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JJ the Gardener

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  1. JJ the Gardener

    NF - 03.jpg

    From the album: Hempyfan

  2. JJ the Gardener

    NF - 02.jpg

    From the album: Hempyfan

  3. Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 Preserving bacterial based inputs The Natural Farming Method, An introduction to Natural Farming & IMO's Click for a song by Ronnie Davis that sums up Korean/Natural Farming. Returning to Eden, Garden Earth Natural Farming is merely a process of intelligent design that enables the farmer to co-exist in harmony in a natural ecosystem that nature has developed. Modern farming for all its benefits has costs that are hard to pay and as time progresses with crop after crop slowly the modern farm degrades in quality and increases in depth and variety of costs in terms of toxic soils to polluted waters and increased algae blooms due to fertilizer run off to high water needs and other operating financial costs associated with modern farming practices. To me, modern farming is the "addiction industry" of farming as it entices and then traps farmers into corporate methods and financial schemes. Like any addiction, it is not so simple to change. These methods are in part a direct answer to some of the issues of modern farming. Natural Farming practices overtime will heal the land from increasing fertility and healing toxic soils. Natural Farming begins to effectively address our damage to the planet by starting literally from the ground up with freedom from corporations and controlling operating schemes. It is with much respect that I introduce to you not only this concept but some of the true fathers of Natural Farming methods. I hope you see the value in this as it is far more than just farming and the growing of produce. ~Admin An introduction by Chris Trump Chris Trump is an in inspiration in natural farming and we will utilize more of his teachings and videos in a separate IMO posting. The Father's of Natural Farming More information at the end of this document “The One-Straw Revolution” https://onestrawrevolution.net/ Masanobu Fukuoka (1913-2008) Cho Han Kyu, click for bio & site Wiki - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_natural_farming Comprehensive study and analysis of Indigenous Micro Organisms (IMO). Drake - University Scientific Analysis of Natural Farming - University of Hawai'i Researcher Dr. Koon-Hui Wang has done a comprehensive study and analysis of Indigenous Micro Organisms (IMO). Introduction to Natural Farming by Drake, one of my favorite video sets. This is a long series that is well worth the time. The amount of knowledge from experience in this series is of the highest value. Part 2 with Drake Click above pic for slideshow site to learn about sacred geometry. Branch geometry Part 3 with Drake Part 4 with Drake - Medicinal fermentation aspects discussed as well. Part 5 with Drake Part 6 with Drake Part 7 with Drake Part 8 with Drake Part 9 with Drake - Final in series. PureKNF Drake CGNF Certified Instructors Click the picture for Drakes recipes for Natural Farming inputs PDF - Use of Korean Natural Farming for Vegetable Crop Production in Hawai‘i Plant Nutrition and plant life cycle, Natural Farming Hawaii.net Click for PDF book on Natural Farming by Rohini Reddy Publications Natural Farming: How to cultivate indigenous microorganisms Natural Farming: Fermented Plant Juice Natural Farming: Lactic Acid Bacteria Natural Farming: Fish Amino Acid Natural Farming: Water-Soluble Calcium Natural Farming: Oriental Herbal Nutrient Natural Farming: Diluted Seawater Master Cho's Recipe & Instructions, click. Natural Farming by Han-Kyu Cho: Philosophy PureKNF Drake History of Korean Natural and Natural Farming method. Master Cho - Started the Korean Natural Farming method To me, this man should receive one of the highest honors an agriculture person can obtain. He is a hero to me. It is with great pleasure that I introduce to you Master Cho and Korean Natural Farming. If this is not new to you I recommend the post labeled IMO recipes and instructions. Master Cho Cho's Global Natural Farming SARRA India http://www.cgnfindia.com/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_natural_farming Cho Han Kyu, or Cho Han-kyu, born in 1935 in Suwon, Gyeonggi Province, Korea, invented the Korean Natural Farming method. Cho completesd high school education at the age of twenty-nine, while he worked on his family's farm. In 1965, he went to Japan as an agriculture research student for three years, and studied the natural farming method of three teachers: Miyozo Yamagishi (Japanese: 山岸 巳代蔵), Kinshi Shibata (柴田 欣志) and Yasushi Oinoue (大井上 康). [3] Upon his return to Korea, Cho combined his newly acquired knowledge with the Korean traditional farming method and fermentation methods, used in such Korean food such as Kimchi, and gradually invented what we now call Korean Natural Farming, putting it into practice by setting up a "Labor-Saving Abundant Harvesting Study Group" in 1966. As he gained more practice, he opened the Natural Farming Life School and Research Farm in Goesan County, North Chungcheong Province, in 1995. [4] Cho's international activities had started early by means of his contribution to the magazines and seminars aboroad. From 1992, he contributed 21-part articles in the "Modern Agriculture" magazine (Japanese: 現代農業) published in Japan, and, in 1995, held a large-scale one-week seminar in Japan for the leaders of the all-powerful Central Association of the Agriculrural Cooperatives of Japan (農業協同組合中央会). Cho, together his son, Cho Yongsang, has since held seminars in various countries of Africa, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. [5][6] As of 2014, they have trained over 18,000 people at the Janong Natural Farming Institute. Hoon Park brought KNF to Hawaii from South Korea where, as a missionary, he noticed KNF commercial piggeries with virtually no odor.[2] In 2008, he renamed his natural farming school and lab to "Cho Han-kyu Global Village Natural Farming Research Institute", or Janon Natural Farming Institute. The fundamental insight of KNF is to strengthen the biological functions of every aspect of plant growth to increase productivity and nutrition. Biology thereby reduces or eliminates the need for chemical interventions, whether to protect against predation and competition with other plants. For example, IMO metabolism produces complete proteins, while insects prefer incomplete proteins. KNF avoids the use of waste products such as manure, which reduces the chance of transferring pathogens from the waste back into the food production chain, although in nitrogen-poor conditions adding manure can increase yield.[7][8] Use the nutrients contained within the seeds Use indigenous microorganisms (IMO’s) Maximize inborn potential with fewer inputs Avoid commercial fertilizers Avoid tilling No use of livestock waste Masanobu Fukuoka Masanobu Fukuoka Masanobu Fukuoka (1913-2008) was a farmer and philosopher who was born and raised on the Japanese island of Shikoku. He studied plant pathology and spent several years working as a customs inspector in Yokohama. While working there, at the age of 25, he had an inspiration that changed his life. He decided to quit his job, return to his home village and put his ideas into practice by applying them to agriculture. Over the next 65 years he worked to develop a system of natural farming that demonstrated the insight he was given as a young man, believing that it could be of great benefit to the world. He did not plow his fields, used no agricultural chemicals or prepared fertilizers, did not flood his rice fields as farmers have done in Asia for centuries, and yet his yields equaled or surpassed the most productive farms in Japan. In 1975 he wrote The One-Straw Revolution, a best-selling book that described his life’s journey, his philosophy, and farming techniques. This book has been translated into more than 25 languages and has helped make Mr. Fukuoka a leader in the worldwide sustainable agriculture movement. He continued farming until shortly before his death in 2008, at the age of 95. After The One-Straw Revolution was published in English, Mr. Fukuoka traveled to Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Europe and the United States. His interest turned to rehabilitating the deserts of the world using his natural farming techniques. This work is described in detail in Sowing Seeds In The Desert (2012). Mr. Fukuoka is also the author of The Natural Way of Farming and The Road Back to Nature. In 1988 he received the Magsaysay Award, often referred to as the “Nobel of Asia,” for Public Service. Natural Farming with Masanobu Fukuoka Making Seed Balls Masanobu Fukuoka (1913-2008) Thank you for your work and contribution to humanity it is with admiration and respect I offer with my heartfelt thank you. ~JJ the Gardener Ronnie Davis - I chose this song as the perspective as if Ronnie is the earth and wants to go back to nature or home. R.I.P. Ronnie Davis and thank you. The right to food and relief from hunger is a necessary step to true freedom. Natural Farming Inputs Introduction to Natural Farming LAB - Lactic Acid Bacteria FPJ - Fermented plant juice Seawater, Fermented Seawater, Bio Mineral Water Vinegar OHN - Oriental Herbal Nutrient WCA - Water Soluble Calcium WCAP - Water Soluble Calcium Phosphate FFJ - Fermented Fruit Juice FAA - Fish Amino Acids S.E.S. - Seed and Seedling Treatment IMO to IMO2 IMO 3 IMO 4 & Liquid IMO IMO 5 A proud Cultural Healing and Life compilation. ~JJ the Gardener
  4. Nitrogen Potassium Phosphorus Plant Nutrition Nitrogen Nitrogen, a basic and standard plant food. However the idea of a "food" can be problematic for some gardeners when it comes to managing as we humanize the subject of supplying the plants with nutrition. I will discuss plant nutrition more like building materials for a construction job. As a gardener it is your job to supply the materials as needed. If you send to much or to less it causes problems from uptake to use to storage. If you care what you will get from your garden. Be competent, diligent and not impulsive. Carbon and Nitrogen Carbon is obtained by plants mostly by C02 and thus is how in part plants can grow hydroponically and in soils of various stages. Nitrogen type, growth speed vs transpiration rates will effect the internal carbon of the plant. A balance of nitrogen to internal carbon with yield is the ideal goal. In plants this carbon is often stored in the pith sections. As a plant develops it uses and stores more nitrogen during the vegetative period and will relocate nitrogen from lower leaves later in bloom when needed. Increasing nitrogen in bloom to account for nitrogen deficiency can extend the bloom to harvest period and offer a sub par harvest. Early Growth Considerations Before we begin to consider applying fertilizers we need to consider a few things but essentially we want to consider plant transpiration and nitrogen volatization and mineralization in the soil and media. Environment with considerations to Temperature & humidity in terms of vapor pressure density for your crop area. Dry and Wet conditions. Root structure of plants Feeding plants that have proper roots will ensure the plants can store enough nitrogen for the blooming stages. Most of the nitrogen for the plants needs will be taken up and stored in the roots in the vegetative stage and reaching correct to optimum levels is important of yield goals. The plants will make many chemical reactions and create many substances that all pretty much have other important uses in the plant. Having early deficiencies with nitrogen can cause problems later in the grow on a variety of fronts. Root structure and metabolism can lead to differential accumulation of nitrogen. This happens when environmental or other reasons growth is slowed due to transpiration and assimilation issues. Also can occur from uneven watering of the soil media. This is a negative as it concentrates nitrogen in areas you do not want it and can extend a harvest. Input of nitrogen in bloom stage can create new growth if concentrations are too high. Generally keep Phosphorous and nitrogen in the correct ratio for the applicable plant stage. Types of Nitrogen Nitrate Nitrogen Must be converted prior to use internally in the plant. Nitrogen can be leached easily from soils and medias. More humid climates tend to have poorer nitrogen soils due to leaching. + charge (type of nitrate can fluctuate in + value) This can effect PH of the media. The plant will release a - ion for a + Ion. This build up in the media can alter the PH of the media depending on a variety of factors. Molybdenum is needed to convert nitrate to ammonia to be use in the plant. Nitrogen metabolism takes place in roots and the leafs (shoots). Respiration and transpiration rates affect the plants ability . Environment, EC, plant stage and media conditions are all factors. The assimilation of nitrate is an energy-consuming process, using the equivalent of 15 mol of adenosine triphosphate (ATP - is energy from photosynthesis) for each mole of nitrate reduced (16). Storing nitrate is not toxic. Nitrate can be made mobile. Ammonia Nitrogen Ammonia nitrogen can be used by the plant immediately when foliar fed. Ammonia nitrogen can be assimilated twice as fast as nitrate. Ammonia is broken within 3 days to a few weeks depending on temperature and PH of media by biolife and turned into nitrite. Ammonia in high concentration can stop the nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen cycle Water logged media can remove the soil bacteria and ammonium increases becomes toxic to your plant. Ammonia has a negative - charge. This can effect PH of the media. The plant will release a - ion for a + Ion. This build up in the media can alter the PH of the media depending on a variety of factors. Ammonia nitrogen has a high energy requirement. The assimilation of ammonia requires an additional five ATP per mole. In roots, as much as 23% of the respiratory energy may be used in nitrate assimilation compared with 14% for ammonium assimilation (17). Ammonium is toxic at even low concentrations and must be metabolized into organic combination. Consequently, ammonium metabolism for detoxification may deplete carbon reserves of plants much more than nitrate accumulation. Glutamine synthetase an enzyme created via several processes nitrate reduction but is necessary for ammonia absorption. Part of domino effect of problems if deficiencies shut down. An in part reason why a nutrient is typically made up of a nitrate and ammonia %. The plant will go into phytotoxic conditions if Glutamine Synthetase is reduced or prevented. Their are several parts of ammonia with in the plant assimulation process but each process makes an enzyme or amino acid that is used in another process. Nitrogen Aspects Their are many enzymes, amino acids, and other types of chemicals made during the internal processing of the different states of internal nitrogen use. Some of these products and/or their % may indicate stress factors or assist in other functions of the internal plant processes in terms of making the process function in some detoxification way. Detecting these signals can assist in future planning. It is important to understand that concept as I will tie that in later in advanced growing writing when talk about making changes via stress by altering hormone and auxin levels. This is important in Plant Tissue Testing. (Not THC or CBD but for analysis of growth and deficiency) Nitrogen and other NPK % can affect internal plant signals and alter its growth condition based on those signals. Higher Phosphorous than nitrogen signals flowering aspects in some plants. Longer flowering tropical plants will use nitrogen over a longer period of time but you generally fertilize similar for each period of growth. Generally only the length of the development periods is different. Ammonia and Nitrate nitrogen % of a recipe can be used to help regulate PH in regards to some medias. Optimal Nitrogen Use When we think of optimal we think we can open up a book or jump on the device known as the internet and find our answer. Their is no true answer that you seek like that. You can find ranges but the answer you seek is unique and complicated to be that simple. Optimal comes from environment, overall nutrition, plant management, competence and diligence. Nitrogen is very difficult to determine for yield as the plants are not visibly showing when they are at their "sufficiency" or optimum for yield and is known as critical concentration. Continued use of nitrogen will accumulate to toxicity. The gap from sufficiency to toxicity can vary from large to small. With a nutrient supply in which all elements except nitrogen are held at a constant high level, The concentration of nitrogen within the plant should increase with growth and yields, with increases in nitrogen supply. Nitrogen concentrations in leaves are often not correlated with increased growth and yields. Green color of leaves does not indicate optimum or even wholly problematic levels. Changes and timing of nitrogen levels can affect harvest time periods. Nitrogen concentrations will diminish in leaves, stems, and roots as the plants mature but added nitrogen will go to the plant tissues and become concentrated. Levels vary by the time of day in regards to the daily life function of the plant. In morning or when light starts about 2 hours after. Testing The only way to truly determine absolute nitrogen optimum for your plants is via plant tissue testing. For small farms this may not be large factor but for medium and large farm operations this difference can be a noticeable saving when adjusted for yield and cost efficiency. With this information precise nutritional formulas can be developed for specific locations with respects to its specific environment and plants. Tested plant material should be collected at same light conditions and time of day and location of plants. leaf from same exact location on several plants per section for example. The use of information on internal concentrations of nitrogen in plants should not be directed toward forecasting of yields as much as it should be used in assessing how yields can be improved by fertilization in reference to other nutritional issues. In part this is due to still many factors to come with the growing period that can affect. Field yields rarely give book yields until a farmer is experienced and competent. Generically you want to reduce nitrogen as the plant wants to start to add weight to fruit or when flower truly bloom and no longer make buds but concentrate on the flowers. If nitrogen uptake and assimilation is deficient during its stages of early development it will be problematic. It is common for people to over nitrogen accumulate toxic levels which can be more problematic than under feeding. Testing is only valid for the location and time period of each specific garden or farm. Environmental, overall nutrition, management system, water frequency and type of nitrogen form makes your test unique to you. Same crop, same size, same fertilizer but different location will equal different tests. Their is no golden number from a book, what you search for is the capability of "your" environment, plant, nutrition and you! Deficiencies I have not seen better than the site grow weed easy illustrate and explain deficiencies so I wont try. Deficiency: http://www.growweedeasy.com/nitrogen-deficiency-cannabis Toxicity: http://www.growweedeasy.com/nitrogen-toxicity-cannabis The identification of a problem is the easy part, addressing is easy enough but understanding the reason for the deficiency is important to ensure the issue is not repeated. Generically speaking, nitrogen deficiency (not toxicity) often will not overly affect yield when only occurring in bloom but is illustrative of potential problems in transport (environmental stress? if current but often is result of earlier deficiency). In terms of yellow plants ensure optimal P and enhance the limited photosynthesis you can to keep transport energy levels up more so than healthy plant. Yellowing of leaves is not always caused by nitrogen deficiency but often is a common affect. The reasons for a nitrogen problem is not always easy to pinpoint. The following should lead you to the cause but understand deficiency and other problems are often in a domino effect. Ensure to thoroughly understand the cause and how to prevent again. If only fix the visible issue you potentially will see issues again. Be diligent with this. Check environment records, Temperature (highs and lows and at period of growth) Humidity Light distance Clean Air C02? OZ near plants? Check nutritional records, Check amounts and frequency of feeding Check timing issue after a particular feed? If soil based. Review recipe and ensure the % of nitrogen cycle breakdown is correct and all accounted for. Annotate when you notice the issue and try to determine its starting period of time. Next grow with similar soil make up either add fertilizers at that point next grow or Adjust soil recipe increasing or decreasing the % and types of nitrogen as applicable. Check growth period and ensure the nutritional recipe was correct. Sometimes after an incorrect and/or too strong garden is given. Make sure you identified the correct period of plant development. This can happen during vacations or periods when focus is not on the garden. Check % of nitrate and ammonia. In hydro a reservoir fix is typically enough. In soil a flush to doing re-pot may be necessary if the soil has become acidic (not meaning PH) Check Media conditions, wet, good or dry? pest? compact/loose media? root bound? Check Stress factors Management factors Top? Tie down? Accident? Media humidity unstable? Pest Fungus/disease Root damage pesticide/fungicide? The sum total of that information should enable you to adjust your nitrogen use from general to optimal ranges. Nitrogen & Pollution Nitrogen is a necessary ingredient but is also a very polluting one due to its mobile nature. Small growers tend to not think of these aspects and thus the small farmers do play a large part in nitrogen run off issues which is currently being seen in urban settings. In the future I can see the working on regulations that will financially impact this industry and will be with merited reasons but if farmers do not incorporate correct nutritional rates the farmer actually plays a role in the altering of waters due to increase nitrogen which tends to boost algae and other unfavorable unbalanced biological growth in our environment areas. Often this is effect is unseen and largely under appreciated. Growing our own foods is like a super power in terms of survival of a species. Few creatures pull this off and with this altering comes a responsibility that humanity has not effectively embraced and thus we cause nature to suffer and only take noticed when forced via pollution effects of magnitude and/or regulatory controls which often have political slants that confuse the reduce the effectiveness of the issue. Nitrogen pollution from farming of all sizes should be taken seriously as it is a big factor largely ignored because of special interest, politics and costs. Their are and will be more emotional views of merit regarding this subject as time progresses and the issues becomes more necessary to address. I suggest looking at all views and determining best from that as facts can become blurry as politics and political operatives do their work. Some issues for farmers. Often from a financial stand point chemical nitrogen fertilizers are more cost efficient due chemical made nitrogen having a higher % and reduced cost in volume in shipping and field distribution. Generically written. Due to this view, it should be understood that a farmer may have to embrace chemical fertilizers to remain financially viable in comparison to organic fertilizers but this is only one aspect of that overall consideration but is stated to give this perspective of organic and chemical nitrogen's use in farming. Sometimes people can question a farmer fertilizer choice not realizing if they did not they would potentially put at risk the farms profit or even lose money. Union Break Mandatory Union Break! and what you do on it is your business! Nitrogen Properties and Fertilizer Use Nitrogen cycle must be understood, video describes this cycle earlier in compilation Ammonia volatilization is needed to be understood. (the changing of ammonia to nitrite and then to nitrate.) Anhydrous Ammonia (82% N) In agriculture, anhydrous gaseous ammonia is compressed into a liquid and is applied under high pressure with a special implement by injection at least 15cm deep into a moist soil. The ammonia gas reacts with water to form ammonium ions, which can be held to clay or organic matter. If the ammonia is not injected deeply enough or soil is too wet or dry, ammonia can be lost by volatilization. Anhydrous ammonia is usually the cheapest source of nitrogen, Equipment and power requirements of the methods of application are specific and high. Aqua Ammonia (21% N) Aqua ammonia is ammonia dissolved in water under low pressure. Aqua ammonia must be incorporated into land to avoid losses of nitrogen by ammonia volatilization; Is not needed to be incorporated as deeply as anhydrous ammonia. Urea (46% N) Urea is the most widely used dry nitrogen fertilizer. After application to soils, urea is converted into ammonia, which can be held in the soil or converted into nitrate. Ammonia volatilization following fertilization with urea can be substantial, and if urea is applied to the surface of the land, considerable loss of nitrogen can occur. With surface-applied urea, alkalinity of pH 9 or higher can develop under the urea granule or pellet, and ammonia will volatilize into the air. Volatilization occurs on bare ground, on debris, or on plant leaves. Urea is readily soluble in water, and rainfall or irrigation after its application move it into the soil and lessens volatilization losses. Use of urease inhibitors has been suggested to lessen the volatilization losses of ammonia from surface-applied urea. Manufactured urea is identical to urea in animal urine. Calcium nitrate urea (calurea, 34% N, 10% Ca) is a double-compound fertilizer of calcium Nitrate and urea to supply calcium and nitrogen Several derivatives of urea are marketed as slow-release fertilizers. Urea formaldehyde (ureaform, 38% N) is a slow-release fertilizer manufactured from urea and formaldehyde and is used for fertilization of lawns, turf, container-grown plants, and field crops. Urea formaldehyde is also a glue and is used for the manufacture of plywood and particle board. Dicyandiamide (cyanoguanidine) (66% N) is a nitrogen fertilizer but is used most commonly as an additive (2% of the total N fertilizer) as a nitrification inhibitor with urea. Sulfur-coated urea is a slow-release formulation (30–40% N) used as a fertilizer for field crops, orchards, and turfgrass Isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) is similar to urea formaldehyde, but contains 32% nitrogen. However, utilization of IBDU is less dependent on microbial activity than urea formaldehyde, as hydrolysis proceeds rapidly following dissolution of IBDU in water. Nitrogen is released when soil moisture is adequate. IBDU is used most widely as a lawn fertilizer. Its field use is to restrict leaching of nitrogen Methylene ureas are a class of sparingly soluble products, which were developed during the 1960s and 1970s. These products contain predominantly intermediate chain-length polymers. The total nitrogen content of these polymers is 39 to 40%, with between 25 and 60% of the nitrogen present as cold-water-insoluble nitrogen. This fertilizer is used primarily in fertilization of turfgrass, It has been used with other crops on sandy soils or where leaching of nitrate is an environmental concern. Ammonium Nitrate (34% N) Ammonium nitrate is a dry material sold in granular or prilled form. It can be broadcasted or side dressed to crops and can be left on the surface or incorporated. It does not give an alkaline reaction with soils; hence, it does not volatilize readily. However, incorporation is recommended with calcareous (high calcium soils) soils. Ammonium nitrate is decreasing in popularity because of storage problems, e.g., with fire and explosion. Calcium ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate limestone, about 20% N and 6% Ca) is a mixture of ammonium nitrate and limestone. This fertilizer is not acid-forming and is used to supply nitrogen and calcium to crops. Ammonium Sulfate (21% N) Ammonium sulfate is marketed as a dry crystalline material. It is recommended for use on alkaline soils where it may be desirable to lower soil pH. Nitrification of ammonium is an acidifying process. Ammonium sulfate can be broadcasted or side dressed. It can left on surfaces or incorporated, On calcareous (high calcium) soils watering in or incorporating is recommended to avoid ammonia volatilization Nitrogen Solutions (28–32% N) These fertilizers are mixtures of ammonium nitrate and urea dissolved in water. In the solutions, half of the nitrogen is supplied as urea, and half is supplied as ammonium nitrate. Because of the difficulties in handling, urea and ammonium nitrate should not be mixed together in dry form. The solution acts once the dry materials are applied to the soil. Ammonia volatilization may be substantial during warm weather, especially with surface application. The solutions should be watered into the soil and should not be applied to foliage. Ammonium Phosphates (10–21% N) Ammonium phosphates are important phosphorus-containing fertilizers because of their high concentrations of phosphorus and water solubility. Ammonium phosphates are made by reaction of ammonia with orthophosphoric acid (mono- and diammonium salts) or with superphosphoric (pyrophosphoric) acid Diammonium phosphate (commonly 18% N, 46% P2O5) is a dry granular or crystalline material. It is a soil-acidifying fertilizer and is useful on calcareous soils. It should be incorporated into the soil. It is a common starter fertilizer and is a common component of greenhouse and household fertilizers. Monoammonium phosphate (commonly 11% N, 48% P2O5) has uses similar to those of diammonium phosphate. Ammonium polyphosphate (10% N, 34% P2O5) is marketed as a solution. Its use is similar to that of monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate. Double-salt mixtures such as ammonium nitrate sulfate (30% N), ammonium phosphate nitrate (25% N), urea ammonium phosphate (25–34% N), nitric phosphate, and ammoniated superphosphate (8% N) (152). These materials are used in the manufacture of mixed N-P-K fertilizers or for special needs in soil fertility. Organic Nitrogen Fertilizers (0.2–15% N) Most commercial varieties of organic nitrogen comes from other industry with waste plant and animal sources and are proteinaceous. Organic nitrogen is typically more costly in terms of shipping and distribution in the field. Organic materials range from less than 1 to about 15% N compared with the chemical sources. Difficult for analysis. Commercially organic fertilizers decline in usage with time. Additionally the proteinaceous by-products of food processing have higher value as feeds for poultry and livestock than as fertilizers. Demand for organic fertilizers remains, as organic farmers require these products in the maintenance of soil fertility on their cropland The value of organic nitrogen fertilizers depends on their rate of mineralization, which is closely related to their nitrogen concentration). Generally, the more nitrogen in the fertilizer, the faster the rate of mineralization. In bio farming methods such as natural farming/Korean farming microbes and fungus assist with this aspect more and that is a key ingredient to success to maintain mineralization at acceptable levels. Recap Video Summary Understanding nitrogen correctly will enable you to manage your crops successfully. By proper analysis it is possible to find your optimum nitrogen range for your unique location, plant and conditions. When volumes of fertilizer are being used this can be a good cost effective means as the luxury level plants can hold without benefit to yield or quality is a wast of resources. By understanding how to minimize leaching of nitrogen we also become better stewards of the land we have taken for our needs. Credits & Respects too Handbook of Plant Nutrition 1st edition - http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/42/2/422.3.full I recently learned of 2nd edition and when I have time will get and review to update as applicable in time. Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress - https://www.crcpress.com/Handbook-of-Plant-and-Crop-Stress-Third-Edition/Pessarakli/p/book/9781439813966 I recently learned of 3rd edition and when I have time will get and review to update as applicable in time. GrowWeedEasy - Website for specific negative plant states. Cornell University - BIOPL3420 - Plant Physiology - Thomas Owens xkellzzz GrowGreenerGuru grimpadre Yara International Univ of Wisconsin Integrated Pest and Crop Manageme Weed Schooling Steven Myers The Strumbellas Science with Hazel Links Nitrogen Potassium Phosphorus ~JJ the Gardener - A proud Cultural Healing and Life Compilation
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  7. Way to go Argentina! Cultural Healing and Life Salutes You! Click to learn a bit of Argentina. Such a neat way to do this compared to the for profit system in USA. This kind of systems give cannabis legitimacy but enemies against will not easily recognize that. Argentine Senate approves medical use of cannabis oil By The Associated Press BUENOS AIRES, Argentina — Mar 29, 2017, 10:09 PM ET Argentina's Senate has given final legislative approval to a bill legalizing the use of cannabis oil and other marijuana derivatives for medicinal purposes, and setting up a regulatory framework for the state to prescribe and distribute them to patients. The legislation approved by senators Wednesday also creates a medical marijuana research program at the Health Ministry, which must "guarantee free access" to cannabis oil and other derivatives to patients who join the program. The legislation was passed by the Chamber of Deputies earlier. "In history, the big things always come in small steps," said Valeria Salech, president of a private pro-medical marijuana group called Mama Cultiva Argentina, which has argued that cannabis can radically change the quality of life for children suffering everything from HIV to epilepsy. Her group is already lobbying to push the legislation further, to permit the families of patients to grow their own marijuana. Under the new legislation, government agencies will be authorized to grow marijuana for research purposes and to produce cannabis oil and derivatives for patients. The state can import cannabis derivatives until they can be produced locally. Other nations in Latin America are also debating allowing medical uses of marijuana. But Uruguay is the only country in South America that has legalized recreational pot. In the U.S., voters in California, Massachusetts, Maine and Nevada last year approved recreational use of marijuana, joining Colorado, Washington, Oregon and Alaska. Canadian officials have recently said they hope to legalize recreational pot in 2018.
  8. Lighting ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Emoticons are safe bonus links, most youtube, click them. Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. Indoor Garden Environment Section IV Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. When a more accurate estimate of the photosynthetic activity is needed, the exact response curve of the plant may be considered, leading to the yield photon flux density (YPFD). In the following examples, only PPFD will be used, although YPFD may be used instead in exactly the same way if necessary. Also, the term PAR (or Photosynthetically Active Radiation) is used instead of PPFD by some practitioners; however, PPFD is the term recommended by the CIE (The International Commission on Illumination). In some research papers, the acronym PPF (Photosynthetic Photon Flux) is used interchangeably with PPFD. Strictly speaking, it implies an integrated value of the PPFD over a given area. If that area is completely surrounding the light source, PPF is analogous to the luminous flux used in general lighting, whereas PPFD is analogous to the luminous flux density or Illuminance used there. It is very important not to use general lighting units such as lumens, lux and foot candles in horticultural lighting directly since they are all tied to human vision instead of photosynthetic action. However, it is possible to calculate the coefficients for converting these units into PPFD values, if the corresponding spectra are known. Those have to be used sometimes in the absence of quantum meter data but are spectrum-dependent, so they are generally not transferable between different spectra. For example, the conversion coefficient between the lux values (such as obtained with a photographer’s light meter) and PPFD (in mmol/m2s) is 0.018 for sunlight, 0.012 for high-pressure sodium light, 0.014 for metal halide light, etc. It should be noted that the analogous conversion coefficients for LED light sources may reach and exceed 0.100, especially if the latter have little or no emission around 555 nm – due to the sensitivity maximum of the human eye being at that particular wavelength. All of this underscores how unsuitable general lighting metrics are for horticulture applications. Daily Light Integral (DLI), horticulture lighting This is the total number of photons falling per square meter of area in a day, expressed in moles. Each plant has a certain DLI requirement in order to develop, and these values are known for a range of plants. This is another manifestation of the fact that photosynthetic action is proportional to the total number of photons absorbed by the plant. DLI values of 10-12 mol/m2.d have been found to be sufficient for most shade-intolerant plants. Plants requiring full sun may need higher DLI values (18 mol/m2.d or even more), and those requiring full shade – lower ones (6 mol/m2.d or even less). Assuming a constant PPFD level (common in artificial lighting), it is related to DLI as follows: DLI = PPFD x number of hours of light on per day x 0.0036, where the unit conversion factor of 0.0036 is the number of seconds in an hour divided by a million. The number of hours must be converted to decimal format to be used in this formula (for example, 11 h 6 min 40 s becomes 11.1111 h). By rearranging the last formula, one can calculate either the necessary PPFD value to reach a given DLI target over a given number of hours, or the necessary number of hours that lighting with a given PPFD value needs to be on per day, in order to achieve a certain DLI target. For example, a DLI of 12 mol/m2d may be achieved by using 200 µmol/m2s of light over 16 h and 40 min, 250 µmol/m2s of light over 13 h and 20 min, 300 µmol/m2s of light over 11 h, 6 min and 40 s, etc. If any part of the DLI is provided by natural light, it must be subtracted from the original target DLI value for proper artificial lighting calculations. Outdoor DLI levels vary with season and latitude, and average monthly values by region are available for the contiguous US. It must also be kept in mind that about half of the outdoor daylight is typically lost by the time it enters a greenhouse, due to absorption by its structure. From the above calculations, it is obvious that there is a trade off relationship between the PPFD value and the number of light hours required to reach a given DLI target. Since the cost of horticulture lighting is directly proportional to PPFD, a good strategy is to use its lowest value at the corresponding longest light hours the plants can tolerate. (Many plants require a daily period of darkness, which will be discussed separately.) A calculation of the required number of horticulture fixtures can be done from the average PPFD value needed as follows: Number of Fixtures = (PPFD Target x Total Plant Canopy Area)/(PPF per Fixture x CU) In this formula, PPFD must be in µmol/m2s, the plant canopy area must be in m2, the PPF per fixture – in µmol/s and CU is the coefficient of utilization, which is a dimensionless fraction. PPF per fixture is the horticulture analog of the fixture lumens in general lighting, and can be calculated from the former using the same coefficients as for the calculation of PPFD from lx values mentioned earlier. For other spectra (such as LED fixtures), the PPF value may be obtained from the manufacturer. CU represents the fraction of the light generated by the fixtures that is falling on the task surface. For example, if 75% of that light is reaching the task surface and the other 25% isn’t, CU=0.75. CU depends on the geometry of both the light source and the entire setup, can be calculated accurately, for instance by using freely available software such as Dialux. It can be as low as 0.50 or as high as 0.90, and will generally increase with the area, all other factors being the same. If CU is unknown, the value of 0.70 can be used as a starting estimate. For example, the total number of fixtures, each emitting 50 mmol/s, needed to provide an area of 20 m2 with 200 mmol/m2s at a CU of 0.77 will be (200 x 20)/(50 x 0.75) = 107 (any fractional answers have to be rounded up in order to reach the PPFD target). Another consideration is the uniformity of the light produced by the fixtures. It should be maximized by spreading the fixtures out as evenly as possible over the task area, taking into account the light distribution pattern of each fixture. This can be done at the lighting design stage, Also verified at the implementation stage, e.g. with a hand-held PPFD meter. In summary, the total number of horticulture light fixtures needed for a given project can be calculated from the average PPFD target, which in turn can be calculated from the DLI target for the plants at any fixed light hours value. There are some important additional considerations regarding the latter value, as well as the proper spectral composition of the light. Purdue University DLI Information - https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/ho/ho-238-w.pdf Growing Calculators Click to visit Calculate at Maximum Grow Gardening Site. What's in The Calculator Wattage Calculator: Use this to determine the light wattage you will need for your size grow room. Parts Per Million Calculator: Use this calculator to determine accurate solution mixes. Carbon Dioxide(CO2) Calculator: Calculate how much CO2 will be needed to fill a grow room to the optimum level. Temperature Converter: Use this to easily convert between degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit. Air Exchange Calculator: Enter your grow room dimensions, and this will tell you how powerful of a fan you will need for optimum air flow. Estimated Cost Calculator: Predicts how much the cost for electricity will be monthly. What's that light cost you? Click to visit the calculator located at Dark Sky Society You can calculate results for up to four types of lights. http://www.darkskysociety.org/lightcost/index.php Select the type of lamp (i.e. Incandescent, Fluorescent, etc.) Select the lamp wattage (lamp lumens) Enter the number of lights in use Select how long the lamps are in use (or click to enter your own; enter hours on per year). Finally, click submit on the calculator at the site and find your answer. Advanced Light Summary The above information is compiled and commented on by me throughout this document is intended to assist you in gaining a further understanding and insight that can assist in your knowledge and help you create realistic lighting environments based on your needs and those of the plants and not necessarily the financial needs of a grow shop. The information is expected to assist those who are truly serious about plant lighting knowledge and using "best practice" within their growing environments for lighting. Typically not your average grower and budget is typically not an issue for this level of hobbyist or the crop is of sufficient value to justify the expense. For most, I hope we played a role instilling a greater understanding of lighting and how the plants uses light throughout its development. When "best practice" lighting is used within a "best practice" grow environment and tapered with "best practice" nutrition you can truly find the maximum range of what your genetics will create. Achieving this is often seen as not possible for most but by understanding the "knowledge above" it will help make the complex simple. As discussed lighting is as simple or as complex as you want it to be. I have seen grows as cheap as possible but competent grower and they perform better than grows I have seen of those who invested much money into the latest equipment but they did not understand how to use correctly. It is a matter of knowledge and how to apply it than it is a matter of investment. I thank you for your time and if this helped you, it is not me to thank as this is a combination of many who helped educate me in this art. Puff puff and give that knowledge as you pass to others is all we ask and that is the pat on the back we gladly accept and take. Specially for you! Further advanced reading. http://photobiology.info/Gorton.html http://plantsinaction.science.uq.edu.au/edition1/?q=content/title-page http://www.revagrois.ro/PDF/2011/paper/2011-54(1)-7-en.pdf https://www.licor.com/env/webinars/ http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/2/228.full Next Section is Indoor Environment http://culturalhealingandlife.com.www413.your-server.de/index.php?/topic/4-the-indoor-garden-environment/ Credits and special appreciations and respect to: We appreciate in knowing if this helped but I like it more when their sites are visited. We are not affiliated. https://fluence.science/science/photomorphogenesis-guide http://www.growweedeasy.com/lux-meter. https://fluence.science/science/photosynthesis-guide/ http://www.sunmastergrowlamps.com/SunmLightandPlants.html http://photobiology.info/Gorton.html http://forever-green-indoors.myshopify.com/blogs/news http://www.maximumgrow.com/ http://www.darkskysociety.org/index.cfm http://gardenculturemagazine.com/ http://gavita-holland.com/index.php/documentation-a-downloads.html ~Hempyfan, a proud HD writing.
  9. Lighting ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Emoticons are safe bonus links, most youtube, click them. Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. Indoor Garden Environment Advanced Section IIII Understanding Light Measurements PAR and Plant Response Curve Wiki Page - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photosynthetically_active_radiation PAR measurement is used in agriculture, forestry and oceanography. One of the requirements for productive farmland is adequate PAR, so PAR is used to evaluate agricultural investment potential. PAR sensors stationed at various levels of the forest canopy measure the pattern of PAR availability and utilization. PAR measurements are also used to calculate the euphotic depth in the ocean. The photic zone, euphotic zone (Greek for "well lit": εὖ "well" + φῶς "light"), or sunlight zone is the depth of the water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to such intensity of sunlight which designates compensation point, i.e. the intensity of light at which the rate of carbon dioxide uptake, or equivalently, the rate of oxygen production, is equal to the rate of carbon dioxide production, equivalently to the rate of oxygen consumption, reducing thus the net carbon dioxide assimilation to zero. Information below from - http://www.sunmastergrowlamps.com/SunmLightandPlants.html Just as humans need a balanced diet, plants need balanced, full-spectrum light for good health and optimum growth. The quality of light is as important as quantity. Plants are sensitive to a similar portion of the spectrum as is the human eye. This portion of the light spectrum is referred to as photosynthetically active radiation or PAR, namely about 400 to 700 nanometers in wavelength. Nevertheless, plant response within this region is very different from that of humans. The human eye has a peak sensitivity in the yellow-green region, around 550 nanometers. This is the "optic yellow" color used for highly visible signs and objects. Plants, on the other hand, respond more effectively to red light and to blue light, the peak being in the red region at around 630 nanometers. The graphs below show the human eye response curve and the plant response curve. Note the vast difference in the contours. In the same way fat provides the most efficient calories for humans, red light provides the most efficient food for plants. However, a plant illuminated only with red or orange light will fail to develop sufficient bulk. Leafy growth (vegetative growth) and bulk also require blue light. Many other complex processes are triggered by light required from different regions of the spectrum. The correct portion of the spectrum varies from species to species. However, the quantity of light needed for plant growth and health can be measured, assuming that all portions of the spectrum are adequately covered. Light for plants cannot, however, be measured with the same standards used to measure light for humans. Some basic definitions and distinctions follow that are useful in determining appropriate ways to measure the quantity of light for hydroponic plant growth. Measuring Light for Humans: Lumens and Lux First, how do we measure light quantity for humans? The obvious way is based on how bright the source appears and how "well" the eye sees under the light. Since the human eye is particularly sensitive to yellow light, more weight is given to the yellow region of the spectrum and the contributions from blue and red light are largely discounted. This is the basis for rating the total amount of light emitted by a source in lumens. The light emitted from the source is then distributed over the area to be illuminated. The illumination is measured in "lux", a measurement of how many lumens falls on each square meter of surface. An illumination of 1000 lux implies that 1000 lumens are falling on each square meter of surface. Similarly, "foot-candles" is the term for the measure of how many lumens are falling on each square foot of surface. Quick Guide - Lux Levels for Optimal Cannabis Growth Information from http://www.growweedeasy.com/lux-meter Life Stage Maximum Good Minimum Vegetative 70,000 lux 40,000 lux 15,000 lux Flowering 85,000 lux 60,000 lux 35,000 lux 15,000 lux - sparse or "stretchy" growth - plant isn't getting enough light 15,000 - 50,000 lux - good amount of light for healthy vegetative growth 45,000 - 65,000 lux - optimal amount of light for cannabis plants in the flowering (budding) stage 70,000 - 85,000 lux - a lot of light, some strains do okay at this light level, but some plants lose their top leaves early under this light intensity, especially plants that are not resistant to heat/light (like many indicas) 85,000 lux - at this light intensity, you've hit the plant's "saturation point" which means your plant can't use all the light (watch for light bleaching) On a clear summer day, the sun gives off something close to 32,000-130,000 lux in the direct sun. This is relative where you are located on a longitudinal axis. The closer you are to the equator, the more direct sun your plants are getting. When growing cannabis, you don't really get any additional gains by adding more light to get over 85,000 lux. Not only is it the extra light wasted by your plants, too much light can actually give your plants unsightly light burn or cause it to lose its leaves early! Clearly, both lumens and lux (or foot-candles) refer specifically to human vision and not to the way plants see light. How then should the rating for plant lighting be accomplished? There are two basic approaches to develop this rating: measuring energy or counting photons. PAR Watts for Plants Watts is an objective measure of energy being used or emitted by a lamp each second. Energy itself is measured in joules, and 1 joule per second is called a watt. A 100 watt incandescent bulb uses up 100 joules of electrical energy every second. How much light energy is it generating? About 6 joules per second or 6 watts, but the efficiency of the lamp is only 6%, a rather dismal number. The rest of the energy is dissipated mainly as heat. Modern discharge lamps like high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide convert (typically) 30% to 40% of the electrical energy into light. Since plants use energy between 400 and 700 nanometers and light in this region is called Photosynthetically Active Radiation or PAR, we could measure the total amount of energy emitted per second in this region and call it PAR watts. This is an objective measure in contrast to lumens which is a subjective measure since it is based on the response of the subjects (humans). PAR watts directly indicates how much light energy is available for plants to use in photosynthesis. The output of a 400 watt incandescent bulb is about 25 watts of light, a 400 watt metal halide bulb emits about 140 watts of light. If PAR is considered to correspond more or less to the visible region, then a 400 watt metal halide lamp provides about 140 watts of PAR. A 400 watt HPS lamps has less PAR, typically 120 to 128 watts, but because the light is yellow it is rated at higher lumens (for the human eye). "Illumination" for plants is measured in PAR watts per square meter. There is no specific name for this unit but it is referred to as "irradiance" and written, for example, as 25 watts/square meter or 25 w/m2. Photons Another means of measuring light quantity for plant growth involves the understanding that light is always emitted or absorbed in discrete packets called "photons." These packets or photons are the minimum units of energy transactions involving light. For example, if a certain photosynthetic reaction occurs through absorption of one photon of light, then it is sensible to determine how many photons are falling on the plant each second. Also, since only photons in the PAR region of the spectrum are active in creating photosynthesis, it makes sense to limit the count to PAR photons. A lamp could be rated on how many actual tiny photons it is emitting each second. At present no lamp manufacturer does this rating. Instead, plant biologists and researchers prefer to talk of the flux of photons falling each second on a surface. This is the basis of PPF PAR with PPF standing for Photosynthetic Photon Flux, a process which actually counts the number of photons falling per second on one square meter of surface. Since photons are very small, the count represents a great number of photons per second, but the number does provide a meaningful comparison. Another measure appropriate for plant growth, called YPF PAR or Yield Photon Flux, takes into account not only the photons but also how effectively they are used by the plant. Since red light (or red photons) are used more effectively to induce a photosynthesis reaction, YPF PAR gives more weight to red photons based on the plant sensitivity curve. Since photons are very small packets of energy, rather than referring to 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 photons, scientists conventionally use the figure "1.7 micromoles of photons" designated by the symbol "µmol." A µmol stands for 6 x 1017 photons; 1 mole stands for 6 x 1023 photons. Irradiance (or illumination) is therefore measured in watts per square meter or in micromoles (of photons) per square meter per second, abbreviated as µmol.m-2.s-1 The unit "einstein" is sometimes used to refer to one mole per square meter per second. It means that each second a 1 square meter of surface has 6 x 1023 photons falling on it. Irradiance levels for plant growth can therefore be measured in micro-einsteins or in PAR watts/sq. meter. These three measures of photosynthetically active radiation, PAR watts per square meter, PPF PAR and YPF PAR are all legitimate, although different, ways of measuring the light output of lamps for plant growth. They do not involve the human eye response curve which is irrelevant for plants. Since plant response does "spill out" beyond the 400 nanometer and 700 nanometer boundaries, some researchers refer to the 350 – 750 nanometer region as the PAR region. Using this expanded region will lead to mildly inflated PAR ratings compared to the more conservative approach in this discussion. However, the difference is small. Photosynthesis and Photomorphogenesis Plants receiving insufficient light levels produce smaller, longer (as compared to wide) leaves and have lower overall weight. Plants receiving excessive amounts of light can dry up, develop extra growing points, become bleached through the destruction of chlorophyll, and display other symptoms of excessive stress. Plants are also damaged by excessive heat (infrared) radiation or extreme ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Within the acceptable range, however, plants respond very well to light with their growth rate being proportional to irradiance levels. The relative quantum efficiency is a measure of how likely each photon is to stimulate a photosynthetic chemical reaction. The curve of relative quantum efficiency versus wavelength is called the plant photosynthetic response curve as shown earlier in this section. It is also possible to plot a curve showing the effectiveness of energy in different regions of the spectrum in producing photosynthesis. The fact that blue photons contain more energy than red photons would need to be taken into account, and the resulting curve could be programmed into photometry spheres to directly measure "plant lumens" of light sources instead of "human lumens." The main ingredient in plants that is responsible for photosynthesis is chlorophyll. Some researchers extracted chlorophyll from plants and studied its response to different wavelengths of light, believing that this response would be identical to the photosynthetic response of plants. However, it is now known that other compounds (carotenoids and phycobilins) also result in photosynthesis. The plant response curve, therefore, is a complex summation of the responses of several pigments and is somewhat different for different plants. An average is generally used which represents most plants, although individual plants may vary by as much as 25% from this curve. While HPS and incandescent lamps are fixed in their spectral output, metal halide lamps are available in a broad range of color temperatures and spectral outputs. With this in mind, the discriminating grower can choose a lamp that provides the best spectral output for his specific needs. In addition to photosynthesis which creates material growth, several other plant actions (such as germination, flowering, etc.) are triggered by the presence or absence of light. These functions, broadly classified as photomorphogenesis, do not depend much on intensity but on the presence of certain types of light beyond threshold levels. Photomorphogenesis is controlled by receptors known as phytochrome, cryptochrome, etc., and different plant functions are triggered in response to infra red, blue or UV light. Summary of Light Measurement Plants "see" light differently than human beings do. As a result, lumens, lux or footcandles should not be used to measure light for plant growth since they are measures used for human visibility. More correct measures for plants are PAR watts, PPF PAR and YPF PAR, although each in itself does not tell the whole story. In addition to quantity of light, considerations of quality are important, since plants use energy in different parts of the spectrum for critical processes. Photosynthetic Considerations - for Horticulture Lighting https://fluence.science/science/photosynthesis-guide/ There are certain important considerations when choosing a light source for horticulture lighting. The first group relates to the wavelength range and amount of light needed for photosynthesis, which is the fundamental metabolic process in plants. A common misconception is that since chlorophyll absorbs light predominantly in the red and blue parts of the spectrum (leading to the green color of plant leaves), green light is not used by plants in photosynthesis. In reality, precise and independent measurements of the photosynthetic activity under different wavelengths by McCree and Inada have demonstrated clearly that green light is nearly as effective as blue light for a considerable number of crop plant species, with only small differences between their respective photosynthetic action spectra. The short explanation for this experimental fact is that higher plants have evolved both biochemical and biophysical solutions (e.g. “antenna” molecules and light-trapping structures) to utilize green light better. It is important to know that red light (600-700 nm) is almost twice as effective as blue (400-500 nm) light per incident watt, with green (500-600 nm) light in between. This is primarily due to the fact that the number of photons each unit of light energy carries is directly proportional to its wavelength. If the radiant energy is converted to photon counts and the photosynthetic yield is plotted in terms of the latter, the resulting curve becomes considerably flatter. The explanation for this fact is that similar numbers of photosynthetically active photons are needed at various wavelengths to transform biochemically one molecule of carbon dioxide. For this reason, botanists routinely use quantum meters, which measure the spectral region between 400 nm and 700 nm to obtain the incident photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). PPFD is typically expressed in micromoles of photons in the above wavelength range, falling each second per 1 square meter of area at the plant canopy level. This effectively means that the square is taken instead of the actual plant response curve. Although this approach over-estimates somewhat all of the blue and part of the green spectral regions (from 400 to about 550 nm) and entirely ignores the spectral regions below 400 nm and above 700 nm, it is adequate for most practical purposes. You earned for finishing Section II Click for - Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. http://culturalhealingandlife.com.www413.your-server.de/index.php?/topic/10-section-iv-advanced-lighting-information-and-formulas/ ~ Hempyfan, A proud HD writing.
  10. Lighting ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Emoticons are safe bonus links, most youtube, click them. Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. Indoor Garden Environment Light Section III - Advanced Plant Growth and Light Click on the emoticon Plant growth is driven by three processes which are responsive to light: Photosynthesis (metabolism) Photomorphogenesis (form development) Photoperiodism (daylength reaction) Photosynthesis The most important of these processes is the photosynthesis: the basis for plant growth and development. More simply, it is a process that all plants use, to collect the energy from the sunlight. The plants store the collected energy as carbohydrates, so that the sunlight basically serves as food for the plant. The light is absorbed with the aid of the pigment chlorophyll. The two most important chlorophylls are chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B. Chlorophyll A absorbs the light in the blue and red wavelengths. Green and far-red light however, are little or not absorbed. Chlorophyll B uses a similar range, with absorption peaks closer to the blue end of the spectrum. So right there if we are custom designing a light spectrum we want to hit blue and red. Absorption Spectrum Chlorophyll A, B and Beta-Carotene The "action spectrum" is the sensitivity curve of the light on plant's photosynthesis. In order to make accurate statements about the light absorption of different pigments, scientists undertook a complex measurement process using a spectrophotometer where each wavelength was tested for the specific absorption rate. The result of the activity of main pigments and auxiliary pigments is shown graphically in the action spectrum. action spectrum graph Comparing the action spectrum with the corresponding absorption spectrum of chlorophyll you will note that they do not match. In fact, the absorption spectrum leads to the conclusion that photosynthesis is primarily driven by blue and red light and we believe this is true in cannabis photosynthetic response - depending on the phase of plant growth. A plant will benefit to some degree from all the light wavelengths or spectra that the eye sees, but they respond best to spectral regions at the outer edges of peak human vision. If the artificial light spectrum is narrowly emitted, or missing altogether, then the plants will not develop to the fullest leafy vegetative, or bulky flowering stages that natural sunlight would have provided. Photomorphogenesis (form development) Young plants such as newly rooted clones prefer the Action Spectrum. In fact too much light intensity on the red wavelengths is harmful to young cannabis plants. On the other hand as plants grow in the 20-24 hour vegetative stage they move from only being able to handle the Action Spectrum, to very much being driven by the Absorption Spectrum. And this makes sense because this is when plants are growing like crazy, absorbing the light to create chlorophyll A & B. Photoperiodism (daylength reaction) Now what is really fascinating is that when it is time to turn the lights down to a 12 hour day which will induce the reproductive or flower phase then we've found that the plants are firmly desirous of the spectrum weighted to chlorophyll A and in fact prefer much more red wavelengths. They produce flowers as a means to pass on their genetic heritage. So stressing cannabis is important just as it is when making wine with grapes. https://aaronberdofewine.com/tag/stressing-the-vine/ za Red light seems to trigger a response in plants that they need to stretch to out compete their neighbors. And to produce the largest flowers possible. Cannabis in the flowering stage of growth will be looking for between 800-1000 umol. (par) Union Break! Click and take a break, Union rules, what you gonna do? Take a break that's what your gonna do. Light and Photosynthesis https://fluence.science/science/photomorphogenesis-guide/ Light causes a biochemical processes in plants. Some of these processes regulate key stages of plant development, such as germination and flowering They depend strongly on the spectrum of the light and in some cases, also on the timing, periodicity and the overall exposure. This is called fluence, and is measured in micromoles of photons per square meter of surface. Lowest is star light Highest is direct sun. In terms of spectrum dependence, by far the best understood today are the processes controlled by red and far red light. For the purposes of this discussion, red (R) is the spectral region around 660 nm and far red (FR) – that around 730 nm. In order to better understand the significance of these two spectral regions, it is necessary to also consider the chemical mediator of the corresponding responses, called phytochrome. Phytochrome is a blue protein pigment which exists in two forms – a red light absorbing one (Pr) and a far red absorbing one (Pfr). Each of them converts into the other upon absorbing the corresponding light until an equilibrium is established, with the relative amount of each form depending primarily on the ratio of R to FR light in the spectrum. In addition, the Pfr form will slowly revert spontaneously into the Pr form if left in complete darkness. The prevalence of one or the other form (which depends on the R/FR spectral ratio as well as the dark photoperiod) in a plant can stimulate or inhibit a number of developmental processes such as germination, leaf unrolling, chlorophyll formation, stem elongation and flowering. This is generally referred to as photomorphogenesis. For example, some plant seeds will not germinate unless they are exposed to red light. Also, plants growing in the shade of other plants will become taller than they would in full daylight. The reason is that light filtered by plant leaves becomes depleted in red light and enriched in far red light. This shifts the phytochrome photo equilibrium towards the Pr form and triggers the shade avoidance response of stem elongation, which increases the chances for the plant to reach the direct daylight. (Stretching) Although the R:FR ratio in daylight can vary over the course of the day and will become somewhat lower at sunset, the length of the dark period is even more influential on the phytochrome photo equilibrium since the Pfr molecules in a plant will start undergoing the dark reversion process at nightfall. The longer the night, the relatively higher the amount of the Pr form will become. In turn, this amount is strongly involved in the control of flowering for quite a few plants. There are long-day plants (which require short nights to flower), short-day plants (requiring long nights) and day-neutral plants which have no specific requirement for the photoperiod. This dependence on the photoperiod is referred to as photoperiodism. Different light treatment is needed on a case by case basis, especially when one needs to induce or delay flowering. Lights on for 12 hours and off for 12 hours for traditional flower times. In artificial horticulture lighting, there is a number of choices – especially when it comes to using LED lights, which can have any desired ratio of R/FR light. Since FR light is not photosynthetically active, its use in horticulture lighting is often limited for reasons of energy efficiency. A good energy-saving strategy is to use one set of lights for growth and another – for (flower) photoperiod control when necessary. The former set can have a very high R/FR ratio (as high as several thousands) with no ill effect for most plants. The latter set can consist of a pure red source (e.g. 660 nm LEDs), a pure far red source (e.g. 730 nm LEDs), or a combination of both. Since phytochrome response is in the low fluence range, the number of fixtures needed for (flower) photoperiod control may be much smaller than that of fixtures needed for growth. In addition, the operating time needed for photoperiod control can be much shorter, such as only minutes at a time. For example, flowering of a long-day plant may be induced by night interruption, using a series of short flashes of red light with photon flux levels as low as a few micromoles/m2s. (Lights with a high R/FR ratio installed for growing purposes may be used instead with the same effect.) Short-day plants may be induced to flower by a single flash with pure FR light at the very beginning of the dark photoperiod, after turning off all other lights. This effectively adds a couple of hours to the dark period for the purpose of flowering, which can be used to extend the light period for growth and optimize plant yields overall as a result. Switching the above methods for plants with opposite photoperiod requirements would delay flowering, which may also be desired sometimes (e.g. to provide the best quality flowers on schedule for certain holidays). It should be noted that although the R/FR ratio is often used to describe light spectra, it affects the phytochrome photo equilibrium only up to a point, and not always in a directly proportional way. The reason lies in the overlap between the absorption spectra of Pr and Pfr. As a result of this overlap, the highest concentration of Pfr does not exceed about 80% of the total phytochrome concentration even under pure red light, while the lowest concentration of Pfr can be almost 0% for the pure FR region. Light sources containing red light and no appreciable content of far red light maintain equilibrium values for Pfr in the 70 to 80% range, meaning that they behave similarly to pure red light in this respect. Those have no ill effect on most plants; however, some FR light may have to be added to the growth spectrum for any exceptions requiring continuously lower Pfr concentrations. If necessary, it is possible to custom design light spectra targeting any Pfr equilibrium value within the entire physically obtainable range, after performing calculations of the phytochrome photo equilibrium under different relevant wavelengths. Since this can reduce the photosynthetic efficiency of the light (thereby increasing the overall cost of lighting), it should always be done judiciously. If you been reading a bit, take a union break. The blue spectral region is also important for a variety of plant responses such as suppression of stem elongation, phototropism (bending towards the light source), chloroplast movement within cells, stomatal opening and activation of gene expression, to name a few. Some of these are morphogenic and others aren’t. The mediator molecules can be cryptochromes, phototropins etc., unlike the phytochrome mediated responses reviewed earlier. However, blue light responses are not reversible under far red light, which allows for their straightforward experimental distinction from the red light ones. Stomatal opening and height control are of particular relevance to horticulture lighting. A much too low content of blue light in the growth spectrum (e.g. less than 10% of the total photon flux) can lead to leaf edema (swelling of the leaves) and developmental problems in some plants. The absolute content of blue light has a progressively stronger effect for plant height reduction. This may be desirable in some cases (e.g. to produce more compact seedlings and reduce transportation costs) but generally leads to lower photosynthetic efficiency of the light with respect to energy consumption. A high relative content of blue light reduces the plant leaf area and may be undesirable for that reason. Near UV light has an effect similar to blue light, with further reduced photosynthetic efficiency, especially below 400 nm (although the other effects may be stronger by comparison). It also affects the biosynthesis of compounds responsible for the flavor of certain fruits, as well as that of other compounds which are not directly produced by photosynthesis alone. Whenever the use of near UV light is necessary to control a corresponding sensory mechanism or the production of a specific molecule of interest by the plant, an overall efficiency trade-off may have to be reached, similarly to that for the use of far red light. Finally, the control effects of green light are generally opposite to those of red and blue light, and have been considered as “a signal to slow down or stop”. Another way to look at them is as the means to achieve a balance between spectral actions and counteractions, needed to adjust plant development and growth. The phytochrome and cryptochrome molecules mentioned earlier are also responsive to green light – even though to a significantly lesser extent than to red or blue light, correspondingly. So far, all efforts by researchers to find photoreceptors responding primarily to green light have given no definitive results. The addition of green light into the growth spectrum has been demonstrated to be beneficial for the growth of certain leafy vegetables. In summary, only a few plant species will grow best under pure red light, although the latter has the highest possible photosynthetic efficiency. As a minimum, a horticulture light spectrum should also contain some amount of blue light. Green, far red and near UV spectral components may have to be added for optimal plant development. The photoperiod length can be critical for flowering, and pure red or far red light sources may also be used for flowering control in an energy-efficient manner. You earned for finishing Section III Click for next - Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements http://culturalhealingandlife.com.www413.your-server.de/index.php?/topic/9-section-iiii-understanding-light-measurements/ ~ Hempyfan, A proud HD writing
  11. Lighting ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Emoticons are safe bonus links, most youtube, click them. Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. Indoor Garden Environment Advanced Section II Lighting Technology & Reflector Section Click emoticons This section discusses lighting, ballast, reflector and light cooling options. Think you know about light and growing? Take the test and see if you should read the following or not. The "Lighting Dunning-Krueger Test" : This section's information is a compilation of lighting information and my writings as to help explain light and how to use that information as to create truly professional grow environments or just to advance ones understanding of light. Since most growers are not agriculturally trained their is often misunderstandings and half truths taken for facts. In part, this aspect is what prevents skilled plant growers from achieving advanced level crops in regards to gardeners who do not optimize their lighting for their plants and are working for optimized conditions. This document is an attempt to answer that flaw within the home gardener community. Growing optimum requires lighting knowledge (spectrum and how to use it with plant development), environment (temperature, humidity, air flow, in alignment with plant development) and plant nutrition in alignment with plant development and conditions. When these factors align they unlock the potential of your plants to what is possible for professional indoor gardening from enclosed growing rooms to greenhouses adding additional lighting to daylight. Below is a compilation and writing on various lighting options and how to use them. In this section I will discuss lighting options in an ethical and honest presentation as I understand it. Garden Lighting Options Metal Halide Lighting Metal halide lamps are widely used in the horticultural industry and are well-suited to supporting plants: Often used as secondary lighting in agriculture operations and not as a main light. Agriculture operations often use the sun as main light source with other lights acting in secondary or boosting/management aspect. Used in early plant developmental stages by promoting stronger roots, better resistance against disease and more compact growth. The blue spectrum of light encourages compact, leafy growth and may be better suited to growing vegetative plants with lots of foliage. A metal halide bulb produces 60-125 lumens/watt, depending on the wattage of the bulb They are now being made for digital ballasts in a pulse start version, which have higher electrical efficiency (up to 110 lumens per watt) and faster warmup.[14] One common example of a pulse start metal halide is the ceramic metal halide (CMH). Pulse start metal halide bulbs can come in any desired spectrum from cool white (7000 K) to warm white (3000 K) and even ultraviolet-heavy (10,000 K) Combination MH and HPS ("Dual arc") Combination HPS/MH lights combine a metal halide and a high-pressure sodium in the same bulb, providing both red and blue spectrums in a single HID lamp. The combination of blue metal halide light and red high-pressure sodium light is an attempt to provide a very wide spectrum within a single lamp. This allows for a single bulb solution throughout the entire life cycle of the plant, from vegetative growth through flowering. There are potential trade-offs for the convenience of a single bulb in terms of yield. There are however some qualitative benefits that come for the wider light spectrum. Metal Halide and High Pressure Sodium (HPS) explanation Light Emitting Ceramic Metal Halide Lights https://www.growweedeasy.com/cannabis-grow-lights#CMH-Ceramic-Metal-Halide What is an LEC grow light? "LEC" stands for "Light Emitting Ceramic," and is a name for a type of metal halide known as a "ceramic metal halide" or "CMH." It operates a lot like a regular metal halide except instead of using quartz it uses a ceramic arc tube, very similar to what's used in HPS grow lights. This gives ceramic metal halides some distinct advantages. Compared to regular MH bulbs, LEC lights give off a more natural color, produce more light per watt, and last longer. It's more common to see these called CMH grow lights, but LEC is starting to become a lot more popular, probably because it's reminiscent of "LED" grow lights which have been hailed as the grow light of the future, until now! When it comes to growing cannabis, what advantages do LEC grow lights have over traditional grow lights? Although this has yet to be verified with scientific testing, their has been much claim of higher quality harvest with this light technology. They produce a natural spectrum of light that looks just like the sun, making it really nice to look at your plants since they're in full color. Having natural light makes it easier to diagnose problems compared to other types of grow lights which can produce purple (LED) or yellow (HPS) light that makes it hard to accurately see how healthy your plant is. Photography is better under this light spectrum. Many LEC grow light models come with a built-in ballast which makes them "plug-and-play" (you plug the light directly into the wall) like an LED, as opposed to most HID grow lights which need a separate ballast LEC bulbs last longer and keep their brightness for longer than a standard Metal Halide What disadvantages do LEC grow lights have over traditional grow lights? Unfortunately, LEC grow lights generally get lower yields than HPS grow lights because they are less electrically efficient (produce less light for the same amount of electricity Hempyfan's input, LEC grow lights are ideally used the same as traditional metal halide lamps. This lamp may be a good consideration where you would also consider an LED light as a main light source and/or with consideration when adding additional lighting. Quick Reference for Grow Light Efficiency (how much light produced initially compared to electricity for the most common cannabis grow lights) CFLs - 50-70 lumens/watt Standard MH - 80-90 lumens/watt CMH / LEC - 90-105 lumens/watt HPS - 105-150 lumens/watt LED (unfortunately lumens aren't a good measure of LED brightness) Note: For most HID grow lights (MH, LEC, HPS), the most electrically efficient bulbs are around the 600W mark. Smaller and bigger bulbs are almost always less electrically efficient. For example, a 150W HPS bulb produces about 105 lumens/watt while a 600W HPS produces about 150 lumens/watt. Light Emitting Ceramic Metal Halide Lights, LEC metal Halide High Pressure Sodium Lights (HPS) HPS Lighting is the accepted standard for which most in the indoor hobbyist grower and cannabis industry will relate to. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium-vapor_lamp#High-pressure_sodium This is due the specific indoor requirements of cannabis growers to have the HPS light as the main light source of the grow. HPS Aspects: Established standard for main light indoor growing. Ballast Types - Click link below for a bigger write up. http://gardenculturemagazine.com/growing-environment/grow-lights/best-grow-light-ballasts-magnetic-vs-electronic Digital - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_ballast Depending on company firmware, efficiency can be improved. Not generally compatible with metal halide bulbs but they do have bulbs for similar spectrum that can run on digital HPS ballast. Conversion bulbs. Dimmable Ballast Most ballast require you to use the rated type of bulb the ballast being used. For example, typically a 1000w dimmable electronic ballast will require a 1000k watt bulb regardless if set at 1000w, 600w, 400w, 200w depending on options. However, some electronic ballast can use the bulb for the wattage setting independent of the ballast rating but will not be able to increase beyond the light setting. Magnetic - ballast are considered older technology. Often used with metal halide and HPS bulbs. Heavy Generally are hotter and less efficient than digital ballast. Often require cooling. From air conditioning the grow area Air cooled hoods Combination of both. Can be set up for horizontal or vertical growing. Not all bulbs can be used for vertical growing Check bulb manufacturer before purchasing bulbs for vertical requirements. Bulbs can be obtained in various spectrum qualities. Bulbs have good (accepted indoor standard) penetration. Will vary from spec to spec/bulb to bulb. Bulb availability in a range of price ranges. Par is most useful measurement in my opinion. 800-1000 umol (par) is ideal range for indoor large plants. Bulbs are easy to obtain for standard sizes such as 400w, 600w, 1000w. Other bulb sizes may have local difficulty in obtaining and may require internet sales depending on your location. Bulbs deteriorate at a known rate. Some will change bulbs at 1/4 year, others at 1/2 year up to a year is most common. Budget people tend to go a year on average or more. Bottom of graph will give you the generic spectrum for various Deterioration % rates Adjustable ballast settings Review your bulb manufacture for specifics. General Bulb Deterioration rates Spectrum Ratings of Metal Halide (MH) and High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Click for information on selecting the correct bulb size for your grow. Below is a snippet of the article above. Video on light deteriation Union Break! Plasma Lighting High pressure sodium lamps are known as the most efficient lamps to produce photons for grow light. However, the quality of that light is not so good. Analysis of the HPS spectrum shows a start of the effective spectrum at about 560 nm (yellow to red). Below that wavelength there are a few small spikes, but not a balanced continuous availability and not enough in the blue spectrum. Research in greenhouses shows that you need at least 7% blue light (in a greenhouse from sunlight) for a healthy crop, as the blue light also maintains the photosynthetic system. It is important to know that in high intensity lighting there is not a lot of difference in efficiency between blue and red light. In climate rooms it is common to use Metal Halide (MH) lamps to add additional blue spectrum. MH lights however do not have a long lifetime, are generally not very color stable, have a spiky spectrum, are not as efficient as HPS and generate a lot of heat. Ceramic Metal Halides (CMH) are already better in stability and efficiency but still do not have the spectral quality of the plasma lamp nor the UV radiation. So how efficient is Plasma light compared to HPS? Is it an alternative? The plasma process of generating light is by itself very efficient: The conversion from energy into actual light is very efficient and generates a very low percentage of heat radiation in the light; the light itself is very “cool”. In the process of getting the energy to the small plasma cell you still lose a lot of energy, which is dissipated into convection heat from the fixture’s driver, power supply and emitter. That heat will never reach the plant though as it rises up and is extracted. For temperature controlled climate rooms there are air cooled LEP fixtures available as well. LEP is more efficient than high temperature MH lamps and much more stable. The lifetime is as much as 30,000-50,000 hours compared to the 2,000 to 4,000 of a MH. It has a better light quality and is more efficient than MH, but is it more efficient than HPS? No, it is not. Actually HPS is 1,5-2 times more efficient in generating photons than plasma light. But the HPS light quality is really bad. That sounds like a catch 22. Either you have good light and bad efficiency or good efficiency and bad light! FOR A SOLUTION WE GO BACK TO THE GREENHOUSES If you understand that you need a minimal amount of additional quality spectrum to guarantee a healthy crop (just like in the greenhouses) you would like to bring in some additional spectrum, at least to complement the blue light up to 7%. Also you want to introduce all the colors that HPS is lacking, basically all under 560 nm. A 300W LEP can provide just that in combination with up to 1,200 W HPS light. This does not re-create the full solar spectrum and still has more red light in it, but it is sufficient for a healthy crop. It all makes sense. In greenhouses you need a percentage of quality sunlight to guarantee a healthy crop when using HPS lighting, in climate rooms you create that sunlight by adding LEP to an appropriate level. LEP extras are the UVA and UVB in the spectrum you normally don’t get in a greenhouse because of the glass roof which shields UV in most cases. (Greenhouses) Supplemental spectrum (41.01) – specifically developed to add quality spectrum in combination with HPS light, adding the spectrum that the HPS lacks. Gavita Holland, a horticultural lighting company, introduced a LEP (Light Emitting Plasma) fixture which produces less red spectrum and more green and yellow for use in combination with HPS. (Garden Rooms, no sunlight) Grow spectrum (41.02 emitter). The STA 41.02 emitter provides high quality sunlight with a full continuous spectrum, and is most suitable for climate rooms and sun simulation. Unlike the HPS lamp the plasma lamp emits very little infra red radiation. High CRI full spectrum lighting for stand-alone use The original LEP with 02 emitter is also still available from Gavita and other LEP fixture manufacturers, and produces the best spectrum for a pure vegetative cycle or for artificial sunlight, for example for a dedicated vegetative climate room. It is still a good choice to use it with HPS, though the 01 green emitter has the advantage there. There is something to choose now when it comes to plasma lighting. The philosophy behind that is very simple: HPS is the most efficient technology to produce red light, so why would you want your LEP to produce this red spectrum when used in combination with HPS? The original LEP with 02 emitter is also still available from Gavita and other LEP fixture manufacturers, and produces the best spectrum for a pure vegetative cycle or for artificial sunlight, for example for a dedicated vegetative climate room. It is still a good choice to use it with HPS, though the 01 green emitter has the advantage there. There is something to choose now when it comes to plasma lighting. Gavita Light Emitter Model difference, used to illustrate main source light and supplemental light aspects with plasma lighting. Gavita is at this time the only lighting company to the time of this writing that I have seen use this aspect ethically with respects to marketing and in how to use and manage the light technology. I acknowledge that aspect due to its rarity in the industry. Sunlight Excerpts taken from discussion between Iunu, a light company and Gavita an agriculture lighting company at Garden Culture, a media company. Both companies sell plasma lights. These are excerpts from that discussion. Suggesting that plasma lighting saves you electricity is misleading. They do not replace a 1000W, or even a 500W HPS fixture. Plasma is a great source of supplemental light to add quality to your crop, but it is not the most efficient technology and people should understand that. Seed breeders, universities and research centers use our full spectrum plasma light in large installations for sunlight simulation, not for efficient grow lighting. This information is largely taken from an article republished from Garden Culture Magazine, Issue 1 under the title, “Light Emitting Plasma in Climate Rooms”. Theo Tekstra is the Marketing Manager for Gavita Holland BV. Hempyfans view on Plasma and LEC Metal Halide Lighting. As any light I see it as a tool in the gardener tool box. However, getting an understanding of this light and LEC Metal Halide lights is far more difficult than is believed. This is due to most of the information regarding these lights in the gardener community comes from lighting manufacturers who are generally as believable as a television commercial. They want your money, not to educate you so that you will make an informed and truly competent decision as you might then go a different way. The "facts" stated by marketing of lights are often created similar to how "political facts" are justified and often the use of misdirection aspects are employed to guide the potential buyer for the sales purposes. As a result the basic view point to understanding of the reality of lighting is often incorrect to some degree by many in the home to hobbyist gardener communities. This compilation and writing is designed to help light the subject so that we can better understand to a degree of appreciation of this technology and how to understand and use the varied spectrum from manufacturer to manufacturer. Generically, I prefer the professional agriculture industry to the grow shop specialist. Optimum use I see plasma lighting the way Gavita claims it to be best used. Used in supplemental lighting situations and/or in conjunction with HPS for higher quality plants. Value of your plants may determine how feasible this addition is for your crop. Better for small to middle plant sizes due to lack of strong light penetration of plasma lighting. This may become less an issue as technology matures and develops further. Secondary considerations Main Light plasma lighting could be an option for low/short to middle size plants due to low light penetration. Check for acceptable par ratings at distance for specific lamp capabilities. Lower heat than HPS. Potential better use if summer crops are a problem heat wise. Plasma still creates heat but less than HPS and can be air cooled or passively cooled. Other options to consider when evaluating plasma light use are LEC Metal Halide and LED full spectrum lighting. LED Lighting Technology LED lighting is a lighting option in growing that many growers have strong have opinions on, for and against. Many of these viewpoints both have merit in certain situations, for and against. Additionally, LED lighting when it entered the growing light marketplace was heavily hyped and what was a delivered at its initial best was a weak vegative light claiming to be a superior product and/or the equal of metal halide and hps lighting. As a result of this technology exaggerated capabilities and marketing tactics those who entertained this new technology was in essence harmed or worsened for the experienced. It is with this understanding and that I speak further, as what I say now is to directly discuss the light technology for what it is capable of in its current state of the year 2016. I personally stand by what I write now about LED at this time. As time goes on I cannot say how the opinion will alter on the state of the technology as the industry continues to evolve. ~Hempyfan, 2016 We will not pay any attention to comparison to other lighting options as this is a false way to understand the light as this is a marketing trick. However, due to the merchant industry tendency to make comparisons for marketing tactics so that people (consumers) can relate I do not look overly ill on this aspect as it is more a result of the nature of business rather than a concerted effort of the technology to gain acceptance by automatically claiming a quality status without achieving the status via merited experienced achieved by the technology being successfully used to the point it obtained ethical acceptance. Today I believe their are LED companies who have achieved this level of quality. However, to remain ethical as to the remarks I have made I will not name LED brands or companies that I personally like but I do give you the understanding as to how to select them. Please under the LED photos are for illustrative purposes and not an endorsement or a slick way of showing favor. Understanding LED technology is to understand what it can and cannot do. Low Heat compared to many other lighting options. Beneficial In hot environments or hard to control temperature grow areas. Consideration when other lights require additional cooling. LED can still require cooling depending on situation. Some models have very good penetration of lights Higher wattage Pay attention to the style and/or if any vegetable grows are quality documented as a reference. Some models have very good par ratings and spectrum ratings Some perform as a Main light Total Cost + Heat Management (temperature effects and actual cost) + Spectrum + Penetration + specific role of light divided by your unique limitations (budget etc) = Best Practice Main Light and the area for which you selected. So you have up to 2 light selections, Best practice (few can achieve but you can see what it will take to achieve and work towards that over time) Generally high cost in lighting and infrastructure. Generally high operating cost. Requires advanced knowledge to maintain. Some people will pay for a professional garden but they do not understand it and marketing eventually convinces a majority of these people to go into those directions and/or without knowing how to best manage the infrastructure they can alter the garden environment from best practice to some other measurement. Your informed decision on the light for your range of realistic options for you You understand the spectrum, the penetration and know what to expect from the light. You also know how to work towards "best practice" over a time. By better answering the limitations in the formula that prevented you from achieving initial best practice you inherently better yourself towards that goal. This is an additional benefit of actually making these plans before hand. Few appreciate this benefit and they are often wowed about how I can explain with precision how to better "dial in" their garden areas. ~Hempyfan. Consider heat aspects of all lighting options. Consider all cost associated with all lighting options. Consider light spectrum for what is acceptable Some perform as Main Vegetative or Main Blooming lights Full spectrum lighting White light more sun like Spectrum ranged (veg or bloom but not both) but not specifically designed for a short period development purpose. multi colored led lights or pink light for example. Designed Spectrum (purpose lighting, blue, red, transitional lighting, seedling lighting, mother plant lighting etc.) This type of LED perform as specialized additional lighting Assist in growth stage in achieving "best practice" in maximizing and achieving quality spectrum levels. An advanced aspect of some specialty and connoisseur gardeners and is not necessary for most garden vegetables. Assist in spot lighting for additional lighting of weaker light areas (traditionally corners and edges of light footprint) in the garden area. Rare situation, better assist improved light spectrum for unique or difficult plants that others within the grow area do not. May assist with hard to clone plants. Idea is light spectrum + environment + nutrition that matches ideal conditions to create the total environment that particular plant wants best for the purpose of which you are trying to achieve with that plant. Such as to root consistently when otherwise it was more difficult to successfully accomplish. Other lighting options are available to achieve this same effect. Consider heat aspects of all light options. Consider "all" cost aspects of all light options, initial and ongoing (electricity and bulb cost if applicable) LED Summary I have seen good and bad with LED lighting. I believe that LED technology is beginning to take its place within the industry. But like anything else. It is a tool and their are situations where LED lighting is not a wise option and at times it is. I have worked to try to give the technology a realistic writing as I see it. I invite you to use the above information in your judgement and see if it makes sense for you or not. I am not advocating for the purchase or to dissuade a purchase in LED products. I am advocating for understanding the technology and applying that understanding when you are evaluating lighting aspects and/or making lighting decisions. I do believe the technology, quality dependent and/or in situational use, has earned its place at the table for discussion. Like all specialty tools in a the tool chest, it is a tool option available to the indoor garden ranging from the simple to the complex. How much so, depends on you. Grow Calculators should only be used for a general range in figuring. Consider it a good general estimate. Click for LED calculator Union Break Never, argue with the Union! Well, when it comes to the Union Breaks you dont! The Florescent Family Standard florescent lights (shop lights) CFL - Compact Florescent Family/ HO - T5 High Output florescent lights VHO - Very high florescent lights Standard florescent lights (shop lights) I do not recommend standard T5 light fixtures (shop lights). Can be used for seed starting and clone rooting where low level light is required. Best Practice would be to use a full spectrum light or a vegetative adjusted spectrum light instead. HO - T5 High Output florescent lights & CFL Compact Florescent Lights T5 HO florescent lights have been a mainstay for many gardens. From starting seeds and cutting, to vegetative use to flowering their is much information available on how to successfully use these lights I will not spend overly to much time discussing it. With the availability of other lighting options that fit this category with different spectrum aspects I consider this a lower option in terms of quality of light. For financial constraints, this lighting technology may still be an attractive choice. It is a great tool in the light tool box and understanding it will enable you to use these to the best of their potential and serve you well as they classically have others for many years. This is a proven light. Common uses are in vegetative stages before moved on to stronger lights. Good for small to mid size plant gardens and low ceilings. Low light penetration Keep close to canopy/top of your plants 6 to 12 inches, plant and phenotype can vary. Good for additional supplemental lighting. Assist with dark spots in grow area assisting main light source for light distribution aspects. Developmental lighting addition to main light for spectrum to enhance a specific growth period of the plant. Such as adding more blue light or red light depending on plant stage. Vegetative and Flowering spectrum bulbs. Bulb quality and length of life varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. Variety of Florescent information. Practical Use Good side lighting illustration in use of CFL and other CFL uses. Induction Grow Lighting Induction Grow Lighting are the biggest option for Indoor Gardening in the florescent family range. This lighting category has a bad wrap for making the claims that 400w induction is same or better than a 1000w HPS. I have not been able to find spectrum and par information for Induction technology at this time but will update as I do. As any tool in the lighting tool box it is all about understanding this light and how best to utilize it. Low Heat compared to HPS (often this light is considered when looking at HPS options) 4x4 foot print. Light is straight down compared to HPS that is angled. In multiple HPS light setups or similar where you have light overlap at the edges, This address the angled light aspect of HPS lights. Induction companies misdirect this information. long life of bulb Expensive bulbs and requires vegetative and bloom bulbs for a whole crop. Can take into consideration the cost of other bulb replacements and life of bulb. This information is likely figured in to bulb pricing. Hempyfan's Induction Light Opinion It s my view that induction lighting generally attractive due to a variety of reason. However, understanding the light and how to use it will enable you to make the decision for yourself as your situation might benefit. Good for vegetative growth of 4x4 area. A good staging light for rooted plants in vegetative growth before going into flowering. Smaller heat footprint but in summer months can require some cooling. Due to cost of bulbs, I cannot easily recommend this light for vegetative and bloom stage. Due to other full spectrum light options at low price points I cannot recommend. Spectrum and par ratings are hard to find for induction lights. This is an indication of potential marketing hype and misdirection. Assembly aspects of an induction light. Gives some good information regarding induction. Growing Calculators Grow Calculators should only be used for a general range in figuring. Consider it a good general estimate. Click to visit Calculate at Maximum Grow Gardening Site. What's in The Calculator Wattage Calculator: Use this to determine the light wattage you will need for your size grow room. Parts Per Million Calculator: Use this calculator to determine accurate solution mixes. Carbon Dioxide(CO2) Calculator: Calculate how much CO2 will be needed to fill a grow room to the optimum level. Temperature Converter: Use this to easily convert between degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit. Air Exchange Calculator: Enter your grow room dimensions, and this will tell you how powerful of a fan you will need for optimum air flow. Estimated Cost Calculator: Predicts how much the cost for electricity will be monthly. What's that light cost you? Click to visit the calculator located at Dark Sky Society You can calculate results for up to four types of lights. http://www.darkskysociety.org/lightcost/index.php Select the type of lamp (i.e. Incandescent, Fluorescent, etc.) Select the lamp wattage (lamp lumens) Enter the number of lights in use Select how long the lamps are in use (or click to enter your own; enter hours on per year). Finally, click submit on the calculator at the site and find your answer. BTU Calculator, click Eye Hortilux to visit their calculator. (the recommendations in heat was based on this calculator.) A BTU, also known as a British Thermal Unit, is a measurement of the energy needed to cool a substance. Grow lamps generate a lot of heat. By converting your wattage into BTU per hour, you’ll have the information you need to keep your plants cooled so that they don’t burn up from the heat of the grow lamps. Reflector/Hood Types Horizontal Reflectors are the most popular option as its the most traditional style of growing. Selecting the type of reflector will largely depend on your environmental temperature and how you are planning to control the heat generated from the light. Select reflector that best matches your grow style and methods. Such as a wider light spread vegetative growth Such as a parabolic reflector Such as a winged reflector Flowering growth. Commonly air cooled/enclosed hoods Not necessarily best practice Open hood without glass Likely this requires air conditioning of some type or method. winged reflector Standard and basic reflector type. parabolic reflector High spread of light or focuses depending on height from canopy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parabolic_aluminized_reflector_light Internal Ballast For growing areas 2x2 feet and smaller, it may be more suitable to have a reflector with the ballast mounted inside the reflector (internal ballast). This is beneficial with little space in small tents and a areas. This is usually how the 250 watt systems are sold. Not directly light related but is relevant to subject. Air-Cooled/Enclosed Hoods If a grow room is too hot than air cooled may be an option. Commonly used with 400 to 1000 watt HPS and 400watt metal halide light in a tent/closet or many lights in a room this maybe a consideration. An Air-cooled light has duct holes in the reflector to connect duct tubing and an inline fan for venting out the heat. These are available from the 4, 6 and 8inch duct sizes. Hood Sizes and type The hood for a HPS light will largely depend on your environmental temperature and how you are planning to control the heat generated from the light. Air cooling is not best practice but is trade-off for better cooling in some situations. required inline fans and/or ducting fans are used and also generate some heat in their operation adding to ambiant room temperatures. Insulated ducting could assist with heat management in certain situations. Insulated hoods or water jackets can also be helpful in certain situations. It is generally better to go with a lower wattage light and manage a better grow environment than add more light and subject the plants to an uncomfortable grow environment. A hoods glass cover diminishes the effectiveness of the bulb output. You earned for finishing Section II Click for - Advanced Section III - Lighting & Reflector Section http://culturalhealingandlife.com.www413.your-server.de/index.php?/topic/8-section-iii-plant-growth-and-light/ ~ Hempyfan, A proud HD writing & compilation.
  12. Lighting ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Emoticons are safe bonus links, most youtube, click them. Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. Indoor Garden Environment Section I (Section 1 is an introduction and a shortened version of bigger document) Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting ~with recommendations and calculators. When people start to plan a grow they typically will think it is all about the light and the brighter and bigger wattage the light the better. However this is rarely true when it comes to practicality and efficiency. The biggest factors for grow lights is electricity use (budget) and heat. It is common for new growers to not appreciate the heat aspect and only consider the affordability factor. Additionally, their are people who are able to afford the best lighting but are typically more influenced by marketing than light and plant knowledge and what they do know is typically partial truths due to marketing information now received as truth but this influence is often for marketing and not instilling knowledge that could enable you to make better choices. Regardless of budget or seriousness in growing all classes outside of professional agriculture specialist will typically misunderstand grow lights and how best to use them. Look at most internet forums (never mind this one ) and you can often see this illustrated. The typical growers lighting knowledge is commonly driven by marketing information and not wholly true information. This library of information is us planting the flag saying knowledge rules and not manipulated information. I see lights as a tool and nothing more. Some people can get too attached to a light and believe only one type of light is the best Their is no best in realistic terms, only in black and white at best under controlled conditions. This is due to the differences in environment from one grower to another. The biggest factor again is typically electricity cost plus bulb (no bulb for LED) cost and any heat management cost. Their are many lights to choose from such as light bulbs, cfl, high output florescent, VHO florescent, Induction, LED (various types), Metal Halide and HPS to touch on the most used. Determining what is best for your setup can vary from what is best for another persons set up and this is what I will largely be talking about. How to choose a grow light for your real needs and parameters. Ok, so we know their are many light types to select from but lets understand what light quality and spectrum is needed and how to measure the quality of a light. Once we understand that we can find the ideal light for any growers setup based on their needs from optimum plant growth to efficiency depending on your informed decision. Light Strength + Quality + plant needs/stage (mothers, veg, flower) to the more (advance options to include customized lighting for transition, early flower, mid flower and late flower light spectrum's) + environment conditions + budgetary constraints + management = Type and strength of light = your effective lighting. We will be discussing and giving recommendations as to best assist with reasons why for various sizes and we give you the tools for you to determine what is best for your growing needs. From agriculture plants to the hobbyist gardener. This knowledge is written in two forms, a basic get to it quick writing and a more in depth writing in attempt to address those of varied interest and we take it to the science as best we can. Below you will find information in regards to light and photosynthesis, light measurements, formulations for advanced workings and a summary of my advice for lighting for certain situations. Regardless of ones personal agreement with or against these writings, I have created this document so people can determine for themselves and/or understand that process. PS: click on the emoticons for bonus, from neat bits of information to music, most are on youtube. The Get to It Quick Part, Ok, not everyone wants a class in a post and for most the bulk of this information is overkill and will also not truly apply to most home gardeners outside of specific advanced hobbyist. The following is a practical guide to selecting a light and understanding the basics for lighting. Select grow area size and understand ambient environment for the period of time during which you will grow. (spring, summer, fall, and winter temperatures if applicable.) Understanding what the ambient temperature is. Understand the heat imprint of any fan motors or aspects that will add additional heat. Not as big a deal as it sounds for average grower. More of issue in micro-grows. More of issue in temperature sensitive locations. Once the location size is determined, tent size, room size, closet size, garden size, acres, etc. We can determine what size light to select that will at best practice give us even par ratings at levels for optimum plant growth, development and yield. The reality is this for most growers, a standard selection of lights (discussed above), a standard selection of light quality (discussed below) and affordability/budget (unique to you) limited to options from a grow shop and/or the internet shops. Hempyfan's light determining factors formula. Light Strength (penetration) + Quality (spectrum & par) + Plant development stage (mothers, veg, flower) Advanced secondary lighting options include customized lighting for transition, early flower, mid flower and late flower light spectrum's) + Environment conditions (ambient + non light added heat such as fan motors, pumps etc) + Budgetary constraints + _____management style_____ = Your effective lighting. The following is a section on light recommendations and why. Micro grows CFL, HO florescent type, LEC Metal Halide or LED lighting Heat is biggest issue 250w = 853.250 BTU/HR+ environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) I would not consider traditional Metal halide or HPS LEC Metal Halide is less heat than traditional metal halide light. Best practice is full spectrum light. Hempyfan pics LED lighting for this style due to heat aspects. Refer to model specifications for heat information. CFL if budget and unable to manage heat well. 200w = 682.600 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 250w = 853.250 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) HO floroescent if on budget but can manage heat better. 250w = 853.250 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 2x2 Grow area HO florescent, 400w metal halide, or 250w, Plasma, 400w HPS, LEC Metal Halide or LED up to 300watt range. 250 and 400w HPS most common. Heat aspects to consider. 250w = 853.250 BTU/HR+ environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR+ environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) LED = check your model and manufactures ratings. Style of grow, penetration vs even coverage considerations. Best practice is full spectrum light. Second best practice is a blend of blue and red spectrum using 2 lights, LEC halide or Plasma and HPS. Hempyfan pics LED with acceptable high par rating, full spectrum and for the selected grow style. (300w range generic with penetration or coverage type of lens) Seconded by LEC Metal Halide (pending better spectrum and par compared to first choice) May not require additional cooling HPS and Metal Halide for budget concerns (heat management concerns) Cooling aspect as required, metal halide is cooler than hps so figures may be favor the cooler end. 250w = 853.250 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR+ environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 3x3 Grow area HO florescent, 400watt metal halide, Plasma, 400watt HPS, 600watt HPS, 1000watt HPS, LEC Metal Halide, LED 300 Watt full spectrum Heat aspects to consider 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR+ environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 600w = 2047.800 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 1000w = 3413.000 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) LED = check your model and manufactures ratings. Best practice is full spectrum light. Second best practice is a blend of blue and red spectrum using 2 lights, LEC halide or Plasma and HPS. Hempyfan pics LED with acceptable high par rating, full spectrum and for the selected grow style. (300w range generic with penetration or coverage type of lens) Seconded by LEC Metal Halide (pending better spectrum and par compared to first choice) Potential secondary light role. May not require additional cooling The use of 2 lights with spectrum similar or varied as applicable for the grow needs. 400watt metal halide and 400w or 600w HPS depending on heat management. 600w HPS with budget but can handle effectively manage the heat. 400w HPS with budget concerns and cannot manage heat as well for 600watt HPS 4x4 Grow area HO florescent, 400watt metal halide, 400watt HPS, 600watt HPS, 1000watt HPS, LEC Metal Halide, LED 300 Watt full spectrum Heat aspects to consider 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 600w = 2047.800 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 1000w = 3413.000 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) LED = check your model and manufactures ratings. Best practice is full spectrum light. Second best practice is a blend of blue and red spectrum using 2 lights, LEC halide or Plasma and HPS. Hempyfan pics LED with acceptable high par rating, full spectrum and for the selected grow style. (300w range generic with penetration or coverage type of lens) Seconded by LEC Metal Halide (pending better spectrum and par compared to first choice) Potential secondary light role. May not require additional cooling The use of 2 lights with spectrum similar or varied as applicable for the grow needs. 400watt metal halide and 400w or 600w HPS depending on heat management. 1000w = 3413.000 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 600w HPS with budget but can handle effectively manage the heat. 600w = 2047.800 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 400w HPS with budget concerns and cannot manage heat as well for 600watt HPS 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 5x5 Grow Area HO florescent, 400watt metal halide, 400watt HPS, 600watt HPS, 1000watt HPS, LEC Metal Halide, Plasma, LED 300Watt plus full spectrum. Heat aspects to consider 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 600w = 2047.800 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 1000w = 3413.000 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) LED = check your model and manufactures ratings. Best practice is full spectrum light. Second best practice is a blend of blue and red spectrum using 2 lights, LEC halide or Plasma and HPS. Hempyfan pics LED x 1 or 2 budget with acceptable high par rating, full spectrum and for the selected grow style. (300w plus range generic with penetration or coverage type of lens) Seconded by LEC Metal Halide or Plasma (pending better spectrum and par compared to first choice) Potential secondary light role. 2 LED lights of this quality may require additional cooling The use of 2 lights with spectrum similar or varied as applicable for the grow needs. 400watt metal halide and a 400w to 1000w HPS depending on heat management. 1000w = 3413.000 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 600w HPS with budget but can handle effectively manage the heat. 600w = 2047.800 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) 400w HPS with budget concerns and cannot manage heat as well for 600watt HPS 400w = 1365.200 BTU/HR + environment temperatures (fans, pumps etc and normal temperature) VIDEO SECTION 1000 watt coverage video Information on Heat in grow room Video for when its too cold Additional air cooling aspects to consider Often air cooled hoods are used in heat management. This is not best practice but is trade-off for better cooling in some situations. required inline fans and/or ducting fans are used and also generate some heat in their operation adding to ambiant room temperatures. Insulated ducting could assist with heat management in certain situations. Insulated hoods or water jackets can also be helpful in certain situations. It is generally better to go with a lower wattage light and manage a better grow environment than add more light and subject the plants to an uncomfortable grow environment. A hoods glass cover diminishes the effectiveness of the bulb output. Video about glass or no glass Air Cooled light setup Video Light Movers A light mover is option that tends to be in one of two groups, either you love em or hate them. I believe this is all foolish and that this option should be understood as the tool it is. With that said, I rarely see this as a viable solutions for most gardeners but this does not mean it is not an option for you. By understanding this option without prejudice we can see the benefits and limitations for which an informed opinion can determined. A light mover basically moves the light over the canopy via a motor at a consistent speed. This is as simple as set track sizes or as customized in size as needed. Typically operate in a forward and reverse direction, distance is either preset or customized. Aspects Moving parts Additional motor and electricity requirements and weaknesses. Potential track issues Height aspects due to track If you have height this issue can be removed. Track and motor maintenance for "best practice." Can help with evening canopy and removing dark spots in growing area sometimes associated with plant growth and stationary lights. Compromise option to even canopy when adding additional lighting is not an option. Not a company endorsement, used for explanation purposes. I thank and appreciate them for the video. Video Example of light mover Video example of light mover Video showing one model being built Growing Calculators Grow Calculators should only be used for a general range in figuring. Consider it a good general estimate. Click to visit Calculate at Maximum Grow Gardening Site. What's in The Calculator Wattage Calculator: Use this to determine the light wattage you will need for your size grow room. Parts Per Million Calculator: Use this calculator to determine accurate solution mixes. Carbon Dioxide(CO2) Calculator: Calculate how much CO2 will be needed to fill a grow room to the optimum level. Temperature Converter: Use this to easily convert between degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit. Air Exchange Calculator: Enter your grow room dimensions, and this will tell you how powerful of a fan you will need for optimum air flow. Estimated Cost Calculator: Predicts how much the cost for electricity will be monthly. What's that light cost you? Click to visit the calculator located at Dark Sky Society You can calculate results for up to four types of lights. http://www.darkskysociety.org/lightcost/index.php Select the type of lamp (i.e. Incandescent, Fluorescent, etc.) Select the lamp wattage (lamp lumens) Enter the number of lights in use Select how long the lamps are in use (or click to enter your own; enter hours on per year). Finally, click submit on the calculator at the site and find your answer. BTU Calculator, click Eye Hortilux to visit their calculator. (the recommendations in heat was based on this calculator.) A BTU, also known as a British Thermal Unit, is a measurement of the energy needed to cool a substance. Grow lamps generate a lot of heat. By converting your wattage into BTU per hour, you’ll have the information you need to keep your plants cooled so that they don’t burn up from the heat of the grow lamps. Get to it Quick, Summary This brings the get to it quick section to an end. I hope the above helped in some way. The above will largely assist with new growers and the inexperienced with lighting subjects. It is intended to help people make informed decisions rather than marketed ones from companies and grow shop salesman. If not I apologize and wish you well. I also ask if their is any information that is incorrect, please address it with us as we will look forward to learning from merited input. We appreciated and are thankful for such corrections and input. If you are new to growing or looking to possibly expand on your lighting knowledge I invite you to check out the advanced lighting sections below. It is basically a class in a post and covers a wide range of lighting issues and how to begin to professional calculate for best practice with your lighting. I thank you for your time and if this helped you, it is not me to thank as this is a combination of many who helped educate me in this art. Puff puff and give that knowledge as you pass to others is all we ask and that is the pat on the back I gladly take. You earned for finishing Section I Next Section Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section http://culturalhealingandlife.com.www413.your-server.de/index.php?/topic/7-section-ii-lighting-reflector-section/ Hempyfan, A proud HD writing.
  13. JJ the Gardener

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    From the album: Hempyfan

  14. JJ the Gardener

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    From the album: Hempyfan

  15. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. The Indoor Garden Environment ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Emoticons are safe bonus links, most youtube, click them. Environment Introduction Garden order of importance Quality and strength of light + garden environment + nutrition + management/technique/method = grow operation. It is not rare for new gardeners to make basic errors when designing or planning an indoor garden. They often think of the harvest and what the optimum level for this and that when creating a grow environment but they rarely take into genuine consideration the plants themselves when planning and building grow environments. The following is my attempt to answer this aspect. First, lets change our perspective to that of the plants. For many of these plants the indoor garden environment is all they will ever know of nature and life. By creating a garden environment worthy of this aspect you not only respect the harvest you desire but the life that produced the harvest for you and in so doing we co-exist together in a sacred life cycle harmony that for some is a serious perspective and for others the basics will do. This is my attempt to lay the groundwork for either direction and all the ways in between. When we properly respect our plant partners and the harvest (by harvest I mean managing the crop) the happiness along with the fitness of the plant combines to bring back to you in a tangible form a glorious harvest worthy of the life and harvested crop that you have provided and managed for. To some this is sacred, to others this is just taking care of a plant. A plant that is in synergy with its environment, light and nutrition is a healthy and happy plant. When this happens the best of the genetics is possible by promoting the plants during their life stages or just take an easy growing approach it is all up to you. Note; Sometimes when a plant is in too good an environment we may have to alter the environment to induce a degree of stress to encourage the transition and/or to ripen or potentially face extended grow periods. Certain conditions can affect plant physiology such as hormones and trigger the beginning or the encouragement of a development period. Aspects such as temperature and humidity followed by light timings for quality to life cycle for various plants and qualities there of. To be wise in creating a garden environment is much more than construction and math. It is to understand and appreciate the life and physiology of plants, environmental aspects and all those as aspects as a whole. When these aspects are aligned the full spectrum and strength of your lights will be happily received and they will fittingly energize achieving plants that most will think they could not achieve prior to this appreciation. In the gardening community we often are more unwise at some point in our gardening lives. Early in our learning/experience we can tend to prescribe plant problems and aspects incorrectly as to other causes and effects than those that are environmental based or at least in part based. This misunderstanding often affects the reality of what we actually know of gardening compared to what we think of we know. At "common and harmless" levels it is just maybe a bit humbling to be corrected or to just learn correctly on a subject that you believed was one way but in fact was another reason or effect of. At worst, it directly causes harm to yours or others crops. Market affect on this type of grower: Before spending one bit of money or energy on adding "boosters" and such from light to nutrition unless your garden environment is happily in balance with your plants or you have largely wasted (ineffective results) and increased the cost of your environment. Their is a difference between a not as healthy plant but normal looking plant gaining health than a very healthy plant gaining a "boost.' from an additive or such. Most people fall into the category of "not as healthy but normal looking plant gaining health." This an aspect why many forums will say boosters do not work, I comment on environment not boosters in general but use as illustration. We will be discussing each aspect that makes up the grow environment so that you will be able to influence and manage your environment effectively for each stage of plant growth or just the general grow period as up to you. We will discuss standard grow area sizes and locations associated with personal medical grow rooms and indoor gardens associated within the normal garden community. In this discussion we will be giving recommendations that represent store bought or easily assembled products. This is not a marketing gimmick nor an endorsement of any products as they are used for illustration purposes and to be realistic to what I believe many in this category will use, at least initially. I do not give endorsed views other than possible situations based on unique and/or specific needs and availability of products to a perspective gardener. Grow Environment Formula Location (Grow Area) + Operational Temperature (actual operating temperature) (Day - High & Night - Low) (To estimate ambient temperature + estimated operational temperature, take into consideration fans, lights, CO2 burners) + Humidity + Ventilation + Air quality + Climate Adjustments (CO2, HVAC adjustments in addition to normal ventilation) = Grow Environment for Day and Night, can customize for each plant stage of development. Home Location Selection and Analysis Location location location as they say. We all think of grow areas differently. For some, it is a tent, for others it is an attic, a basement, a closet or just a room. Regardless of location we have to take some key aspects into consideration and then we want to work on removing any limitations to making a grow location suitable for a plant to call home, as everyone knows "home is where you make it." Many indoor gardeners do not really select or choose a grow area than they tend to use what is available to them. Regardless of how we may select the grow area, we need to understand the area wisely. This is often an aspect that many people take for granted and not much effort is put into effectively appreciating this aspect and often a price is paid for this lack of competence. Once a location is chosen and analyzed it needs to be cleaned and prepared correctly. "Best practice" may be to create a room within the room as to enable the typical construction of a sealed room easier, cleaner and more efficient. Thick or insulated type of walls are best for maintaining stability. Thick walls like rock. Modern insulated walls. A tent is generally not a significant issue as it is affected by the ambient room temperature for which the tent resides. Generally I dislike tents but they are fine to use and have their use depending on a variety of needs. Tent is influenced by the surrounding air in the room. Use air around tent like a lung room. Determine your base ambient temperatures. Determine Cubic Square Feet of grow area Phresh CFM calculator http://www.phreshfilter.com/tools/cfm-calculator Address location negatives Understand the grow area ambient temperature during the seasons and with day and night temperatures. This is your base ambient room temperature. Base Ambient Room Temperature = The "empty" grow area in Day (high) and night (low) for each season. We will use these base high and low numbers in our future calculations and analysis, notice the word and. Basements and attics may have damp and mold that needs cleaned and addressed. Window areas in attics often need addressed. Attics are typically not well insulated and the base ambient temperatures usually vary with the seasons Mostly effected by high and cold temperature extremes. This is one reason an attic garden is less favored unless it favors condition for a particular plant type. Basements may have mold aspects Using mold resistant white paint is an option. Hospital paint that has anti mold/fungus properties. I recommend use in grow areas regardless for "best practice" aspect. Basement base ambient temperature should be stable throughout the year. Flooding issues Old or not well managed drains Address tree root maintenance for pipes if applicable. Bugs/pest issues. A thorough cleaning and competent bug management is typically sufficient. Definitively remove any pre-existing infestations and ensure their will be no return. If the location was previously used for growing then ensure to clean and sterilize for pollen, bugs and molds. Good Location Video information. Location Summary Regardless of where and how we select our garden areas. It is our job to create and manage a favorable environment as possible for the harvest. It just so happens to get a good harvest we have to have healthy plants. The following information is about various aspects of the environment and how to manage for the location for which your garden resides. Since the best answer for some situations can vary from situation to situation it is important to understand the flexibility ventilation and its various setups that offers various management and control over your environment and plants. Remember, no matter the gritty appearance of a starting location you are creating a home! Temperature & Gardening To be wise in regards to temperature in gardening is to appreciate that temperature affects two main aspects in the garden. The environment and the plant. In gaining an appreciation of these two perspectives and their cumulative and lasting effects is the beginning of taking control of your garden environment rather than your gardens environment controlling you. Once we understand this concept we can discuss how to control the environment to our advantage to limiting adverse uncontrollable situations like heat waves or periods of high or low humidity. The below formula is made to help illustrate this aspect. Temperature/humidity effects on environment + Plant physiology/effects = Temperature in gardening knowledge Temperature perspective in regard to the garden environment The first perspective of temperature is the environment perspective as temperature is the guiding factor that directly determines the effects, positive and/or negative for all other environment factors in your garden. Such as raising or lowering temperature can affect the humidity and the effect on the plant itself ranges from comfort level to affecting its daily biological functions (leaf to root pressure) to negatively impacting the plants development stage. Further still, temporary bad temperatures that cause stress can have reactions that enable a setting favorable for mold pathogens and other similar negative effects on the plant. If a plant is not healthy (nutritional) and fit (Brix levels) during stress times plants can become more attractive to pests and disease causing further problems. Understanding temperature and its effects on your environment and that upon your plants physiology and development will enable the gardener to transform temperature as a feared grow barrier to a hard to control force to being just another tool in the gardeners tool box and a simple factor to account for. Garden Temperature Effect Formula: Temperature & Environment (humidity) from canopy/middle/low fruit/media/root media level + _____Plant Physiology & Plant Development + Impact over time_____ = Garden Temperature Effect. Genetic & Climate Tolerance Plant type/strain/phenotype @ Climate Tolerance + Match Environment = Good plant Genetic The Second perspective to temperature is from the plants perspective. We tend to take the plant for granted that it will just automatically respond wonderfully to our specially designed environment. However, before we can go that far with our expectations we need to ensure that we have the correct genetics, phenotype and sensitivity aspects accounted for that matches the garden environment or the garden environment adapted for. Hot and dry areas you want plants adapted for that climate. Humid and hot areas you want plants adapted for that climate. Account for known sensitivities or discard that genetic in favor of those who better adapt. Regarding the type of plant environment think and research about the time of the season and how the plant would naturally and traditionally be grown. We just want to match those conditions as best we can for the type of plant and the strain and phenotype. For example, spring environment for natural seedlings, early growth, pre fruit/flower, transition period, early flower, middle flower and end of flower/fruiting environments. The next part is to understand how temperature and relative humidity affects the plant. By understanding this aspect you can gain the knowledge to control your environment as necessary and to optimum conditions if so desired. Temperature, Humidity, Light Intensity, Spectrum and Plant Physiology The key to optimizing lights in the environment is to control the heat. We want to find the sweet spot that maximizes a lights intensity, spectrum and penetration with favorable conditions at all viable plant depths. Either using one or multiple lights each light is treated the same way to determine optimum settings in terms of cooling and heating. Light intensity & Environmental Formula Temperature and humidity @ various plant levels + plants physiology = light intensity/quality Often, If canopy temperatures are too high gardeners will often increase the distance between the plants and lights. This directly affects light intensity and spectrum at depth due to light loss with increased bulb to plant distance. Air conditioning options. Air cooled reflectors are options. CO2 use. This directly impacts the quality and yield of the plants lower fruits if lights are moved out the optimized distance. Take light intensity into consideration no matter how close you are able to get light to your plants with cooling if you are able to get to close to a plant due to effective heat control. (light bleaching.) Palm test - if too hot for your palm after a minute it is probably to hot. Lumens - 50,000 to 20,000 lux is acceptable. Temperature and humidity effects and damage can range from: Reduced photosynthesis. Leaf damage Heat damage High humidity shuts down plant process negatively affects transpiration and stomata function. Low humidity affects Too dry air negatively affects transpiration rates increased intake of water and nutrients can lead to nutrient burn and other nutritional aspects Light bleaching if too close Lower light spectrum aspect if canopy is not maintained at good environment temperature/humidity. Adjust light distance if applicable. Media environment stress will alter the bio life of your media to potentially negative aspects. Intersex plant trait potential due to stress depending on plant sensitivity and type. Temperature and humidity can alter the media and the plants uptake and intensity levels of nutrients to dangerous levels. This can affect temporary situations such as lock outs. Can create longer term effects such as adding to soil/media acidification and creating a domino effects from causing locks to inviting To visualize these effects in human comparisons think of a baby to teenager (seedling/cutting to veg) and/or an adult to elderly person (mid flower to harvest time frame) in harsh environments be it hot or cold this effect is dramatic on the younger people and older people (kids in cars and elderly people without air conditioning or heating as example) just as it does with young, elderly and sensitive people it is the same with most plants. This is why predators in the wild like old, the sick, the injured and the babies of their prey. Easier meal as they are weaker. This aspect is rarely appreciated by those who believe they understand temperature. If you are after quality and yields, pay very close attention to your temperature levels doing your very best to not go into stress situations. Just like "Goldilocks", plants like it just right. Not to hot and not to cold. You are also prepared to understanding on when to induce stress as applicable for your plant type. Be it to induce fruiting, sweetness or any pertinent factor for the plant being grown. Some plants require stress factors to help them enter their next development stages. Stable all the time is not necessarily as a good as matching the plant environment with its developmental stages. Things to help manage stress: When outdoors, encourage deeper root growth. B-Vitamins before, during and after High brix CO2 use (PPM dependent) Air conditioning increased air flow/breeze above and through the plant. If dry heat add some humidity depending on your plants needs at their development stage. if humid head reduce humidity depending on your plants needs at their development stage. Ensure reservoir water and watering in water is at a correct temperature. Add ice bottles. water chill system. increase aeration when water temps rise. lower oxygen content in warmer water. low oxygen and warm water is good environment for root pathogens. Add H2o2 to water periodically and 5 minutes before feeding to increase oxygen to water levels. H202 breaks down into oxygen. Ensure media temperature does not get out of proper range. Smaller containers may be transplanted depending on stage of development of plants. Larger containers soils should be shaded (if not already by plant). Union Break! I think this is how some might feel! Garden Temperature Planning During the planning stages of a garden the plan will often take into consideration the intensity, spectrum and over all the strength of a grow light in terms of yield and quality and work from the top down depending on what they can afford to purchase. Generally people think they will be automatically able to place the light at optimum levels as stated in marketing for light quality, penetration and per suggested light distance from the plants but they do not appreciate their ambient and the entirety of the operating temperatures and the lights impact on temperature. No matter what marketing says your garden temperatures will be determined along with other factors such as natural ambient temperatures and humidity and this directly affects the efficiency and overall quality of your lights in terms of heat, light intensity and spectrum in regards to the light penetration of the plants. Otherwise the scenario where gardeners purchase a high wattage light and cannot control the heat. A very common situation that leads to the gardener raising their costs by adding in cooling options to make the situation more palatable to the plant. The best answer is a reduced wattage light that equals the best operating temperature. Having a 600w HPS or a 1000w HPS so high from the canopy due to heat that it is essentially a 400w light is not efficient use but this is fairly common, especially during summer months where budgets do not include effective additional cooling options. Some people will consider LED lighting or other low temperature lighting in comparison to HPS or other high heat lighting and this is a valid option but I also recommend reviewing a smaller wattage light and in combination with another light for a better light spectrum. Which ever will give you better spectrum with good penetration taking into consideration the operational temperature of your garden. This is rarely the big light choice when the high wattage lights impact upon the garden is appreciated after taking into consideration impact the light brings to the operational garden heat as a whole and with other costs associated which typically lowers the lights efficiency in comparison to the other options. To plan out a garden environment we need to consider all the elements that make up the garden environment and affect temperature specifically. Such as mechanical equipment and the natural ambient temperature so that we can determine cooling and/or heating requirements. How To Determine Heating and Cooling for Environment Natural Ambient Area Temperatures - This is the normal temperature of the area you are going to grow in prior to starting. We will use this in estimating operational temperature. Day and night temperature at high and low temperature and humidity readings. This information will determine if we need to add cooling or heating just to prepare or set the garden environment. We will use this as our Natural Ambient Temperature Natural Ambient Temperature Formula Natural Ambient Temperatures (day and night) for operating seasons (intake air). + _____Estimated Heat (Lamps, fans, CO2 burners, insulation etc) @ BTU and/or Watts____ = Estimated Operational Temperatures per season as applicable @ BTU and/or Watts for cooling and heating requirements Now to determine the "Operational Garden Temperature" and then we can make adjustments to the build plan to obtain our environmental goals during the planning stages. Operational Temperatures: Intake temperature (outside/lung room air) needs @ BTU and/or Watts for HVAC + _____Grow room heat (Lights + other)_@ BTU and/or Watts for HVAC = Operational Garden Temperature HVAC requirements (Day and night highest and lowest temperatures per day for each change in intake air such as each season). By adjusting the BTU/Watt requirements for the selected lights it can be estimated to an acceptable range of accuracy the impact that each light will have on the cooling or heating requirements for the garden. As a general rule if the numbers are close I recommend going the light size lower or increase the BTU/watt requirements for additional cooling as to ensure better optimization for light penetration and spectrum. Further additional BTU/Watt, cooling/heating consideration for: Insulation properties of the room, ducting and any other pertinent factor. Air conditioning, dehumidifiers, CO2 burners and ventilation are also factors to consider. Add the wattage of heat generating aspects with the type of insulation and we can determine the cooling or heating requirements. Example: Grow tent 3x3x6 in a basement area that is consistent at 65℉= 18.3℃. Should a 400w light require cooling. We want to determine the cooling required for a 400watt HPS for a 3x3x6 size tent. http://www.eyehortilux.com/education-room/btu-calculator.aspx Enter 400w light wattage = 1365.200 BTU/HR http://www.calculator.net/btu-calculator.html Adjust Temperature to Increase or Decrease Setting Adjust this setting until it matches close but over the 400w BTU/Watt cooling needs as learned from this calculator; http://www.eyehortilux.com/education-room/btu-calculator.aspx 1365.200 BTU/HR Once the BTU needs match that of your light and combined needs of your room. Add the degrees needed to cool the light from your desired garden temperature. This is the temperature that can be estimated by your lights. This will determine if cooling or heating or nothing is appropriate. In this examples of a 400w HPS in a 3x3x6 tent with stable ambient temperature at 65f. You will need 1,360 BTU/hour or 398 watt to cool this light by 20f to reach desired setting. http://www.eyehortilux.com/education-room/btu-calculator.aspx Since it will take similar BTU/watt requirements to cool that matches our light BTU/watt requirements at 20f we can determine the light will add approximately 20-25 degrees of heat to our ambient temperature. Total heat is estimated to be in the 80℉= 26.6℃ to 85℉= 29.44444℃. A bit on the upper high side of acceptable. Add air conditioning for better environment and less risk. Add air cooled reflector. Reduce to next light wattage option down/dimmer switch on light. CO2 considerations due to plant temperature benefits if run on high side but may be more cost effective to consider cooling options. Once all the BTU/wattage requirements are known and accounted for at depth of the plant for light intensity you can determine the entire cooling or heating needs by simply working your overall BTU/watt requirements as you did each light. This will give you a good estimate on realistic garden environment and its requirements. Temperature in the Garden Summary Once a gardener understands to an appreciation the perspectives and effects of temperature and how to control it the gardener can utilizes this knowledge to manage their crops effectively and expertly to the degree of control they build into their garden systems. Humidity Humidity is water vapor in the air. The amount of this water vapor (humidity) in the air we measure is in terms of relative humidity. Humidity has a significant impact upon plants both positive and negative depending on the percentage. Often I see people who prescribe negative aspects of the garden plants to other reasons when in fact humidity played a role in their issue more so than what they prescribed as the culprit of the problem. Many times this is in part an aspect for stretch and rooting aspects.. When humidity is in the correct "relative humidity" levels for a plants specific development stage it is the equal of what a perfect outdoor day feels like to us air and breeze wise. The kind of day where you think you could just stay out on the porch, in the yard, have a grill as the day just changes your plans for you. This is what we want to create for the plants and it is not as hard as you would think. Learning about humidity and how to effectively manage it is a key aspect of ones evolution in indoor gardening as we learn how to use the tools of advanced gardening. I warmly welcome you to the tool shed. Humidity aspects Plants Transpire This is how plants cool themselves, like sweating. They release water into the air But when the air is already saturated (high humidity) The plant shuts down at a certain point. This is why in part high humidity is dangerous. when the plant cannot transpire is can become the equivalent of being bloated and this makes it easier for plants to become infected by mold and mildew infections as their is much more water inside the plant it is easier to infect. Especially plants that are stretched due to high nitrogen and low calcium uptake. Weak cell walls + full of water in plant = easy for mold spore to drill into and infect internal plant water and infection. Seedlings and cuttings are most sensitive. Think spring light and humid environment. Cuttings may use dome in traditional clone rooting Cuttings in air cloners do not require a dome Seedlings require a dome only until they come up. Careful adjusting from climate of seed tray to next area. Placing a clear film over top of early rooting plants raises the humidity at plant level. Putting a dry light blocking material around plants will help with humidity in the plant area. Humidity of 80% is ok We do not want to put pressure on roots at this point. Vegetative growth a higher humidity of 60 to 70 percent is healthy. Gradually increase as plants develop. Pay attention to leaves and adjust humidity up or down accordingly. Generally this is controlled by exhaust, and/or air conditioning. Flower around 40 to 50% is healthy. To high humidity in flower is inviting to mold and mildew spores. Air conditioning & heat as applicable is sometimes used to manage humidity. A dehumidifier is sometimes used to manage humidity in flower Be aware of the electrical needs and amp requirements of a dehumidifier. Humidity Summary For most the next big thing is in some bottle or in an up and coming light. In truth, utilizing humidity as a tool will enable you control the plant in ways many do not yet effectively appreciate. We see that a plant will grow about anywhere and this aspect has caused many of us to misunderstand what a good grow environment actually is and thus our expectations are not aligned correctly and we often sell our selves short by simply not understanding humidity levels. Now that we understand humidity and growing we can better use it to our advantage to help control stretch and root growth, create environment conditions like early morning, mid afternoon, later afternoon and night for each stage. As with other indoor gardening tools control of humidity is as complex or as simple as one wants it to be. I recommend optimizing humidity for each plant development stage with root growth, transplant and transition stages. Very good video regarding humidity. How to control humidity indoors Good information on greenhouse and urban farming. Their youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/BrightAgrotechLLC/videos Too Hot Too Cold Fan control Air Conditioning Air Intake, Filter, Inline Fan, Ducting and Air Cooled Reflector Hoods Air Quality Air Scrubbing Air quality in grow rooms is dependent on several factors but most important for plants is co2, temperature, humidity and air flow. However, we often do not think of the other aspects of air such as various particles such as pollen, hairs, dust, smoke, dander about anything than can float in the air. When considering I recommend a charcoal filter rated for the size of your room or slightly smaller than your rated CFM and run independently of any exhaust filter, Place the fan directly on top of the filter and secure to filter. Allow fan to filter air blowing the air upwards. The higher position the filter the better but keep away from moisture and humidity of 80% or more as it will stop the effectiveness of your filters. This is operated in the garden and separate from the exhaust system or you can run dedicated air cleaning machines. This will add some heat from the fan into the room Account for additional electric needs. To "scrub" the air take a filter for the size of your room or one with a lower CFM rating and do same with the size of the inline fan ensuring to match the correct size fan to filter. Aspects of air scrubbing: Offers a higher degree of smell containment when used in conjunction with a traditional charcoal smell filtration system or any other effective smell management system. Cleaner air in grow room. Can remove gas created by end of life leaves which give off a gas that encourages ripening. This is stated that it can be used to extend ripening times for some crops. I personally would not consider as a base justification as I would tell you to remove the dead and decomposing leaves. I do not necessarily believe this but it is stated in several competent writings. Down side to blowing into the room is that it can distribute a fine charcoal dust from the filter. A solution is use a lung room and scrub the air through that mechanism. I do not find it normally necessary to scrub or clean grow room air but I find beneficial in following scenarios. Consideration for high pollution areas. Additional layer of smell protection when used together with other smell management systems. Consideration for extra protection in breeding setups and will discuss such aspect in future breeding setup writings. Video on Air Intake A good example of the construction of a good air intake filter. Ozone Air Scrubber Option I do not recommend ozone for sealed or closed rooms as ozone is not healthy for plant life or most life in general. Plants will negatively respond that is a exposed to ozone. I have no problem with ozone being used for air filter system that is safely exhausted. Carbon Filter (Smell) Often carbon filters are used as part of the exhaust system. Adjust for loss of CFM when determining fan size, approximately 25% Replace approximately once per year. Some filters you can switch the cap and extend the life cycle of the filter. At 80% humidity carbon filters are no longer effective. Carbon filter Video Air Scrubber Summary The quality of the air is something we generally take for granted as being a given. It is not a necessity and adding more noise and heat to your garden area may not be the smartest move but it is an option that should be considered and ruled on as a matter of competence. In my view, if you can do it, do it. If you do, use it intelligently drawing and pushing the air in locations such as areas that receive little wind/breeze or are heat sink/spot areas as to distribute evenly throughout the room. It also can offer an extra layer of smell protection when used in tandem with a tradition smell management system. This option is also useful in areas of processing where extra filtration may temporarily be of value. I do recommend to run filtered air in areas that processing takes place in. This extra is more than a security measure it helps filter any animal hair, pollen or any matter that may be undesirable and visible under a microscope. For example, when a dispensary is analyzing your crop. Well filtered air is a blessing in preventing embarrassing detritus in the crops. Regardless of ones view of this, it is a tool that can easily be employed and should be considered and ruled any time an applicable scenario presents itself for its use. Carbon Dioxide or C02 Carbon Dioxide is one of those tricky subjects that is easy to misunderstand. Generally, CO2 is a great a marketing aspect for indoor garden suppliers but what is not often said is how to effectively use them. I believe many gardeners misuse or they are not efficiently using CO2. In the end this cost money and is wasted resources. When using CO2 it is best to be used with "best practice" along with "best practice" in lighting, nutrition and management. Then the capabilities of achieving the most from your genetics become a possibility. If not done to effective levels of competence with all other aspects of the plant the reality of the benefit of CO2 is greatly diminished. Thus, CO2 is only a viable option for flowering for those with well constructed rooms as to maintain efficiency levels in particular in reference to financial costs. However, it is beneficial to add higher levels of C02 in early veg, cloning stages as the required PPM is far less and this can assist with maintaining heat and light tolerance. This can be beneficial preparation in the stages before hardening rooted plants off outside or for other needs. Can be a benefit when you ship clones to help them endure shipping as they are stronger. High Concentrations of CO2 is bad for people and animals and can kill when it reaches 1% of the air. Gardens use approximately 0.15% of the air. However, use a CO2 meter to ensure that no malfunction of a burner and compressed tank could cause a disaster. never saw nor heard of this happening but lets not be a first. Using CO2 CO2 is heavier than air. Thus we put CO2 so that it falls or "rains" CO2 down on the plants. Evenly distributed Small fans strategically pointed upward can keep CO2 in air and over plants and helping distribution. "Best Practice" is to have the grow rooms at optimum levels of C02 during the day. Often CO2 is run in closed rooms. Often 15 minutes co2 dose and then 15 minute air exchange and repeated throughout day cycle. With this setup you often run air cooled lights. Exceptions can be with lung rooms and recirculated air system. This is a trade off in cost efficiency where you run the CO2 at optimum levels throughout the day and replenish as your plants use. Often used in conjunction with a CO2 Meter/controller. Their is no benefit to running C02 during the night/dark period. Will turn your plants yellow. Seedling, Cloning, initial transplant cycles you only need 300-500 ppm. Few leafs and little photosynthesis. Raising temperature at this level will not help CO2 at this level will assist with plant tolerance to heat and light stress. Vegetative stages after rooting increase CO2 to 500-700 ppm. As plants increase in leaf and growth they will use more energy/photosynthesis and sugars are made. Adjust/Rise the CO2 levels accordingly. It is not harmful to the plants if PPM's are higher than normal for period. This increases the cost of your grow to have ineffective CO2 ppm amounts. Do not raise temperature in vegetative area as in later flowering period. The plants can become more hardier to withstand light intensity and higher temperatures. Is generally part of a CO2 garden operation to treat at this stage as to prepare for the higher temperature and more intense light in a flowering/blooming or an outdoor environment. Helps reduce shock in this regard. Flowering stage keep CO2 at 700-1050 ppm. Increased growth and bud production by running CO2 during the first 1-5 weeks of flowering. Once flowering has truly begun CO2 may or may not be effective. Their are strong views for and against continue or discontinue CO2 at this time of development. Traditional CO2 use would finish 2 weeks before harvest approximately. I have no direct experience with CO2 in terms of comparison as above. Raise temperature 85f (30°C) to 95f (35°C) for full benefit of CO2. Watch for heat stress in plant and adjust temperature accordingly. You potentially lower your lights towards the canopy if desired paying attention to light bleaching aspects. Maximizing your light source but just above the bleaching zone and before the plant shows stress is your optimum height from canopy to light. Pay attention to height of plant, co2, temperature and humidity levels. Manage adjustments to remain in that range. Plants become more light tolerant with higher CO2 PPM and higher temperature. Helps reduce shock in this regard and allows for leafs to function at brighter and hotter temperatures than normal. Examples of Setups with Enough Light for CO2 Injection up to 1050 PPM I like full spectrum light in addition to brightness, traditionally they go by brightness. 3' x 3' space - 600W HPS or HPS/MH Combo or LED/full spectrum & bright 3.5' x 3.5' space - 2 x 400W HPS or HPS/MH Combo or LED/full spectrum & bright 4' x 4' space - 1000W HPS or HPS/MH Combo or LED/full spectrum & bright CO2 Garden Options CO2 Generators and Compressed CO2 are the most effective and efficient ways to add CO2 to your garden area especially for flowering areas. Vegetative areas also benefit but a due to the less amounts needed this can be actually achieved by other means than generators and compressed tanks. It is possible to use fermentation kits and CO2 bags purchased from a store, however this is costly. If you are seriously into making wine you can also do this if fermentation concentrations are sufficient, smaller areas. Also for those who live on a farm and/or those who make ethanol, the fermentation process releases CO2. CO2 Generators & Compressed CO2 CO2 Generators often run on propane or natural gas. Some generators are optimized for higher elevations Compressed CO2 is run with a regulator and bottle setup. Costly operationally I like best for: When needing fast increases of CO2. Bug infestation. Management option. When testing CO2 in your environment before dedicating to it. Low initial cost and is often consideration for a "trial" run to evaluate before dedicating to a burner system which may require some room alterations. In some garden situations I like burner systems and the use of a CO2 tank in certain situations. Tank being largely used in supplemental aspects and certain situations. Very good informative video Lex Blazer CO2 Burner Information, Not an endorsement, for illustration purposes. I have no opinion on quality. Set up for this style of burner to give illustration of setup understanding. CO2 Summary CO2 use is ideal for most growers only in vegetative stages due to the low PPM requirements and benefits in preparing the plants for follow up stages. Often smaller gardens will use a bucket or bag CO2 product and hang high as CO2 is heavy and will fall. Fans pointed up will help keep CO2 in air column. The costs of these products can be high and some home brewers may be able to devise a system to take advantage but for most this aspect is a pain the ass. CO2 compressed tanks are a better alternative to the bags due to the low PPM in veg the cost efficiency of tank is more attractive and bags and buckets take up space and are generally a pain the ass. I recommend only for trial purposes. Dedicated gardeners with closed systems can create systems that take full advantage of the CO2 and to do this requires a degree of best practice aspects all around. The average gardener can not easily achieve this no matter what marketing says. Additionally their is much debate with merit on both sides for and against continued CO2 use after flowering/fruiting has begun. I have no experience with this aspect and will update as more information becomes relevant. Ventilation Ventilation is a big part of creating and managing the entire environment. First we need to understand the needs of the plants being grown. A wise gardener can not only create a stable grow environment but can manage with accuracy the environment in regards to temperature, humidity, CO2 and air quality. Their are a variety of setup and options that offers a range of capabilities depending on a gardens needs. Understanding how to use these tools is vital in creating optimized grow areas. What ventilation tool works in one setup may not be ideal in another ventilation setup. For example, dealing with humidity is different in a tropical area compared to dry climate area. Often people will be told that one method may not be good when in fact that method may be most beneficial in certain situations. This aspect negatively works against us by instilling these misunderstood views. Creating an effect that limits the typical ill informed gardener in knowledge and capability in respect to options to utilize to manage their garden. This may in part be due to much of the communities knowledge coming from marketed directions and forums, never mind this one . Ventilation Types Active or Passive Ventilation. Active Ventilation - Using a slightly smaller inline fan to intake fresh air into your grow room. This has less strain on your garden's extraction fan and is more efficient. Exhaust fan typically will have a filter attached This reduced effectiveness of the fan. Making it sensible for a lower intake fan. Using fans with control switches can give you better control. I tend to recommend that if a grower can afford and if they plan to expand at a later date to over spec the requirements using a speed controller for the fan to adjust to correct CFM rate for the grow. For tents I do not recommend a weaker intake fan rated CFM for tent size as negative pressure is a problem on stitching. I do not recommend an overly strong intake fan rated significantly higher than your CFM needs as a whole. Consider for intake fan, the next fan size or model down from your intake fan. Adjust for exhaust filter and ducting losses. Intake is 8 inch fan with dimmer switch and an 8 inch exhaust fan with/without dimmer switch. Intake is 6 inch fan with a 8 inch exhaust fan. Intake is 4 inch fan with a 6 inch exhaust fan. Negative of too much ventilation is high heat, high humidity and low levels of CO2, this will negatively affect photosynthesis. Negative of too little ventilation is low humidity and stomata/transpiration issues. Illustrates traits often associated with genetic aspect when in fact it is a result of a plant responding to environmental stress that the gardener may or may not appreciate. Extreme situations of low humidity will put the plant in a hibernation or pause state until the environmental stress passes (humidity levels return to functional levels). Dry climate areas with low humidity are higher risk. Passive ventilation - I dislike this typically due to the following. Basically is a low vent on one side and a high vent on the opposite side of the room or tent. Works best during colder periods when the difference between inside and outside temperatures is greatest. Passive ventilation used alone can’t extract humidity. Union Break! I think this is how some might feel! Determining Ventilation Requirements Cubic Foot per Minute of ventilation requirement is needed. Exchange your garden's air at least once per minute at minimum. Not as important in vegetative growth when plants are small as they have less leaves. "Best Practice" is to exchange once per minute. Ensure fresh air intakes are managed (intake filter) for bugs and pest that could enter the garden via this pathway. Intake filter will reduce approximately CFM's by 25% Bends in ducting reduce CFM's drastically. Ducting curved 30 degrees reduces CFMs by 15% Air quality - Low humidity intake air will need less ventilation until humidity is correct as the leaves will begin lose moisture and negatively affect the stomata and the photosynthesis process. To calculate initial cubic feet per minute of ventilation you need, start with calculating the size of the garden in cubic feet. You do this by multiplying the height, length, and width of the room. FAN CFM CALCULATOR Note: You need to have Javascript enabled on your browser for the calculator to work. http://www.industrialfansdirect.com/CFM_Calculator.html Advanced calculator Ventilation Summary Understanding ventilation and how to use it in various situations is a skill that few appreciate and with automation capabilities it becomes rarer still. Often their are negative garden issues associated with to little ventilation within a multi ventilation setup and when this occurs it can lead to potential harmful situations like mold or heat aspects. It is important to understand ventilation but one can make it as complex or as simple as they wish. The point is that now one can make an informed decision and have some direction on how to effectively setup for each perspective gardeners needs. Environment the Tool and some tools The environment is the driving factor in a garden and as such it is wise to utilize this to our advantage rather than to just build around it. As an example, this is a common practice done by to instigating the flowering stage by adjusting the timing of the lights to further adjustments in temperature and humidity depending on how simple or as complex the design of the garden and needs of the crop are. Understanding how to use the tools such as ventilation and the different setups that enable various capabilities that may offer solutions to gardeners with certain situations and/or needs. Further still this knowledge gives you the capability to adjust to environmental conditions experienced out of normal weather patterns. The key is to appreciate that assisting a plant through a stressful period of time be it normal growth period development and/or environmental based stress that addressing the plant at all levels from environmental aspects to nutritional aspects as to ensure the overall health of the plants is strong. A gardener must not depend on the strength of any one aspect to cover for not being competent in other areas of plant care such as heat control but not humidity and also take into consideration nutritional and plant physiology aspects for before during and after the stress event. Some environmental control aspects. Hot and Cold areas Sealed Room Consideration (higher electrical cost but is easier to control grow environment) Air conditioning aspects Air conditioning Air cooled reflector hoods Insulated ducting Carbon dioxide Burner. Bottled. Bucket/Bag grow shop kits Wine/Ethanol making. Air Filters Pest control Air quality and smell controls. When seasonal outdoor temperatures are not good. Air intake from inside the building offers stable temperatures and humidity levels. Use an Lung room or tent to temper and treat air before going into garden area. Hot areas Outside air intake into an active cooling lung room. Balance for proper humidity level and temperature. Cold areas intake into an lung room. Outside air intake into lung room. Grow room exhaust into lung room lower temperature and exhaust or intake into grow room as best for your setup. If exhaust to outside this helps remove aspects of ice build up. If exhaust to grow room ensure proper temperature and humidity levels for current growth cycle. Lung room option 2 Intake air from inside building to lung room (stabilized but not ideal) Cool or heat lung room and obtain proper humidity level Exhaust lung room into grow area. Exhaust grow area outside (filtered most often) Exhaust grow area inside of building (Use the heat) or Exhaust grow area to a lung room for temper for outside temperatures. The biggest thing is to make informed and calculated decisions when working an issue. Their is no need to panic and rush into a decision that make things worse. Gain control of the situation and sit back and look at it through eyes as if you was going to give advice to another. Try to see the garden as if for the first time and go over your grow history and analyze. The answer or the answers are their. When you can during stressful climate times and periods, go for nature walks and see what plants are doing well and see if get any ideas! Video on Heat in the grow room Video on cold in the grow room Fan controller video AC video Air Cooled Hoods & Ducting Video Filter size video Additonal tools Advanced Calculator: http://www.uk420.com/growroomtools2.php BTU Calculator for room & Area: http://www.calculator.net/btu-calculator.html Click Hortilux logo for Watts/lights to BTU calculator A BTU, also known as a British Thermal Unit, is a measurement of the energy needed to cool a substance. Grow lamps generate a lot of heat. By converting your wattage into BTU per hour, you’ll have the information you need to keep your plants cooled so that they don’t burn up from the heat of the grow lamps. A BTU is also the equivalent of 252 heat calories, not to be confused with the kilo-calories of food, and of approximately a third of a watt of electrical power. When speaking of cooling power, the BTU also works in reverse. The air-cooling power of an air conditioning system refers to the amount of thermal energy removed from an area. Hence a 65,000 BTU heater and a 65,000 BTU air conditioner are of roughly the same capacity and size. The higher the BTU output, the more powerful the heating or cooling system. The thermal energy needed to raise water one degree Fahrenheit can depend on the original temperature and the method used for heating. Therefore, it is possible to get several different definitions of a BTU from different sources. This rarely has a palpable effect on consumer product information, however. Click for Phresh CFM, Cubic Feet per Minute Calculator Click for Phresh CFM Calculator Indoor Garden Environment Summary Ok, by controlling the environment we can affect plant physiology and development stages but as we know their is no simple "one size fits all" formula for managing the indoor garden. By understanding to appreciation the aspects discussed in this writing you have created a base of knowledge that will allow to address virtually all the varied aspects of the environment and how to control them to serve the plants and you very well. By making a true home for our plants, they will truly it make it that and live their life healthy and fit. Always understand via competent analysis of established to new technology that can affect indoor environments. Continue to learn on plant physiology. Always be the student. Continue to learn on plant and environment interactions and aspects. Always be the student. It is not so important that any specific method be strictly followed as that you have a true understanding of all things affected and then from that knowledge you apply effective methods to obtain the conditions you want. For You When environmental and plant physiology wisdom is effectively gained it can become the advantage that can equal or best the long established or it can just be what makes a garden happy and productive. ~JJ The Gardener The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas.
  16. What is Good and Evil? Life Noggin - Are Humans Born Good Or Bad? Good and evil, light and dark, heaven and hell, yin and yang. Take your pick, we all have a view on that and this is a discussion on what that actually is. We tend to believe we know what good and evil is. For some, a book or religion will tell you that, for others a judge will, and for others a parent and the environment they grow up and live in will affect this perception and ones way of life. Understand that is all it is, a perception that keeps us locked into a room of thought secured by dogma walls whose influence affects us in many ways as it leashes how we see and understand the world. We tend to see good and evil as entities that fight but as long as we see good and evil as something to fight and win against we are blind and cannot become free. However it is possible to believe you are free of negative and/or evil aspects but if it was not removed correctly through understanding and love you are still not free of its influence, you temporarily limit or remove its effect and become blind to new effects it has on you as you believe you are past the issue. This is like a trick but not by intelligent design but just by how energy flows. Sort of like water with the path of least resistance. Energy has properties we do not easily appreciate nor understand and with strong negative influence this can manifest into fears and aspects that alter us in the direction of that energy type in multiple ways and depths from behaviors, understandings, beliefs and thoughts. Understand positive and negative energies for the sake of illustration. The effects are not personal but just nature being nature. We are the ones who assign meaning to it via the effects of these energies, good and evil or positive and negative energies and our blindness makes it difficult to even understand this concept at times. CrashCourse - The Problem of Evil: Crash Course Philosophy #13 Our darkest fears that haunt us are nothing but a manifestation of our energies and the effects our energies have upon us. Good & evil is just an illusion from energy that uniquely acts upon us in a manner that is natural as any of the forces of nature. Their is no entity attacking us as many religions discuss, it is only perceptions and beliefs we have that transforms that influence in how we see it. Our demons, are our demons and through understanding and love for all nature will it only be removed. You cannot fight it as even if you win, it is in the shadows and will still influence you in ways for which you do not appreciate and we will remain blind. The following video is an allegory of Plato's cave. I added this as to give a bit of insight on how good and evil concepts and views can be created. - TED-Ed - Plato’s Allegory of the Cave - Alex Gendler By gaining these understandings we can take a step down the path of true freedom. I hope you join me in this discussion and perhaps we can begin to be truly human and live good lives without the manipulation that few people can truly see and those who do often remain silent and ignore it. By understanding and teaching to the youth and living free can we hope to make to true change for it is not really a change for our society today but for in the future and it starts with caring enough about our future generations that we form these understandings and do our part in instilling these views and guiding them toward the path of true freedom. Good and evil are largely concepts and labels used to control us and when we question or try to learn the other view we are punished and ostracized for it. This is not freedom and I ask you to work towards freedom by diminishing the effect of controlling views of good and evil. JJ the Gardener!
  17. The Story of the Wily Ape: Section 1- The Beginning Section 2 - Value and Meaning Section 3 - Brain, Emotion & Behavior Section 4 - Personality traits, capabilities & limitations Section 5 - Society, Market and Governance Section 6 - The Future Notes: The emoticons are links to videos to illustrate or just as break as applicable. Most will go to youtube.com for videos within their network. Emoticons used within a sentence are typically examples illustrating the applicable discussion. This is a not for profit enterprise. We name materials used by in the credits for those who information and works within our compilations. Please support them directly. If the forum is not working correctly, adjust your security to allow the site to function until the options function. Intro This is an attempt to tell a story and illustrate some aspects of our society. To do this I speak of the civilization of wily apes and how they and their civilization was in part molded. To appreciate I will illustrate from what was learned via science starting from the beginning of time to now. Earth is a paradise from the perspective of earth inhabitants as they have not yet found life outside of their planet and yet this has had no positive effect on their behaviors as an effective influence on the species. The story of the wily ape will help explain why and I thank you for your time. The Story of the Wily Ape Section 1- The Beginning As we begin I ask you this question. What are you? Literally? Have you seriously thought what and where all the bits of us came from that makes us, us? We are made of some of the most exotic material in the galaxy, living matter that is self aware that can reproduce, learn and adapt. From a starting point we mostly call "nothing" all that we are and see was created from the big bang to now. Eventually life itself was sparked and the story of the wily ape can begin to be told. To tell this story as to better understand we will start from the ending and work forward. We are sacred but we do not recognize it. Perhaps if you can appreciate how the materials from which you are formed came to be it might shine a light on that perspective for you. The Beginning This is not about science but it sets the stage of understanding our true material value. Often people think of things of value such as gold, diamonds, other resources but also in terms of how we relate to one another as in appearance, language, culture, wealth and the like but few think of the value of what they are actually made of. We blindly take for it granted that we are alive and all the matter in existence but by doing so we lose appreciation of the value of our actual physical existence. To us life is not rare, but in the universe, we still cannot find it elsewhere. Star Death and the Creation of Elements - Wonders of the Universe: Stardust, preview - BBC Two BBC The Story of the Wily Ape Section 2 - Value and Meaning Value In reality, we are not so different from one to another no matter the differences in appearance or the schematics for which we live as all of us share the same creation, the same building materials are within each of us. If we must talk about a creation source for everything, yes science can point to it from the big bang to the interactions and continued interactions that created generations of stars that eventually gave us the building materials to be here in a way that life was eventually sparked and we have not yet found more of it outside of our world. The above is about recognizing the true physical value of the materials for which you were created. Not in terms of money or finances but in terms of rarity and its special properties. The point I want to make is that all life is very valuable. However, we tend to have fluctuating views on life in perspective to how it benefits us and/or when we perceive others as equals. It is in the aspect of value being flexible within society that it can become destructive. In truth, we are all made of most exotic most precious material in existence that we know of. Their is no greater thing than being alive yet by our own limitations we turn away from that value very easily and for very little true gain. True Value +Patrick Mylund Nielsen. https://www.youtube.com/user/pmylund Value + Meaning This partially occurs due to a limited understanding to an appreciation of what "value" actually is. To understand value in this sense we should realize that value is sort of in the eye of the beholder and often depends on whatever it or something should "mean" to each person and/or group. That effect meaning has on us has a direct impact on the value we perceive it. "Meaning" is the key to understanding "value" and how value is fluctuated by that influence. Value Formula: Other person/object/ideology + Meaning to you = Personal Perception of the value of the other. This is illustrated well when it comes to sacred values and as such value itself can be more fluid and fluctuating than many appreciate. For example, religious and race difference can, has and does have violent interactions based in part on some level of difference in understanding of value based on the meaning of what opposing side has toward the other. Meaning plays a direct role in your personal happiness in life. The wily ape's ability change its values and meanings towards each other and its environment had an impact that was beneficial at times to its species but it also was exploited intentionally and unintentionally and it is in this twist that it's future depended. In appreciating this, you take a step towards freedom for real. Sound odd?? How free do you truly feel? Your answer depends on your perspective situation, age, financial situation and such are examples of dramatic differences to that answer. Now, ask why? The following video illustrates how value and meaning are determined and its effects. CrashCourse - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCX6b17PVsYBQ0ip5gyeme-Q How we view ourselves often sets the tone how we view others. By understanding this perhaps we can begin to appreciate others if we can appreciate and care about others position and why it is when understanding one another culturally and personally. It gets better I promise... Union Break! The Story of the Wily Ape Section 3 - Brain, Emotion & Behavior The Extinction of the Wily Ape As with most things our greatest asset is also potentially our greatest weakness and in the following we will explore this aspect and its impact. The next video discusses some very good points on wily ape society by illustrating their brain's flaws and how it affected and impacted wily ape society. This begins the topic by starting with the view of Aliens looking at the ape extinction and its reasons. http://bit.ly/2cAYy64f you like our films, take a look at our shop (we ship worldwide): School of life: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC7IcJI8PUf5Z3zKxnZvTBog Click ape to see how 2001: A Space Odyssey - art form expression of the inception of wily. What makes a wily brain Big Think - Michio Kaku on the Evolution of Intelligence Consciousness of the wily ape Dr. Michio Kaku Subscribe by clicking here: http://goo.gl/CPTsV5 The Future of the Mind (http://goo.gl/1mcGeb) The wily mentality and how it affects behavior The following video discussing the wily apes brain structure and sets a good basic understanding of the information following after. You can directly support Crash Course at http://www.subbable.com/crashcourse The wily ape mind has two key aspects that enabled, constrained and reduced its society. The Reptilian/Animal Brain or Old Brain: Aggression and lust and its affects on society. This comes from the early development of our species and enabled these ancient ancestors to successfully survive and thrive in their environments which has allowed your existence to reach to today. Our eyes and impulse reactions connect to this part of the brain structure. The Neocortex or New Brain - Bigger brains that enabled modern humanity to differ from other animals and its influence on society. Those two parts of the brain enabled and enforced the following behaviors/traits due to its architecture which was formed over its evolution: Tribalism Grouping together for similar interest and protection. Unable to see equality for all of the species. Capability for aggressive actions among the wily ape species. Short-Term Perspective - Wily ape society did not prepare long term aspect throughout their society even when the data was understood. In addition this aspect also had an a role in the evolution in the education for which they taught within their societies. Failure to appreciate the result and affects of their actions on short to mid current generation and onto future generations. These failures degrade individuals and society elements that eventually leads to catastrophic reactions upon the society. Wish-full Thinking- Belief that everything will somehow work out no matter the incompetence. They achieved and benefited from intellectual achievements on many levels. This played a role into their wishful thinking aspect which became and grew a false but strong confidence that ultimately blinded the wily ape individual and society to its reality. The wiley ape is controlled by their emotions, behaviors and the manner of their minds function. These influences have the potential for greatness and disaster. Union Break Union Break The Story of the Wily Ape Section 4 - Personality traits, emotions, capabilities & limitations The limitations and constraints of the wily brain The wily ape brains architecture while capable was limited and degraded by its inability to reflect upon itself with effective influence in regards to their actions, beliefs and behaviors. This is caused by the two parts of the brain conflicting, the reptilian part of the brain is faster acting and generally takes lead between the two. The evolution of our capability was faster than our intellect could emotionally rational to balanced proportions. This imbalance has influenced issues to the individual to their society as whole. The reptilian/animal brain influence tends to cause emotional actions/reactions and behaviors and is greater than their ability to utilize their intellect. Enables the actions of fantasy and false confidence in the future to play a bigger role in forming understandings, behaviors and decision making. The wily ape craved entertainment, attention and fantasy. When used in decision making this had a negative effect. Essentially the wily ape did not want to know itself. For periods of time these flaws are tolerated and managed within their society. Laws, education , good government, science and philosophy. The influences of tribalism, wishful thinking and short term perspective would instigate internal violence among its species but never enough to cause the extinction of the species as a whole. Wars, pollution, diseases caused by their actions and behaviors among the species but the species survives as a whole. The reptilian brain had influenced the species behaviors and this became at times harmful as the species increased in technological capability but it benefited the species greatly early in its ancestral existence when those traits were more effective. Finding an effective balance as a society had not been accomplished even though many society models were attempted. They all failed due to the same basic root cause. The two parts of the brain were not in harmony. The neocortex part of the brain is what enabled its extinction capability but also its greatest technological and intellectual accomplishments. The capabilities of the neocortex gave the wily ape a super natural type of power over its environment and population. This gave the species the capability of creating self made disaster on various scales from small locations up to and including planet wide impacts. This effect is directly amplified and related to the species technological capabilities. Such as wars throughout history. Small hand to hand skirmish with rocks and clubs, to global military interactions to nuclear war. Overtime the animal/reptilian brain influences reduces the society ability to use wisdom effectively to influence understanding, behaviors and actions. This tapered with negative results on society and with environmental influences and affects of "Tribalism," "Wishful Thinking," and "Short Term Perspective" eventually situations lead to the wily ape species extinction. Artistic Expression Artistic expression in all its forms has the capability to influence and overtime this aspect has been used to manipulate and for simple expression that can communicate. When we think of art and music we generally think of it in terms of entertainment and harmless but these aspects of life can influence us in ways not well appreciated. This influence is often under appreciated by the masses but commercial enterprises engage these tactics to create desire. On its face this appears to be harmless but it does play a role in the eroding of values of a society. This happens by influencing people to act towards their desires and not necessarily to their responsibilities in life. Newest Phone and TV size examples. I am not saying to shun to entertainment but to appreciate entertainments influence and to see how that has affected yourself. In understanding that you can better see the manipulation and then it can lose its effect at least in part over us. I have used this aspect heavily within this compilation. The History of Art The School of Life - HISTORY OF IDEAS - Art Example of flash mob for the arts. What art is for The School of Life - What is Art for? Expression examples Ivan Ruskov - Ballerina from Palestine could not resist the melody of a street musician in Italy This is a flash mob used as an advertisement. The Ad Show - Historic flashmob in Antwerp train station, do re mi Economic comedy example illustrating manipulation aspects. Adult Swim - Erupt Into a Bev-Rage | Squidbillies | Adult Swim Comedy Rated R Video I believe the trait of comedy comes from the blending of the reptilian brain and the neocortex as it can communicate with influence to both aspects of the brain. Comedy enables us to deal with issues and aspects of life in a way that can be less shocking to us when exposed in this manner and thus comedy can also be used as entertainment, healing, education and manipulation. With that said, the trait of comedy is often an under appreciated trait. Comedy is sought out for entertainment purpose which helps address stress. Comedy can help remove the sting of subjects by making dangerous or hard things seem less threatening. Helps people cope with difficult subjects. Helps people relate to one another Comedy can be a form of wisdom But in this it can be manipulated to direct opinions and view points of audience. Comedy can be threatening to those who are at the pointed end. The School of Life Why Comedy Matters Union Break! Love, the potential savior/solution to their society Love is many things and has strong influences upon individuals and is amplified by groups. Love is capable of speaking the reptilian and neocortex aspects of the brain specifically in terms of something that tends be significantly of value of the individual or group as applicable. Love = motivation. SciShow - What is Love - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hrR-6Vwle1I While the wily ape had a flawed mentality it also had a potential and savior which is the aspect of love. Love is a complicated and varied effect but in terms of this discussion Love, is discussed in 3 forms. Love of a Stranger - Their ability to embrace others as the same as equals with charity and mercy. They "can" get along and have capacity to love and endear to one another. Work example: Life examples: Love of the Unborn - Their ability to care about future generation past the extent they will ever know them. They "could" care for the future past their needs. Examples: Love of Truth - Their strength to resist trickery and unmerited temptations when making choices and actions. Examples: The influence of love within the wily ape society could of been its savior as a joining aspect of the reptilian/animal brain mentality with the neocortex brain. If did have the capability to managed itself to account for their intellect and compassion. However, the wily ape simply did not know itself, though they thought they did. Compassion An enabling trait to change is compassion but it is also subject to manipulation due to that capability. Throughout various periods of time they have often fought the sensations from compassion in order to advance other views and ideology often accompanied during periods of turmoil and war. Big Think - Compassion is Natural. So Why is It So Hard For Us? Understanding the unfortunate and the needy is a part of humanity that enables a venue for the formation of bonds or strengthening of loyalty for/or against depending on the perspective. The trait of being to able to relate to one another in a way of supporting one another rather than taking advantage of the weaker position was rare even when understood. Empathy why influential is easier influenced by other emotions and can thus be regulated as a secondary influence in the behaviors of the populace. This is a great video illustrating empathy by some people walking down a busy sidewalk. The Liberators International - The Empathy Experiment This video is about compassion from the individual perspective. The School of Life - Self Compassion This video discussions the influence and meaning of compassion. Abby Lammers - Human: The Circle of Compassion Why we love. PSNy2kUK - We are one planet - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cwku_FJbFLc OhWonderMusicVEVO - Oh Wonder - All We Do Humility of the Apes A moment of reflection, i offer a moment from Carl Sagan. Carl Sagan - Humility - Nefzeni At the core of what we are, I believe we search to find out what that is that we are and as we do this, the very struggle for our species survival becomes a question as the willy technological capabilities increased faster than their intellectual wisdom was able to affect their societal and governmental types and behaviors. The Story of the Wily Ape Section 5 - Society, Market and Governance Societal Manipulation The entirety of the wily ape mental architecture made them vulnerable to become a dangerous and untrustworthy species but one that was capable and it is this aspect that made the wily ape species the most precious living commodity and thus became susceptible to manipulation and this played a direct role in the varied society models for which they lived. Regardless of the type of government and society model their society suffered from the same faults discussed above. Their are small tribes and groups who for the most part reject modern culture that do appear to break with this to various degrees. The following 2 videos below illustrates how society was manipulated via various techniques exploiting the weakness discussed above. This is both via intentional, unintentional actions and societal experiences with further manipulation to create a specific society outcome and/or control. Look around "your" world and see how many things are politicized but they truly have no reason to be. This is an indication of a controlling mechanism. When people are reading/viewing "similar and/or directional opinions" on the news and see begin to see "that opinion/commentary as part of the the news itself" than you end up with a type of brain washing action similar to some advertisement tactics targeting general to select citizen groups. When the media is "defining a politician" rather than their effectiveness, true ethics and accomplishments as a leader to "define" who and what they are. I see this similar to a magicians coin trick, simple misdirection. People are bombarded with directional/influential aspects or training and this is not always easy to recognize at the moment in time. People tend to prevail to a certain over all view or political entity over any one or group of issues and they rarely ask why with genuine accountability and thus were and continue to be successfully manipulated. Demand genuine information, apply genuine knowledge with moral ethics and hold accountable. Easier said than done. This is comparative to advanced dog training but upgraded for people. Again, look at how many things politics infects in your life where it has no business. Then look at how easy you accept it. Just understand it as an environment. Before change can effectively come the environment must be correctly understood. Look at all sides, do not fear other sides and if it is more true to you, than perhaps that other view is correct. I say to decide for yourself and teach the future correct ethics. Easier said than done! Ziggy Marley Sings Ziggy Marley - Ziggy Marley – "We Are The People" | Official Lyric Video A video about how we came to our society models Stefan Molyneux - The Story of your Enslavement - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xbp6umQT58A Long Union Break & Musical Interlude The Ghost of Tom Joad - 3 versions. Bruce Springsteen & Tom Morello - The ghost of Tom Joad Elvis Costello and Mumford & Sons. Rage against the machine version. & Buffalo Springfield's "For what its worth" - 2 Versions Lyric Extended How a hit song in 1966 came to be - For what its worth. End Union Break! What is a country? When we think of country we rarely think of entrapment. I am not saying not to be proud of your country and culture. I am simply saying to understand what we turned our homes into and why and how this happened. This is infection has afflicted all of mankind not matter how remote. Take it seriously as this is often a point of thought that can spark a person to ask why? I leave you with a moment from "The Tyranny of Authority." Onder Koffer V - The Other Great Chaplin Speech / The Tyranny of Authority - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zJtiH8SvL6k An old cartoon from the 50's that illustrates that nothing has changed. Many will watch and simply say, yea nothings changed and kinda laugh and carry on as normal. Realize nothing has changed due the aspects discussed above. In time more and more people see the reality of the world we live but if we do not effectively teach and strengthen the values and bonds with the next generations than we do nothing but fail. A Monty Python Moment that sums up some perspectives on both sides with merit. Science|Business - What have the Romans ever done for us. The use and the manipulation of "us" Without any consideration as to "why" we exist I see the gift of life as a force or nature that transformed non living matter into animated matter with no masters but our environment and ourselves. Imagine the possibilities once we gain freedom from ourselves in terms of governance. When I see today's politicians no matter the location or party type they often speak and act In the name of "us" but they do not mean it the same as you may think or define the meaning of "us." It often appears that way only when they need you. I tend to caste a curious eye towards those who profess to know "us" and what is best for "us," especially when we have no genuine say in what happens to "us." Perhaps part of the answer to the issue is to see the behavior as a political or special interest red flag when taking consideration of a politician when seeing if they use manipulation in use regarding their use of aspect "in the name of us." With merit, this may be an act to gain support for their political career and/or party but this is stated generically. To determine if this view is justified in a specific: Cross reference political desires that are in the "name of us" with ethics and morals without undue pressure in attempt to justify. In many cases, the concept of "in the name of us" is a political method or tool used against you. I understand a "justification" and/or a "reasoning with merit" can be a powerful and emotional influence but look at the morals and ethics of it. Does it create victims? How do they end in the plan? What of other solutions and/or options. When one group is raised and another is lowered in the process it creates a fighting aspect. Why would a politician so easily want and/or accept such a situation? That should be a significant question to demands true accountability and understanding. While their are always winners and losers in complex society, this aspect has been abused to the point many people have been conditioned to just accept this level of pain, very common when its others who suffer or if you or interest directly benefit from the arrangement and a good story or a reasoning makes a complex issues simplified to the point of potential abuse. This is the kind of result you get from that, (click for real example) This often leads to corrupt and/or ineffective political remedies that are more about controlling a political party and/or agenda than good governance and leadership. Another Perspective With that said, sometimes you have situations where you have groups or people who have historically been restricted, discriminated against, mistreated due to racial and/or economic type of aspects who begin to fight for their place at the table and this process on all sides often is not effective to finding genuine solutions with those whom they seek change and/or justice. Just the same, the governing body rarely tends to be overly willing to consider the views, merits, concerns and sufferings of these groups in a historical text. Generally this is a communication problem due to lack of care (love part discussed earlier) by the governing and most vocal pro fight side personas. This tends to lead to worse situations for which humanity has many examples easily seen today when looking at indigenous people to areas of gentrification within cities. Politicians often use and seek out the support of these groups that have suffered looking for passionate fighters for their views. Some signs of this are as follows and is generically written: When politicians place fighting people in charge or use them rather than those working for effective solutions this is a sign of manipulation of that system to obtain control. Fighters fight. Effective leaders constantly evaluate and this does not work to most political agendas. When nothing to very little ever changes in the politicians area this is direct evidence of ineffective leadership and power is held potentially inappropriately. Look at their plans and views and cross reference that with true ethics and morals and see how that rates out. The following video is illustration of behavior and is not about any political party C.S.C. Media Group USA - John Wayne Takes Apart Liberals, Feminists, White Guilt, And Black Lives Matter While varied groups struggle for influence this process should be better understood and appreciated by all people as to better work together. Otherwise the only outcome is a form of fighting, be it passive or aggressive it leads to dysfunction of varied levels from protests to extreme actions/behaviors regarding issues that likely need not be if the issues were effectively acted upon at an earlier point in time before the fighting aspect snow balls into a more complicated and severe entity which further complicates true solutions as too many points of interest are demanding and can exert unequal force and manipulation within their perspective groups to better their standings. The Story of the Wily Ape Section 6 - The Future The past has spoken, what of tomorrow. We often think of the future and tend to see it in a way that we do not matter in how it will happen. This is not true and this is a surrendering of not just you but your family and all those you love and care for. I do not say to take actions other than teach true ethics and morals. In this we can bestow a matured and effective character in our youth and it is with that hope that the future can be based in part on. Just as in school their used to be a sign that said "Do unto other others, as you would have others do unto you." This golden rule is one of the first forgotten and society laughs at that aspect. Change begins at home and living, raising and teaching a moral and ethical family and business life and holding others accountable as applicable with an eye towards moral and ethical behaviors and not so much pointed in punishment direction but towards instilling a genuine change, it needs support to change and understanding is part of the healing. The following speech is not new and that in itself is worthy of reflection. Michael Yeager - Greatest Speech Ever Made: Charlie Chaplin The Great Dictator It is in the teaching and enabling them to discover, understand and appreciate this truth and want it without manipulation of the youth who will not merely inherit the planet no matter the position born into life all can live with true capability to be happy, free and loved. A very long process that will outlive many generations if it is possible at all. As more and more people just leaning towards quality values it will shift in time in a slow growing process. Some reactions to the speech above. Who we all are Before I mess this up with words, a beautiful song says it all and sung by a talented woman. https://www.reggaeville.com/ Summary Thoughts I do not really know what to tell you to make of all this. It is truly too much information, especially if some of this is new to you. I am not speaking out for revolution or any such aspect. I just hope to help spark a signal, a signal that can begin the process of understanding that can lead to appreciation which outside of life itself is the only true gift we ever received, our intelligence to reason and find freedom from our barriers no matter what they are. I have been all over this world and in almost all places I have seen a lost value of life. We as a species have lost respect for ourselves but perhaps we never had respect for our species as a whole. We have not yet woke up to knowing "what we actually are." While we have eagerly embraced our wily traits and enjoy the toys and fruits of our technology we have yet to realize the responsibility of being the "type" of life form that we are. It is in that, for which I see hope, it is this awakening that we can find true salvation from ourselves. Unfortunately, it is not so easy to simply wake up. We have to learn, understand and appreciate what and why we are what we are at this moment, what we were in the past and what we want to be in the future. When humanity is focused it is truly a beautiful thing and in such times we are remarkable and capable of bringing what was once impossible to reality. This is true for both individual accomplishments and with the societal/group accomplishments. People often look for "Super Heroes" in fantasy and never realize the human race is essentially a super life form capable of things far greater than we can appreciate just as our ancestors could not possibly imagine what the future reality is now. They could not envision our present day. We will not be able to see so far in the future as we think. It matters what values we live by as individuals and as a society that will set the direction for the future. We are one people no matter the illusions that may say different. I hope this compilation helps people see past the illusions and that perhaps you will begin to see the correct value of not just life but your life. It is in only in that the world can change. Not by force or by elections or by any other means, only by evolution via understanding and appreciation of the people and governments to bring true values of the people and service that, not rule it. We love our family. We love our homes. We love our communities. We love our life. This was used earlier in the document in the love of the unborn but it fits very well here too. Gabriel Greiner - Dear Future Generations, Sorry Our love of life must counter a desire to take undue advantage of each other, often due to greed aspects. This can only happen from the source of love and not a protectionism or force aspect. This kind of change must truly be wanted and desired and not via force or trickery or it will fail, this is about life! We will not see this kind of world, but we an begin to understand and to begin the process that perhaps some generation to come will see that gradual evolution. If done correct, perhaps they never even notice it. It all starts with love and respect for ourselves and as a species and working from that to learn to live with one another as brothers and sisters. It truly is that simple and that hard. The question is, what will you do? CrashCourse - What Is A Good Life?: Crash Course Philosophy #46 Stephen Hawking Sings it best! Monty Python - Stephen Hawking Sings Monty Python… Galaxy Song (Music Video) Final words by Carl. PSNy2kUK - Man in his arrogance - A Great Speech By Carl Sagan It is with respect that Ziggy Marley's sings us out. Ziggy Marley For those who actually go through this document and feel that it helped and if any such view towards appreciation should occur, I ask that you support those who made the videos and other works that contributed to this compilation rather than here. It is them who appreciation is justified for enabling the traits of the video that likely helped relate or illustrate many parts of the discussion. Thus I say the above to illustrate one aspect of merit and I sincerely thank them for their works. The information in this compilation is a commentary in an artistic and explanatory manner that illustrates my personal view. The entirety is a wisdom and an understanding from lessons hard learned over the vast periods of human time and it is those experiences from our past that has reached out to you in the hopes we will see what we are and what we can be. If this is of value to you, hold politics/governance/consumerism/media accountable toward true ethical and moral standards and give direction to the youth of tomorrow. Please remember that as it is only in the success of the future generations does it determine the success of our generation and thus how well we spent our gift of life. We can do better but we have also done worse. The skies may not be as clear as we like but their is hope on the horizon. It depends on you internally if you can see it or not. I do hope you can see it. Thanks belong to those below Credits For those who actually go through this document and feel that it helped and if any such view towards appreciation should occur, I ask that you support those who made the videos and other works that contributed to this compilation rather than here. It is them who appreciation is justified for enabling the traits of the video that likely helped relate or illustrate many parts of the discussion. Thus I say the above to illustrate one aspect of merit and I sincerely thank them for their works. The Liberators International - Bob Marley Unites Humanity in World's Biggest Sing-Along Monty Python - http://smarturl.it/SubscribeToPython CrashCourse - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCX6b17PVsYBQ0ip5gyeme-Q ADVEXON TV - Subscribe for more Scientific & Technological Videos go to our website http://www.advexon.com Patrick Mylund Nielsen - https://www.youtube.com/user/pmylund iamOTHER - Pharrell Williams - Happy - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6Sxv-sUYtM Adult Swim - Squidbillies - https://www.youtube.com/user/adultswim/videos Big Think - Dr. Michio Kaku Subscribe by clicking here: http://goo.gl/CPTsV5 The Future of the Mind (http://goo.gl/1mcGeb) Art History - 2001: A Space Odyssey - The Dawn of Man - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ypEaGQb6dJk localherowildtheme - Pulp Fiction - Oh, I'm sorry, did I break your concentration? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=clb6bFlgTuk Quantum University - Neocortex - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJ6lkj8sT50 KING KENDO - Monty Python's the life of Brian - biggus dickus - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Zyv6YHR_UE TheHealthRanger - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_lOQiDsLyY Disney Short Film - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKxWJP_LH7A WesTCoastiNTwo - Carl Sagan - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6ugFcwsgpE Nefzeni - Carl Sagan - Humility - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o8GA2w-qrcg MostAmazingTop10 - The Simpsons - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K2ZFTXQU1DQ NM05 - Monty Python - Shes a witch - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrzMhU_4m-g The Film Archives -Noam Chomsky - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JVqMAlgAnlo rainwizard6 - Man Kind's Greatest Achievements - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AHphqz_MOio SciShow - What is Love - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hrR-6Vwle1I PSNy2kUK - We are one planet - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cwku_FJbFLc Don Georgevich - How to get along with people at work - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mtapY9ChLxU Take Five Nation - Five acts of Amazing Compassion - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M7z9F6-sgJE Awesome Globe - Restoring Faith In Humanity 2015 | Real Life Heroes | Acts Of Kindness 17 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ekl-lWFvbuA Marko Andruss - 100 Images That Will Restore Your Faith In Humanity - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VBQEtMrmNt4 The Late Ones - Let Love Rule - The Late Ones (original song) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=APCK7C2KGls Drake - Natural Farming - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nKbLb5xoIeU&list=PLatJX7i1alq7HAtRp8G-2D-mKitNfuIoc Gabriel Greiner - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OyQDpZVMzRg Dugster Vee - For What It's Worth extended Buffalo Springfield - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JqjwEGw10w0 LD Linguistiks - Sell & Spin A History of Advertising - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YPBf7km7NAk LastWeekTonight - Multi Level Marketing - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s6MwGeOm8iI LastWeekTonight - Televangelists - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7y1xJAVZxXg PSNy2kUK - We Are One Planet - Carl Sagan - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cwku_FJbFLc The School of Life - HISTORY OF IDEAS - Art The School of Life - What is Art for? Jerry Kroth - Propaganda and Manipulation: How mass media engineers and distorts our perceptions - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pfo5gPG72KM Stefan Molyneux - The Story of your Enslavement - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xbp6umQT58A Onder Koffer V - The Other Great Chaplin Speech / The Tyranny of Authority - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zJtiH8SvL6k 'ello, 'ello, 'ello, wot's all dis den? - 50 YEAR OLD CARTOON PREDICTS THE FUTURE - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_se8c-wN35M The Liberators International - The Empathy Experiment plo24k - Greatest Speech Ever Made Charlie Chaplin....The Great Dictator Full HD Best Version - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1fMvLbE85E Xander Wayne - TXI REACTION A Message to All of Humanity - Extended Version - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-gKB-f1IXA greatonyak - Archie Bunker - All in the Family C.S.C. Media Group USA - John Wayne Takes Apart Liberals, Feminists, White Guilt, And Black Lives Matter The Reel Rejects - THE GREAT DICTATOR SPEECH + TIME - HANS ZIMMER REACTION!!! - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g6sSdS1kgjE DeadPOOLParty - The Greatest Speech Ever Made REACTION!!! - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2RdUD-TuUZY Tony Sokolski - Great Power comes great Responsibility - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b23wrRfy7SM one drop forward .reggae band - Knowledge - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xMMqoyeSc8 Ivan Zeljkovic - Rage Against the Machine - Ghost of Tom Joad - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iqnMrynpq9U ONE - Elvis Costello and Mumford & Sons - The Ghost of Tom Joad & Do Re Mi Medley (Acoustic Cover) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Idt8wqSSeE fjcblk - Bruce Springsteen & Tom Morello - The ghost of Tom Joad (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, 2009) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzRbeHyIomk Monty Python - Prof. Brian Cox & Prof. Stephen Hawking - The Meaning of Live" Blocked in The UK - Thomas Dolby - She Blinded Me With Science https://www.reggaeville.com/ -Nattalie Rize Ziggy Marley - Ziggy Marley OhWonderMusicVEVO - Oh Wonder - All We Do Science|Business - What have the Romans ever done for us. If anyone is missing is in error and unintentional. The Story of the Wily Ape Fin
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