union Break! Click and take a break, Union rules, what you gonna do? Take a break that's what your gonna do. Light and Photosynthesis https://fluence.science/science/photomorphogenesis-guide/ Light causes a biochemical processes in plants. Some of these processes regulate key stages of plant development, such as germination and flowering They depend strongly on the spectrum of the light and in some cases, also on the timing, periodicity and the overall exposure. This is called fluence, and is measured in micromoles of photons per square meter of surface. Lowest is star light Highest is direct sun. In terms of spectrum dependence, by far the best understood today are the processes controlled by red and far red light. For the purposes of this discussion, red (R) is the spectral region around 660 nm and far red (FR) – that around 730 nm. In order to better understand the significance of these two spectral regions, it is necessary to also consider the chemical mediator of the corresponding responses, called phytochrome. Phytochrome is a blue protein pigment which exists in two forms – a red light absorbing one (Pr) and a far red absorbing one (Pfr). Each of them converts into the other upon absorbing the corresponding light until an equilibrium is established, with the relative amount of each form depending primarily on the ratio of R to FR light in the spectrum. In addition, the Pfr form will slowly revert spontaneously into the Pr form if left in complete darkness. The prevalence of one or the other form (which depends on the R/FR spectral ratio as well as the dark photoperiod) in a plant can stimulate or inhibit a number of developmental processes such as germination, leaf unrolling, chlorophyll formation, stem elongation and flowering. This is generally referred to as photomorphogenesis. For example, some plant seeds will not germinate unless they are exposed to red light. Also, plants growing in the shade of other plants will become taller than they would in full daylight. The reason is that light filtered by plant leaves becomes depleted in red light and enriched in far red light. This shifts the phytochrome photo equilibrium towards the Pr form and triggers the shade avoidance response of stem elongation, which increases the chances for the plant to reach the direct daylight. (Stretching) Although the R:FR ratio in daylight can vary over the course of the day and will become somewhat lower at sunset, the length of the dark period is even more influential on the phytochrome photo equilibrium since the Pfr molecules in a plant will start undergoing the dark reversion process at nightfall. The longer the night, the relatively higher the amount of the Pr form will become. In turn, this amount is strongly involved in the control of flowering for quite a few plants. There are long-day plants (which require short nights to flower), short-day plants (requiring long nights) and day-neutral plants which have no specific requirement for the photoperiod. This dependence on the photoperiod is referred to as photoperiodism. Different light treatment is needed on a case by case basis, especially when one needs to induce or delay flowering. Lights on for 12 hours and off for 12 hours for traditional flower times. In artificial horticulture lighting, there is a number of choices – especially when it comes to using LED lights, which can have any desired ratio of R/FR light. Since FR light is not photosynthetically active, its use in horticulture lighting is often limited for reasons of energy efficiency. A good energy-saving strategy is to use one set of lights for growth and another – for (flower) photoperiod control when necessary. The former set can have a very high R/FR ratio (as high as several thousands) with no ill effect for most plants. The latter set can consist of a pure red source (e.g. 660 nm LEDs), a pure far red source (e.g. 730 nm LEDs), or a combination of both. Since phytochrome response is in the low fluence range, the number of fixtures needed for (flower) photoperiod control may be much smaller than that of fixtures needed for growth. In addition, the operating time needed for photoperiod control can be much shorter, such as only minutes at a time. For example, flowering of a long-day plant may be induced by night interruption, using a series of short flashes of red light with photon flux levels as low as a few micromoles/m2s. (Lights with a high R/FR ratio installed for growing purposes may be used instead with the same effect.) Short-day plants may be induced to flower by a single flash with pure FR light at the very beginning of the dark photoperiod, after turning off all other lights. This effectively adds a couple of hours to the dark period for the purpose of flowering, which can be used to extend the light period for growth and optimize plant yields overall as a result. Switching the above methods for plants with opposite photoperiod requirements would delay flowering, which may also be desired sometimes (e.g. to provide the best quality flowers on schedule for certain holidays). It should be noted that although the R/FR ratio is often used to describe light spectra, it affects the phytochrome photo equilibrium only up to a point, and not always in a directly proportional way. The reason lies in the overlap between the absorption spectra of Pr and Pfr. As a result of this overlap, the highest concentration of Pfr does not exceed about 80% of the total phytochrome concentration even under pure red light, while the lowest concentration of Pfr can be almost 0% for the pure FR region. Light sources containing red light and no appreciable content of far red light maintain equilibrium values for Pfr in the 70 to 80% range, meaning that they behave similarly to pure red light in this respect. Those have no ill effect on most plants; however, some FR light may have to be added to the growth spectrum for any exceptions requiring continuously lower Pfr concentrations. If necessary, it is possible to custom design light spectra targeting any Pfr equilibrium value within the entire physically obtainable range, after performing calculations of the phytochrome photo equilibrium under different relevant wavelengths. Since this can reduce the photosynthetic efficiency of the light (thereby increasing the overall cost of lighting), it should always be done judiciously. If you been reading a bit, take a union break. The blue spectral region is also important for a variety of plant responses such as suppression of stem elongation, phototropism (bending towards the light source), chloroplast movement within cells, stomatal opening and activation of gene expression, to name a few. Some of these are morphogenic and others aren’t. The mediator molecules can be cryptochromes, phototropins etc., unlike the phytochrome mediated responses reviewed earlier. However, blue light responses are not reversible under far red light, which allows for their straightforward experimental distinction from the red light ones. Stomatal opening and height control are of particular relevance to horticulture lighting. A much too low content of blue light in the growth spectrum (e.g. less than 10% of the total photon flux) can lead to leaf edema (swelling of the leaves) and developmental problems in some plants. The absolute content of blue light has a progressively stronger effect for plant height reduction. This may be desirable in some cases (e.g. to produce more compact seedlings and reduce transportation costs) but generally leads to lower photosynthetic efficiency of the light with respect to energy consumption. A high relative content of blue light reduces the plant leaf area and may be undesirable for that reason. Near UV light has an effect similar to blue light, with further reduced photosynthetic efficiency, especially below 400 nm (although the other effects may be stronger by comparison). It also affects the biosynthesis of compounds responsible for the flavor of certain fruits, as well as that of other compounds which are not directly produced by photosynthesis alone. Whenever the use of near UV light is necessary to control a corresponding sensory mechanism or the production of a specific molecule of interest by the plant, an overall efficiency trade-off may have to be reached, similarly to that for the use of far red light. Finally, the control effects of green light are generally opposite to those of red and blue light, and have been considered as “a signal to slow down or stop”. Another way to look at them is as the means to achieve a balance between spectral actions and counteractions, needed to adjust plant development and growth. The phytochrome and cryptochrome molecules mentioned earlier are also responsive to green light – even though to a significantly lesser extent than to red or blue light, correspondingly. So far, all efforts by researchers to find photoreceptors responding primarily to green light have given no definitive results. The addition of green light into the growth spectrum has been demonstrated to be beneficial for the growth of certain leafy vegetables. In summary, only a few plant species will grow best under pure red light, although the latter has the highest possible photosynthetic efficiency. As a minimum, a horticulture light spectrum should also contain some amount of blue light. Green, far red and near UV spectral components may have to be added for optimal plant development. The photoperiod length can be critical for flowering, and pure red or far red light sources may also be used for flowering control in an energy-efficient manner. You earned for finishing Section III Click for next - Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements http://culturalhealingandlife.com.www413.your-server.de/index.php?/topic/9-section-iiii-understanding-light-measurements/ ~ Hempyfan, A proud HD writing
Lighting ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Emoticons are safe bonus links, most youtube, click them. Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. Indoor Garden Environment Section I (Section 1 is an introduction and a shortened version of bigger document) Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting ~with recommendations and calculators. When people start to plan a grow they typically will think it is all about the light and the brighter and bigger wattage the light the better. However this is rarely true when it comes to practicality and efficiency. The biggest factors for grow lights is electricity use (budget) and heat. It is common for new growers to not appreciate the heat aspect and only consider the affordability factor. Additionally, their are people who are able to afford the best lighting but are typically more influenced by marketing than light and plant knowledge and what they do know is typically partial truths due to marketing information now received as truth but this influence is often for marketing and not instilling knowledge that could enable you to make better choices. Regardless of budget or seriousness in growing all classes outside of professional agriculture specialist will typically misunderstand grow lights and how best to use them. Look at most internet forums (never mind this one ) and you can often see this illustrated. The typical growers lighting knowledge is commonly driven by marketing information and not wholly true information. This library of information is us planting the flag saying knowledge rules and not manipulated information. I see lights as a tool and nothing more. Some people can get too attached to a light and believe only one type of light is the best Their is no best in realistic terms, only in black and white at best under controlled conditions. This is due to the differences in environment from one grower to another. The biggest factor again is typically electricity cost plus bulb (no bulb for LED) cost and any heat management cost. Their are many lights to choose from such as light bulbs, cfl, high output florescent, VHO florescent, Induction, LED (various types), Metal Halide and HPS to touch on the most used. Determining what is best for your setup can vary from what is best for another persons set up and this is what I will largely be talking about. How to choose a grow light for your real needs and parameters. Ok, so we know their are many light types to select from but lets understand what light quality and spectrum is needed and how to measure the quality of a light. Once we understand that we can find the ideal light for any growers setup based on their needs from optimum plant growth to efficiency depending on your informed decision. Light Strength + Quality + plant needs/stage (mothers, veg, flower) to the more (advance options to include customized lighting for transition, early flower, mid flower and late flower light spectrum's) + environment conditions + budgetary constraints + management = Type and strength of light = your effective lighting. We will be discussing and giving recommendations as to best assist with reasons why for various sizes and we give you the tools for you to determine what is best for your growing needs. From agriculture plants to the hobbyist gardener. This knowledge is written in two forms, a basic get to it quick writing and a more in depth writing in attempt to address those of varied interest and we take it to the science as best we can. Below you will find information in regards to light and photosynthesis, light measurements, formulations for advanced workings and a summary of my advice for lighting for certain situations. Regardless of ones personal agreement with or against these writings, I have created this document so people can determine for themselves and/or understand that process. PS: click on the emoticons for bonus, from neat bits of information to music, most are on youtube. The Get to It Quick Part, Ok, not everyone wants a class in a post and for most the bulk of this information is overkill and will also not truly apply to most home gardeners outside of specific advanced hobbyist. The following is a practical guide to selecting a light and understanding the basics for lighting. Select grow area size and understand ambient environment for the period of time during which you will grow. (spring, summer, fall, and winter temperatures if applicable.) Understanding what the ambient temperature is. Understand the heat imprint of any fan motors or aspects that will add additional heat. Not as big a deal as it sounds for average grower. More of issue in micro-grows. More of issue in temperature sensitive locations. Once the location size is determined, tent size, room size, closet size, garden size, acres, etc. We can determine what size light to select that will at best practice give us even par ratings at levels for optimum plant growth, development and yield. The reality is this for most growers, a standard selection of lights (discussed above), a standard selection of light quality (discussed below) and affordability/budget (unique to you) limited to options from a grow shop and/or the internet shops. Hempyfan's light determining factors formula. Light Strength (penetration) + Quality (spectrum & par) + Plant development stage (mothers, veg, flower) Advanced secondary lighting options include customized lighting for transition, early flower, mid flower and late flower light spectrum's) + Environment conditions (ambient + non light added heat such as fan motors, pumps etc) + Budgetary constraints + _____management style_____ = Your effective lighting. The following is a section on light recommendations and why. Micro grows CFL, HO florescent type, LEC Metal Halide or LED lighting Heat is biggest issue 250w = 853.250 BTU/HR+ environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) I would not consider traditional Metal halide or HPS LEC Metal Halide is less heat than traditional metal halide light. Best practice is full spectrum light. Hempyfan pics LED lighting for this style due to heat aspects. Refer to model specifications for heat information. CFL if budget and unable to manage heat well. 200w = 682.600 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 250w = 853.250 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) HO floroescent if on budget but can manage heat better. 250w = 853.250 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 2x2 Grow area HO florescent, 400w metal halide, or 250w, Plasma, 400w HPS, LEC Metal Halide or LED up to 300watt range. 250 and 400w HPS most common. Heat aspects to consider. 250w = 853.250 BTU/HR+ environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR+ environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) LED = check your model and manufactures ratings. Style of grow, penetration vs even coverage considerations. Best practice is full spectrum light. Second best practice is a blend of blue and red spectrum using 2 lights, LEC halide or Plasma and HPS. Hempyfan pics LED with acceptable high par rating, full spectrum and for the selected grow style. (300w range generic with penetration or coverage type of lens) Seconded by LEC Metal Halide (pending better spectrum and par compared to first choice) May not require additional cooling HPS and Metal Halide for budget concerns (heat management concerns) Cooling aspect as required, metal halide is cooler than hps so figures may be favor the cooler end. 250w = 853.250 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR+ environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 3x3 Grow area HO florescent, 400watt metal halide, Plasma, 400watt HPS, 600watt HPS, 1000watt HPS, LEC Metal Halide, LED 300 Watt full spectrum Heat aspects to consider 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR+ environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 600w = 2047.800 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 1000w = 3413.000 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) LED = check your model and manufactures ratings. Best practice is full spectrum light. Second best practice is a blend of blue and red spectrum using 2 lights, LEC halide or Plasma and HPS. Hempyfan pics LED with acceptable high par rating, full spectrum and for the selected grow style. (300w range generic with penetration or coverage type of lens) Seconded by LEC Metal Halide (pending better spectrum and par compared to first choice) Potential secondary light role. May not require additional cooling The use of 2 lights with spectrum similar or varied as applicable for the grow needs. 400watt metal halide and 400w or 600w HPS depending on heat management. 600w HPS with budget but can handle effectively manage the heat. 400w HPS with budget concerns and cannot manage heat as well for 600watt HPS 4x4 Grow area HO florescent, 400watt metal halide, 400watt HPS, 600watt HPS, 1000watt HPS, LEC Metal Halide, LED 300 Watt full spectrum Heat aspects to consider 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 600w = 2047.800 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 1000w = 3413.000 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) LED = check your model and manufactures ratings. Best practice is full spectrum light. Second best practice is a blend of blue and red spectrum using 2 lights, LEC halide or Plasma and HPS. Hempyfan pics LED with acceptable high par rating, full spectrum and for the selected grow style. (300w range generic with penetration or coverage type of lens) Seconded by LEC Metal Halide (pending better spectrum and par compared to first choice) Potential secondary light role. May not require additional cooling The use of 2 lights with spectrum similar or varied as applicable for the grow needs. 400watt metal halide and 400w or 600w HPS depending on heat management. 1000w = 3413.000 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 600w HPS with budget but can handle effectively manage the heat. 600w = 2047.800 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 400w HPS with budget concerns and cannot manage heat as well for 600watt HPS 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 5x5 Grow Area HO florescent, 400watt metal halide, 400watt HPS, 600watt HPS, 1000watt HPS, LEC Metal Halide, Plasma, LED 300Watt plus full spectrum. Heat aspects to consider 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 600w = 2047.800 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 1000w = 3413.000 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) LED = check your model and manufactures ratings. Best practice is full spectrum light. Second best practice is a blend of blue and red spectrum using 2 lights, LEC halide or Plasma and HPS. Hempyfan pics LED x 1 or 2 budget with acceptable high par rating, full spectrum and for the selected grow style. (300w plus range generic with penetration or coverage type of lens) Seconded by LEC Metal Halide or Plasma (pending better spectrum and par compared to first choice) Potential secondary light role. 2 LED lights of this quality may require additional cooling The use of 2 lights with spectrum similar or varied as applicable for the grow needs. 400watt metal halide and a 400w to 1000w HPS depending on heat management. 1000w = 3413.000 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 600w HPS with budget but can handle effectively manage the heat. 600w = 2047.800 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 400w HPS with budget concerns and cannot manage heat as well for 600watt HPS 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) VIDEO SECTION 1000 watt coverage video Information on Heat in grow room Video for when its too cold Additional air cooling aspects to consider Often air cooled hoods are used in heat management. This is not best practice but is trade-off for better cooling in some situations. required inline fans and/or ducting fans are used and also generate some heat in their operation adding to ambiant room temperatures. Insulated ducting could assist with heat management in certain situations. Insulated hoods or water jackets can also be helpful in certain situations. It is generally better to go with a lower wattage light and manage a better grow environment than add more light and subject the plants to an uncomfortable grow environment. A hoods glass cover diminishes the effectiveness of the bulb output. Video about glass or no glass Air Cooled light setup Video Light Movers A light mover is option that tends to be in one of two groups, either you love em or hate them. I believe this is all foolish and that this option should be understood as the tool it is. With that said, I rarely see this as a viable solutions for most gardeners but this does not mean it is not an option for you. By understanding this option without prejudice we can see the benefits and limitations for which an informed opinion can determined. A light mover basically moves the light over the canopy via a motor at a consistent speed. This is as simple as set track sizes or as customized in size as needed. Typically operate in a forward and reverse direction, distance is either preset or customized. Aspects Moving parts Additional motor and electricity requirements and weaknesses. Potential track issues Height aspects due to track If you have height this issue can be removed. Track and motor maintenance for "best practice." Can help with evening canopy and removing dark spots in growing area sometimes associated with plant growth and stationary lights. Compromise option to even canopy when adding additional lighting is not an option. Not a company endorsement, used for explanation purposes. I thank and appreciate them for the video. Video Example of light mover Video example of light mover Video showing one model being built Growing Calculators Grow Calculators should only be used for a general range in figuring. Consider it a good general estimate. Click to visit Calculate at Maximum Grow Gardening Site. What's in The Calculator Wattage Calculator: Use this to determine the light wattage you will need for your size grow room. Parts Per Million Calculator: Use this calculator to determine accurate solution mixes. Carbon Dioxide(CO2) Calculator: Calculate how much CO2 will be needed to fill a grow room to the optimum level. Temperature Converter: Use this to easily convert between degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit. Air Exchange Calculator: Enter your grow room dimensions, and this will tell you how powerful of a fan you will need for optimum air flow. Estimated Cost Calculator: Predicts how much the cost for electricity will be monthly. What's that light cost you? Click to visit the calculator located at Dark Sky Society You can calculate results for up to four types of lights. http://www.darkskysociety.org/lightcost/index.php Select the type of lamp (i.e. Incandescent, Fluorescent, etc.) Select the lamp wattage (lamp lumens) Enter the number of lights in use Select how long the lamps are in use (or click to enter your own; enter hours on per year). Finally, click submit on the calculator at the site and find your answer. BTU Calculator, click Eye Hortilux to visit their calculator. (the recommendations in heat was based on this calculator.) A BTU, also known as a British Thermal Unit, is a measurement of the energy needed to cool a substance. Grow lamps generate a lot of heat. By converting your wattage into BTU per hour, you’ll have the information you need to keep your plants cooled so that they don’t burn up from the heat of the grow lamps. Get to it Quick, Summary This brings the get to it quick section to an end. I hope the above helped in some way. The above will largely assist with new growers and the inexperienced with lighting subjects. It is intended to help people make informed decisions rather than marketed ones from companies and grow shop salesman. If not I apologize and wish you well. I also ask if their is any information that is incorrect, please address it with us as we will look forward to learning from merited input. We appreciated and are thankful for such corrections and input. If you are new to growing or looking to possibly expand on your lighting knowledge I invite you to check out the advanced lighting sections below. It is basically a class in a post and covers a wide range of lighting issues and how to begin to professional calculate for best practice with your lighting. I thank you for your time and if this helped you, it is not me to thank as this is a combination of many who helped educate me in this art. Puff puff and give that knowledge as you pass to others is all we ask and that is the pat on the back I gladly take. You earned for finishing Section I Next Section Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section http://culturalhealingandlife.com.www413.your-server.de/index.php?/topic/7-section-ii-lighting-reflector-section/ Hempyfan, A proud HD writing.