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JJ the Gardener

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  1. This section will be updated with links to applicable sections when completed. Plant Physiology & Nutrition Transport Plant Development (seed to fruit) Plant Nutrition (NPK) Plant Management Plant Deficiencies, Disease & Pest Click for a video on learning. Plant Physiology & Nutritional Transportation Fundamental Gardening Knowledge Pre-Introduction As I began to learn this information it had an effect I did not count on. It applied to my health as well and as I learned and began to appreciate more about plant nutrition I got much better at human nutrition. In this way we grow each other and goes to examples of how plants farm and manage us. By learning about plant nutrition it has enabled me to understand and appreciate how bad my personal diet was and what that diet did and did not do for me. I was consuming an average diet in regular society and thus nutrition should not of been a cause of concern. As a result of this diet I suffered the typical afflictions associated with such a "normal" diet that the medical community was willing to offer a wide variety of pharmaceutical solutions except for explaining nutrition, diet and simply instructed to check out the internet for such questions. Well profits skew that way of thinking and a grey area has been created and we end up with socially acceptable foods that actually harm us as honesty about the frequency of those foods would potentially be damning to foods in question. All things competent those foods really should not be so easily accepted, except for the fact someone makes money off it, so it is ok. I hope these words reach, for those it does it can help far more than just with growing a healthy garden but also a healthy you in many more ways than we tend to think when looking about plant nutrition. We are actually talking about living nutrition as it applies in general to most thing. I shared the above with you with the idea that learning this can potentially help others how it helped me in more ways than one. I will now discuss only plant physiology and plant nutrition from here and apologize if the above is unwelcome herein. Plant Physiology Introduction The following information can be complex and confusing. It is more important that you understand the basics and the follow up sections will be far less complex as we get into the growth aspects. Please do your best to understand the basics of this information. If I can help better explain a confusing subject please let me know and we will find solutions as I am able. Before we can learn how nutrition helps a plant we need to understand how the plant grows and functions throughout its various stages. In knowing this we can better apply other management practices as to optimally garden. Plant physiology is the basis for which the rest of the information will be based on. We will start by discussing the basic plant structure in terms of energy production and nutritional transportation system of a plant. It will help if you understand a bit of thermodynamics and kinetics but this is for more advanced understandings. As we progress to the nutritional segments of these lessons we will discuss the different varieties of plant foods from organics to salts and their qualities, their benefits, their negatives, how to use, why to use and when to use. In so doing you will be able to gain knowledge on how to evaluate the many fertilizer options and select from a learn-id position rather than a marketed direction. This is a compilation of information from a variety of sources with the intention of effective instruction. I have tried to give all credit for materials used. Any error is just that, an error and is unintentional and once brought to attention will be correct as appropriate. This is a not a money/profit generating enterprise. Plant Tissue Types & Structure Dermal - Epidermis, Periderm = Prevents loss of water and protects the plant like a skin. Ground - Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Schlerenchyma = Metabolism, Storage & Support. Vascular - Xylem, Phloem = Transport water and sugar. Plant Environments (Roots & Shoots) We often think of the plant environment as one thing but it is really two different environments. Above and below the ground and is referred to as "roots' and "shoots." By understanding these environments and how it affects plant biology we can better understand how nutrition affects the plant and can begin to better understand how to manage a plant in various stages and environments for optimal growth. Ground (Roots) Environment This is the area of the roots and media layer. Regardless if hydroponic or soil based it is considered ground or roots. In following sections we will discuss the different aspects of hydroponic and soil based system medias but for this specific lesson we will consider it one medium type of simply "ground" or "roots" when referencing this area of the plant. This is the area where plants store energy, the roots. Roots transportation process: Water/Salts/Oxygen > Root hairs > Xylem > Leafs > Evaporate > Pressure moves water up each evaporation like a chain. Water/salts move upward via pressure controlled in part by osmotic pressure via water evaporation humidity and temperature. Notice that oxygen is taken up by the roots. This Oxygen is used in cell respiration, discussed later. This is a key reason why it is important for good drainage for the type of plant you are gardening/landscaping. Type of roots Root Examples Monocot root illustration Tap root - Dicot plants & ferns. Is the main root and will sprout other roots laterally. Anchors the plant Can grow deep in search of water and begin to break up lower harder soil layers and initiate the tapping of lower minerals within the lower soil column. Fibrous roots - Monocot & cloned plants. Fine roots that extend from the main stem of the plant. Trees 30–50 m tall has a root system that extends horizontally in all directions as far as the tree is tall or more, but around 95% of the roots are in the top 50 cm depth of soil. Plants can be managed to be better drought resistant by training the plants to dig deeper before it makes fibrous roots as to increase the depth of the roots at the top of the media column. This is only effect if water is accessible via water table, in low water areas this may or may not be as effective depending on the plant type. Parallel venation plants have fibrous roots. Reticulated venation seed plants have tap roots. Adventitious roots (clones and stress roots) Adventitious roots (clones and stress roots) are plant roots that form from any non-root tissue and are produced both during normal development and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. We will discuss the rooting due to stress aspect in more depth in a future writing. All plant cells have the DNA to create a cloned plant besides the root. Can be induced by ECMs or Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Bacteria that transfer DNA to plant and create root hairs, used in study and in instances as managing for drought resistence.) Age‐dependent process. Auxin cross talks with other hormones to control adventitious rooting. Adventitious rooting is a complex quantitative genetic trait. Unstressed and stressed roots via flooding illustrations Adventitious root development in response to flooding. Under aerated conditions, gaseous ethylene escapes from plant tissues, but during flooding, water acts as a physical barrier, trapping ethylene in the plant. Gibberellic Acid or GA enhances the ethylene-promoted adventitious root growth, Abscisic acid reduces the effect. Ethylene triggers reactive oxygen species production, and together they trigger epidermal programmed cell death for root emergence and cortical programmed cell death lysigenous aerenchyma formation. The main difference in some eudicots (e.g. tomato) is the requirement for de novo adventitious root initiation via auxin and ethylene signaling. In the cross section, epidermis and exodermis are combined, but the exodermis can be several cell layers adjacent to the epidermis. Yellow roots are adventitious roots, (diagram above) blue and pink roots are lateral roots, (diagram above) and white roots are primary roots. (diagram above) Pointed arrows represent positive interactions, and flat-ended arrows represent negative interactions. (diagram above) Adventitious root emergence Physical Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjFaU87t6M2d3xPH8m30goQ Clones I discuss cloning a bit but will cover this topic in more practical detail in following writings. This compiled section is intended to instill an understanding of the internal processes during a typical cloning process. Regardless of cloning method this information is valid. To create clones of plants a chemical imbalance must occur. This can be created in various ways but in this instance we will discuss traditional cloning. While the method of cloning may vary the chemical process is similar in rooting and the type of roots being created for the plants. The figure below will help illustrate this process well. By understanding this process you will begin the basis of learning how to create the type of roots you desire in a "best practice" or "optimized" process. The graph above and below explanation from http://www.plantphysiol.org Pointed arrows represent positive interactions, and flat-ended arrows represent negative interactions. Yellow roots are adventitious roots, the white root is a primary roots, and blue roots are lateral roots. Below explains the illustration above. Adventitious root formation on cuttings. In intact plants, cytokinin and strigolactones are predominantly produced in the root Auxin is predominantly produced in the shoot. On wounding, jasmonic acid peaks within 30 min and is required for successful root development. Reactive oxygen species, polyphenols, and hydrogen sulfide also increase and promote adventitious rooting. Polyphenols do this via reducing auxin degradation. Auxin builds up in the base of the cutting, acting upstream of nitric oxide to promote adventitious root initiation. Auxin, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increase soluble sugars, which can be used for root development. The cloning act removes the original root system and thus levels of cytokinin and strigolactone (they inhibit root growth) are reduced removing this natural counter too root growth in a normal plant. At later stages, Auxin inhibits primordia elongation (reduced shoot growth) while ethylene promotes adventitious root emergence. As the new root system establishes, The production of cytokinin and strigolactones is restored and the plant will begin to function normally. General Cloning information Staminate (male) plants have higher average levels of carbohydrates than pistillate (female) plants, while pistillate plants have higher nitrogen levels. Almost all plant cells contain the DNA and "capability" to create a whole plant. (Clone and petri-dish) Not all plant species and phenotypes clone equally. Selection of rooting material is important. Selected that have finished growing up and start growing to the sides or radial growth.Younger, firm, vegetative shoots, Top of the plant is not ideal. the secondary tops or crown of a plant is ideal. Cuttings of relatively young vegetative limbs 10 to 45 centimeters or 4 to 18 inches and are made with a razor blade and immediately placed in a container of pure water so the cut ends are covered to prevent an embolism (air bubble). 3 to 7 millimeters (1/8 to 1/4 inch) in diameter. The medium should be warm and moist before cuttings are removed from the parent plant. Feed rooting cloning parental plants, a balance of low nitrogen to high carbohydrate is desired and achieved in several ways. Higher carbohydrate to Nitrogen is ideal. Iodine and Starch test. (video below) Highly impractical and unnecessary for most growers but I put in this writing for information and for the curious and those who are optimizing in their growing methods and systems for "best practice" with specific/known plants or crops. Reduce nitrogen and allow for carbohydrates to build up. Crowded roots will increase carbon due to competition for the nitrogen in medias. The carbohydrate to nitrogen ratio rises the farther distance between the tip of the limb, Cuttings are not made too long. Etiolation Etiolation is a condition caused by the growth of plants in the absence of light. It is characterized by a pale yellow coloring, sparse leaves, and weak, elongated stems. The stems of a plant grown in darkness grow longer and thinner in order to reach a potential light source. Its stems will also grow faster than those of a plant exposed to adequate sunlight. Since leaves grow at the internodes of a plant's stems, a plant suffering from etiolation will have less leaves than a normal plant. Chloroplasts that have never been exposed to light remain immature and non-pigmented and are known as etioplasts. When a plant suffering from etiolation is exposed to sunlight, a process known as de-etiolation occurs. In de-etiolation, a plant begins producing chloroplasts, becomes greener in color, and produces fuller and more plentiful leaves. Over time, the internodes of the stem will become a normal length. Inhibiting rooting factors Woody Stems. High nitrogen in parent plant. High nitrogen in clone leaves. Iodine Starch Test Ibn Sahlan - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwMOknYVLikEwhODDSlEhiQ Cloning 101 Everest Fernandez - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC65Wtjuej_YyOOxg4PC-uhA Root growth in time lapse Gregor Skoberne https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCnDrhu5DCQpD1VB3I3bVJJQ Root growth of transformed Cichorium Intybus grown in a medium. Corn roots in time lapse MicropolitanMuseum https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGFFFsNZoZahwQ8UPFIWhFA Time lapse fast growing corn, roots and leaves growing Mindlapse - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEPvisw_QQ_anAwxdklxm1Q Union Break! Air (Shoots) Environment Shoots, is the above ground parts of the plants. We will discuss plant cell structure and nutritional transportation within the plants. This is the area where the plant energy is made. Some of the videos will repeat similar information but they all offer extra bits of information that all combined offer a higher benefit. In addition, if one video style is not effective in understanding than the virtual reality video/app may be more effective in illustrating for you. Plant Cell Structure Crayonbox - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9Kk19SMbIuqcNI4lew96kA Plant cells are more complicated and exciting than you might think! This video shows you the structure of the plant cell. Sam introduces you to the cell organelles and their functions. You learn about cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus and nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, vacuole, chloroplasts, and mitochondrion. Sam explains how proteins are produced inside the cell. The NAMOO app features beautiful encyclopedia-inspired interactive simulations you can use to learn about plants. Plant science is fun! Download your NAMOO and play with roots, stems, flowers, and other plant parts! Virtual tour of a plant cell This is a virtual tour of a plant cell you can control by the upper right toggle on the screen of the video. If your computer is strong enough you can enlarge to full screen (may need to go to youtube site, double click video and it will show link on bottom right of video). This is a great tool for understanding plant cells and photosynthesis. Plant Energy Biology Plant Energy Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEIGuXCAGkkHgAZP9LWbXgA Immerse yourself in the inner world of a plant cell! The Virtual Plant Cell (VPC) is the ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology’s new virtual reality project. This 360° video gives a preview of what we’ve been building – a virtual reality space where you can interact 3D Modelling and Animations: Peter Ryan, Tail Art, www.peterryanart.com.au Unity Development: Richard England, Reflex Arc, www.reflexarc.co.uk Project Management: Dominic Manley, AVRL: Augmented & Virtual Reality Labs, www.AVRL.co Graphic and Logo Design: Chris Brown, Eyecue Design, www.eyecue.com.au Music: Jim Kennedy, Audiosimian, www.audiosimian.com Voice Over: Glenn Hall Project led by Karina Price and the researchers of the ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, www.plantenergy.edu.au Leaf Anatomy Upper epidermis is a single layer of cells containing few or no chloroplasts. The cells are quite transparent and permit most of the light that strikes them to pass through to the underlying cells. The upper surface is covered with a waxy, waterproof cuticle, which serves to reduce water loss from the leaf. Epidermal cells are on the upper and lower surfaces of a leaf. The epidermis usually consists of a single layer of cells., Some specialized leaves of some desert plants and in cold environment plants can have epidermal layers which are several cells thick. Cuticle - Waxy layer that prevent water loss within the leaf. Plants that live in water do not have a cuticle, waxy layer. They have two features which prevent evaporative water loss: they are packed densely together and they are covered by a cuticle, a waxy layer secreted by the cells. Flavonoid pigments are contained in large vacuoles inside the epidermal cells. Flavonoids absorbs ultraviolet radiation, Similar to a sunscreen or tanning lotion for internal layers of the leaf, by filtering out harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. Palisade layer consists of one or more layers of cylindrical cells oriented with their long axis perpendicular to the plane of the leaf. The cells are filled with chloroplasts (usually several dozen of them) and carry on most of the photosynthesis within the leaf. Palisade cell layer at top of leaf - To absorb more light Palisade cells contain many chloroplasts to absorb all the available light. Spongy layer beneath the palisade layer, its cells are irregular in shape and loosely packed. Although they contain a few chloroplasts, their main function seems to be the temporary storage of sugars and amino acids that were synthesized in the palisade layer above the spongy layer of the leaf. They also aid in the exchange of gases between the leaf and the environment. During the day, these cells give off oxygen and water vapor to the air spaces that surround them. They also pick up carbon dioxide from the air spaces. The air spaces are interconnected and eventually open to the outside through pores called stomata. Collectively, the palisade and spongy layers make up the mesophyll. A single vascular bundle, no matter how large or small, always contains both xylem and phloem tissues. xylem - Consists of tracheids and vessels that transport water and minerals to the leaves. Phloem - Transports the photosynthetic products from the leaf to the other parts of the plant. Lower epidermis contains most of the stomata (thousands per square centimeter) which are located in the lower epidermis. Although most of the cells of the lower epidermis resemble those of the upper epidermis, each stoma is flanked by two sausage-shaped cells called guard cells. These differ from the other cells of the lower epidermis not only in their shape but also in having chloroplasts. . Stomata Open in light and closed during night. Transpiration is when the plants intakes carbon dioxide, releases via evaporation water and oxygen. More plentiful on the underside of the leaves but are all over the leaf. Approximately 95% of water in the plant transportation system is lost due to transpiration. Water evaporation from stomata as part of the osmatic pressure system. Guard cells when open accumulate potassium salts, causing an osmotic pressure that uptakes water. Guard cells control the open and close stomata function and is influenced largely by the environment (light, temperature and humidity) and results in osmotic pressure. Guard cells can detect blue light and varied levels of CO2 (carbon dioxide). Guard cells are the only epidermal cells to contain chloroplasts. Some chloroplasts are found in the cells of young stems and immature fruits but do not play a large role in photosynthesis. During drought stress guard cells release abscisic acid. It inhibits plant cell growth and is is in part responsible for fruit drop, leaf death and seed dormancy. and helps plants respond to water loss and seasonal changes. Its effects can be reversed with gibberellins. Abscisic acid is a hormone that will trigger dormancy. Often growers tend to think of dry soil negatives as reducing media microbe and fungal life, concentrating salts but few know or appreciate the abscisic effect on plants as only by knowing plant physiology will one tend to appreciate this outside of experience in the field with drought conditions. Do not allow young plants to dry out in their media unless that is part of that natural environment for your plant. Example of cactus. I have also added trichomes as they are part of some plants more than others in significance. However, this is not part of plant physiology and I will discuss more on this subject in future compilations. Trichomes - Help to avert being eaten or invaded by some pests by restricting insect movements and/or by storing toxic or bad-tasting compounds. The rate of transpiration can be reduced due to a reduction in air flow across the leaf surface. Leaf Anatomy graphic illustrations Plant Biology with NAMOO: Leaf Anatomy - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9Kk19SMbIuqcNI4lew96kA Leaves are beautiful and industrial. Located within every leaf is a fully functional food factory. This production process is called photosynthesis. Sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide are used to produce glucose (food!) and oxygen. Leaf Types - Monocot & Dicot Monocots vs Dicots Explained It is really easy to determine a monocot and a dicot. However, first, it is important to understand that monocots and dicots actually represent the two main branches of flowering plants. That means that almost all flowering plants can be divided into one of these two groups. Of course, the key word is almost all. There are some that don't fit into the two groups all that well. The five main characters I like to use are Leaves, Roots, Stems, Cotyledons, and Flowers. For a more detailed description, visit our page at http://www.untamedscience.com/biology... Watermelon Plant Time Lapse Learjet15 - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCv5UDsFrvS1Mh838rVJuJSw The video below explains more of the plant structure. This is a good video to gain an appreciation of a plant structure as it is in that knowledge that can better not just understand the structure but how nutrition plays its role in building the structure. By understanding a plants development at the various stages of growth nutrition can be accurately adjusted optimally for the development of the plant. In short, this knowledge will help you speak plant. Plant Structure Video Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains the major plants structures. He starts with a brief discussion of monocot and dicot plants. He then describes the three main tissues in plants; dermal, ground and vascular. He also describes the plant cells within each of these tissues; epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerencyma, xylem and phloem. He describes both primary and secondary growth in plants. He finishes the podcast with a discussion of double fertilization in plants. Plant Nutrition and Transport Since many people will already understand plant structure I have added that section below even though it would be more appropriate before this section. However, their is very good information in the plant structure section I recommend watching the videos. Very few people will not learn something from the videos to the writings (compilation). Regardless of water and nutrition, a plants transport system depends on a correct growing environment in terms of temperature and humidity as this directly affects the internal and external functions of the plant system. Basic Plant Nutrition - We often think of plant nutrition and NPK but this is not wholly correct at the cellular level as far as the plant cares about specifics. For example, we need protein, be it from meat or milk all things correct we can utilize protein in that form. Our body only cares it has a protein. Generically stated for illustration. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, Oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur. We will discuss plant nutrition in all its details in later sections but for the intention of understanding how a plant internally functions in transporting and in creating energy the above will be the main subject of plant nutrition within this specific section. Union Break! ~Have a laugh with Rodney. I did, thanks Rodney! The Video below illustrates with excellent visuals/graphics and explains above and nutritional transportation. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCCmNq4uCgWjpvoTpbphih3g - Transcript is available at youtube site, select more and transcripts under the video. All organisms require food and water for their survival. Transportation is the process of transporting water,food and minerals to the different parts of the plant body. Xylem, transports water from the roots to all parts of the plant through root hairs. Raw materials such as carbon dioxide, water and other minerals are used to prepare food in the presence of sunlight through photosynthesis.This food is then transported to all parts of the plant by the Phloem. Below you will find a video that will explain in an easy to understand format what the plant needs nutritionally and how it transports nutrition and utilizes it. While it may seem a bit a redundant the videos compliment each other and together equal a quality lesson. The top video has superior visuals but the bottom has more information and is an effective illustrative video as well. Paul Andersen explains how nutrients and water are transported in plants. He begins with a brief discussion of what nutrients are required by plants and where they get them. He shows you dermal, vascular and ground tissue in monocot and dicot roots, stems and leaves. He then explains how water is pulled up a tree in xylem and how sugar is pushed in a plant through phloem. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains how nutrients and water are transported in plants. He begins with a brief discussion of what nutrients are required by plants and where they get them. He shows you dermal, vascular and ground tissue in monocot and dicot roots, stems and leaves. He then explains how water is pulled up a tree in xylem and how sugar is pushed in a plant through phloem. Oxygenic Photosynthesis & its equation During oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy transfers electrons from water (H2O) to carbon dioxide (CO2), which produces carbohydrates. In this transfer, the CO2 is "reduced," or receives electrons, and the water becomes "oxidized," or loses electrons. Ultimately, oxygen is produced along with carbohydrates. Oxygenic photosynthesis functions as a counterbalance to respiration as it intakes carbon dioxide it reintroduces oxygen into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide exhale by many living things and oxygen released by the oxygenic photosynthesis process. Their are other types of photosynthesis and other energy generation but we are mainly going to discuss oxygenic photosynthesis in plants. Light-dependent reactions (also called light reactions): Light photons contacts the reaction center a chlorophyll pigment releases an electron. The electron in the chlorophyll makes an electron hole and the electron wants to escape and is released via an "electron transport chain" which generates the energy to make ATP "adenosine triphosphate" which is energy and NADPH. The electron hole in the chlorophyll pigment is filled from electron from water and oxygen is then released into the atmosphere via the stomata. Photosynthesis Equation In photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the form of glucose (sugar). Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are used to produce glucose, oxygen, and water. The chemical equation for this process is: 6CO2 + 12H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Six molecules of carbon dioxide (6CO2) and twelve molecules of water (12H2O) are consumed in the process, while glucose (C6H12O6), six molecules of oxygen (6O2), and six molecules of water (6H2O) are produced. This equation may be simplified as: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2. Photosynthesis video that better illustrates and effectively teaches the above and more. Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains the process of photosynthesis by which plants and algae can convert carbon dioxide into usable sugar. He begins with a brief description of the chloroplast. He describes the major pigments in a plant (like chlorophyll a and b). He then describes both the light reaction and the Calvin cycle. He finishes with a discussion of photorespiration and strategies for avoiding this problem evolved in CAM and C4 plants. Cellular Respiration I know we think of plants and us as very different as they use photosynthesis but we both use cell respiration very similarly and few actually understand nor appreciate that understanding but it is important to understand this aspect as when it comes to evaluating various traits of plants this information is vital if you understand how to "see" it and "use" it. By understanding this we can better acclimate a growing environment for optimal levels for specific plants in greenhouses and indoor gardens based on observations and adjustments of your plants and not following a generic guide. By learning to identify plants that have strong photosynthesis and cellular respiration rates in selecting genetics for clones or breeding is often an desirable but under looked trait. The video below further explains photosynthesis and respiration and discusses how photosynthesis played a role in early life on the planet. For many this video may seem a bit much and that is ok. It is mainly listed for those who want more information and understanding with more details. He also explains different versions of energy creation but is not a large portion. I highly recommend this video but for your average gardener this information is overly technical for that need. The plant cell video prior in this thread is similar however there is additional information when viewing both lessons. Paul Andersen details the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in this video on free energy capture and storage. Autotrophs use the light reactions and the Calvin cycle to convert energy from the Sun into sugars. Autotrophs and heterotrophs use cellular respiration to convert this sugar into ATP. Both chemosynthesis and fermentation are discussed. The evolution of photosynthesis is also discussed. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla... I post the translate request even though the posting is old, the link is still good as of the time of this compilation. The following video explains processes of cellular respiration in an easy to understand lesson. Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen covers the processes of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. He starts with a brief description of the two processes. He then describes the important parts of the mitochondria. He explains how energy is transferred to ATP through the processes of glycolysis, the Kreb cycle and the Electron Transport Chain. He also explains how organisms use both lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. Summary The knowledge base of plant physiology is currently growing at fast rate. As such each year they are learning more and more about the physiology of plants and some of these are not listed above as science has not yet determined what those functions truly are or what they are doing outside just learning they exist. As a result, the older this work is, it might need a revision or update depending on the extent new knowledge that will be learned as science as whole learns more. This is compiled January 2017 You should now have a working understanding of plant physiology and if you understand how environment and basic nutrition plays a role. You use this information and apply it to your garden. By utilizing all this information you can grow your plants to "best practice" as is possible for your growing areas limitations. Often we go to stores and see a massive variety of fertilizers with all kinds of claims and fancy graphics and names. Few people can see past the advertising as it is the advertisers and/or other equally untrained to moderately skilled gardeners who teach most home gardeners, outside of a family/friend dynamic with access to experienced gardeners. Many gardeners are at a knowledge disadvantage. This information is compiled in part as an attempt to answer this issue by working to instill fundamental knowledge so that home gardeners can learn what is gimmick and what is a good product and how to use it properly for their crops. A benefit of these lessons if learned is freedom from false advertising as you will not be easily fooled as knowledge can work to prevent emotional and impulse sales based on "adjective" sales tactics. By understanding plant physiology you understand how plants transport nutrition and create energy. This knowledge base will serve you well in future management practices as you can better attune your environment, nutrition and management to optimize your specific crop. This is more desirable in high value crops. By optimizing the plants ability to transport nutrients and generate energy you can begin to obtain the plants potential. However, by allowing negative factors to act against early plant physiology during its early growth stages can have significant limiting factors that the plant cannot fully recover from and thus the plant will not obtain its potential no matter the betterment after the shock. Plant Physiology in breeding, generically you first want to select plants that illustrate early strong plant physiology traits from roots to leaf health and vigor. Often in plant breeding plants will be selected for other traits and not consider plant physiology traits as they should, often taking this aspect for granted. This is in part a reason why some plants seeds offered for sale are not good at rooting equally from a package of seeds. These seeds were potentially not correctly bred for optimum plant physiology. However, most amateur seed makers may not understand and/or appreciate this aspect. In the following sections we will discuss plant development from roots to fruit and discuss the nutritional and environmental aspects for typical garden variety plants. If this work has helped you, please share what you learn with others. It is in that energy that this has come to you and I thank you for your time. ~Hempyfan. Congratulations for finishing Plant Physiology. Need More??? If you would like to learn more on Plant Physiology I highly recommend: BIOPL3420 - Plant Physiology - Video Lecture/Class 28 videos long - Thomas Owens - Cornell University Plant Physiology Taiz and Zeiger - https://ia802504.us.archive.org/16/items/PlantPhysiologyTaizZeiger1/Plant_Physiology_(Taiz_&_Zeiger)[1].pdf Click to go to video series Credits and appreciation: ~ I sincerely respect and thank them. The Science Media Production Center at Cornell - https://www.youtube.com/user/CornellTL/about Plant Physiology Taiz and Zeiger - https://ia802504.us.archive.org/16/items/PlantPhysiologyTaizZeiger1/Plant_Physiology_(Taiz_&_Zeiger)[1].pdf https://www.scribd.com/ http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0002075.html http://www.askiitians.com/revision-notes/biology/ Bozeman Science:https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw http://biology.about.com/od/plantbiology/a/aa050605a.htm http://www.livescience.com/51720-photosynthesis.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/differences-and-similarities-between-chemosynthesis-and-photosynthesis.html One Drop Forward - https://www.youtube.com/user/onedropforward/videos Plant Energy Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEIGuXCAGkkHgAZP9LWbXgA http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0002061.html http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/170/2/603.full#sec-13 Everest Fernandez - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC65Wtjuej_YyOOxg4PC-uhA Freesciencelessons - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCqbOeHaAUXw9Il7sBVG3_bw Physical Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjFaU87t6M2d3xPH8m30goQ ~A Proud Cultural Healing and Life Compilation. FIN
  2. JJ the Gardener

    Cannabis and sodium levels on the body.

    Version 1.0.0

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    A PDF from 2010 about cannabis and sodium levels on the body. If you know a person who has sodium level issues with their health, this information is beneficial.
  3. JJ the Gardener

    Swedish student's plane protest stops man's deportation 'to hell'

    Keep in mind we do not know the story of the assault and even so, being sent to a place he is likely to be killed or become part of the problem is not necessarily a wise move either. I still am happy that this lady did this. We do not always know the reasons for the deportations and in the USA they deport pretty much for being an illegal alien and they are looking to take away green cards and potentially revoke citizenship from those given citizenship so I am for passive resistance that helps even for a minute. Turning a blind eye by saying they must deserve it is not necessarily the wise take away from this. I am all for sending criminals back to whence they came but we do not always know nor can trust they are truly criminals that warrant such a sentence. I respect all opinions on this and all are welcome as in that we perhaps can learn more on perspective but for my personal view, I am all about cultural healing and life but I do agree with accountability.
  4. Swedish student's plane protest stops man's deportation 'to hell' David Crouch in Gothenburg https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jul/25/swedish-student-plane-protest-stops-mans-deportation-afghanistan Guardian News A lone student activist on board a plane at Gothenburg airport has prevented the deportation of an Afghan asylum seeker from Sweden by refusing to sit down until the man was removed from the flight. Her successful protest, footage of which spread rapidly across the internet, shines a spotlight on domestic opposition to Sweden’s tough asylum regime, at a time when immigration and asylum are topping the agenda of a general election campaign in which the far right is polling strongly. “I hope that people start questioning how their country treats refugees,” Elin Ersson, 21, told the Guardian in an interview. “We need to start seeing the people whose lives our immigration [policies] are destroying.” The social work student at Gothenburg University bought a ticket for the flight from Gothenburg to Turkey on Monday morning, after she and other asylum activists found out that a young Afghan was due to be deported on it. In fact he was not on the plane but activists discovered another Afghan man in his 50s was onboard for deportation. Swedish plane protester Elin Ersson: ‘I knew I couldn't back down – I had to do what I could' As she entered the plane, Ersson started to livestream her protest in English. The video received more than 4m hits on Tuesday. Facing both sympathy and hostility from passengers, the footage shows Ersson struggling to keep her composure. “I don’t want a man’s life to be taken away just because you don’t want to miss your flight,” she says. “I am not going to sit down until the person is off the plane.” Repeatedly told by a steward to stop filming, Ersson says: “I am doing what I can to save a person’s life. As long as a person is standing up the pilot cannot take off. All I want to do is stop the deportation and then I will comply with the rules here. This is all perfectly legal and I have not committed a crime.” When an angry passenger, who appears to be English, tries to seize her phone, she tells him: “What is more important, a life, or your time? … I want him to get off the plane because he is not safe in Afghanistan. I am trying to change my country’s rules, I don’t like them. It is not right to send people to hell.” After a tense standoff, during which the airport authorities declined to use force to eject Ersson, passengers broke into applause when the asylum seeker was taken off the plane. Ersson told the Guardian she had been volunteering with refugee groups for about a year. “People [in Afghanistan] are not sure of any safety,” she said. “They don’t know if they’re going to live another day. As I’ve been working and meeting people from Afghanistan and heard their stories, I’ve been more and more in the belief that no one should be deported to Afghanistan because it’s not a safe place. The way that we are treating refugees right now, I think that we can do better, especially in a rich country like Sweden.” As the country heads towards a general election in September, Sweden’s centre-left coalition government is keen to keep up expulsions of asylum seekers whose applications have been turned down. “If you get rejected, you have to go home – otherwise we will not have a proper migration system,” the prime minister, Stefan Löfven, said last year after an Uzbek asylum seeker whose claim had been rejected drove a truck into shoppers in Stockholm, killing five people. After Taliban violence increased in January, the country briefly halted deportations to Afghanistan. But the Swedish migration board stands by its assessment that the country is a safe destination for asylum seekers whose claims have been turned down. In its most recent assessment, the migration board said Taliban attacks had been aimed mainly at the military or foreigners, and violence against Afghan civilians was rare. As for a bomb in an ambulance in January that killed at least 95 and injured many more in Kabul, the board said it was “unclear whether the purpose was really to attack civilians”. Tens of thousands of deportation cases are expected to be handed over to the police as the country continues to process a backlog of asylum applications, after 163,000 people claimed asylum in Sweden in 2015. Last year, the border police deported 12,500 people, while the rate of expulsions so far this year is slightly higher. Normally deportations go peacefully, according to a spokesperson for the police in Sweden’s west region. But occasionally the process is disrupted by demonstrators such as Ersson or by asylum seekers themselves. “You do it once or twice, and if it doesn’t work we rent a private plane to send them back to Afghanistan, or wherever,” the spokesperson said. Ersson’s protest was a civil and not a criminal case, he said. Should the airline and passengers decide to prosecute, Ersson could face a substantial fine. When the refugee crisis began to escalate 2015, Sweden made it much harder for refugees to get into the country and asylum applications fell sharply. In 2016 almost 29,000 people claimed asylum, followed by just under 26,000 last year. So far this year, asylum applications are running at about 1,500 a month. The fates of the young man due to be deported on Monday, and the man who was on the plane, are unknown. A spokesperson for the Swedish Prison and Probation Service confirmed that the young man would be deported again, once transport was found. The Swedish border police in Kalmar, responsible for the attempted deportation, did not return calls from the Guardian. Ersson believes the young man was taken to Stockholm and put on a flight there already. “This is how deportations in Sweden work. The people involved know nothing and they are not allowed to reach out to their lawyers or family,” she said. “My ultimate goal is to end deportations to Afghanistan.” A Note This is from the guardian site, we are not affiliated nor do we have an arrangement or receive no benefit from any payments but this was part of this article and since we used the Guardian links we list this out of respect. Since you’re here… … we have a small favour to ask. More people are reading the Guardian than ever but advertising revenues across the media are falling fast. And unlike many news organisations, we haven’t put up a paywall – we want to keep our journalism as open as we can. So you can see why we need to ask for your help. The Guardian is editorially independent. This is important because it enables us to challenge the powerful, and hold them to account – free from the influence of billionaire owners, politicians or shareholders. The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism takes a lot of time, money and hard work to produce. But we do it because we believe our perspective matters – because it might well be your perspective, too. If everyone who reads our reporting, who likes it, helps to support it, our future would be much more secure. For as little as $1, you can support the Guardian – and it only takes a minute. Thank you. Support The Guardian
  5. JJ the Gardener

    Swedish student's plane protest stops man's deportation 'to hell'

    Afghan migrant whose deportation was thwarted by 'hero' Swedish student was actually sentenced for assault By Lukas Mikelionis | Fox News http://www.foxnews.com/world/2018/07/31/afghan-migrant-whose-deportation-was-thwarted-by-hero-swedish-student-was-actually-sentenced-for-assault.html The Swedish student who was branded a “hero” and captured worldwide attention after she stopped the deportation of an Afghan migrant by refusing to sit down on a plane instead prevented the extradition of a man sentenced for assault and whose asylum application was rejected. Elin Ersson, a student at Gothenburg University, was subjected to fawning media coverage over her stunt earlier this month when she refused to take her seat on the plane until the 52-year-old Afghan deportee was released. She was successful and authorities weren’t able to deport the man. However, Swedish Police confirmed to Fox News that the man whose deportation Ersson prevented had received a prison sentence in Sweden for assault. The police spokesman declined to go into more details about the crime the migrant has committed. His asylum application was also rejected. A representative for Ersson declined Fox News’ request for a comment. One of the largest newspapers in Finland, Helsingin Sanomat, reported last week as well that the man was sentenced for assault. The man will still eventually be deported, though the date remains unknown, the newspaper reported. Despite lacking information about the man who was being deported, most media organizations jumped on the story, with the Washington Post calling Ersson’s stunt a “dramatic act of civil disobedience” while Newsweek magazine described the student as a “hero”. CNN, meanwhile, spoke with Swedish authorities who confirmed that it was “forced deportation,” yet the outlet didn’t reveal why the man faced deportation. The Swedish student live streamed the whole incident and it was viewed nearly 5 million times on Facebook alone. In the video, she’s heard saying “there is a man who is going to get deported to Afghanistan, where he will most likely get killed” and the she won’t “sit down until this person is off the plane.” “I am doing what I can to save a person’s life,” she continues. “As long as a person is standing up, the pilot cannot take off. All I want to do is stop the deportation, and then I will comply with the rules here. This is all perfectly legal, and I have not committed a crime.” An annoyed passenger tried to grab the phone from Ersson, saying she’s upsetting others. To which the student replied: “It's not my fault that he's getting deported. I'm trying to stop this.” “I'm trying to change my country's rules. I don't like them. It's not right to send people to hell,” she added.
  6. Medical Disclaimer 01 - Personal Energy - Understanding Stress and Our Energies 02 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 1 - Understanding Breathing and Breathing Test 03 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 2 04 - Sleep and its meaning to energy and life Personal Energy - Understanding Stress and Our Energies The Autonomic Nervous System Our personal energies are effected by a large part by stress. We tend to think of stress an invisible thing but stress is actually a physical affect caused by stimulation from both physical and mental/emotional influences. For most of us, our personal energies are not balanced and we suffer from this in ways we likely do not understand or possibly appreciate. The following explains the physical effects that stress inflicts upon us and in so doing we hope the word "stress" begins to have more meaning as in understanding the process, that understanding can give us a measure of control that can have dramatic positive impacts on our lives. We will discuss several topics and for some people they will view some topics as not as important as some other topics. Please understand that each topic is important and acts like a spoke on a wheel. While some topics such as breathing and meditation can offer a more noticeable benefit in a quick period of time while some others do not show or illustrate their benefit as quickly such as nutrition and increased sleep. Please understand, what follows is a skill and can be learned. While perhaps we may have some habits that work against these topics from being utilized effectively as it may impact upon our comfort level such as actually going to sleep for the correct period of time and such as altering our breathing and posture. By gaining an understanding and finding an appreciation for adopting the practices it will positively impact your life energies. The topics that will be discussed are: Understanding the autonomic nervous system (basic is only important but I offer more information), State of Mind, Sleep, Breathing, Meditation, Nutrition, Daily routines that help balance ourselves mentally and physically. Understanding the autonomic nervous system (basic is only important but I offer more information) Before I go into personal energy I think its important to realize and appreciate our two part autonomic systems within us. The sympathetic nervous system The Parasympathetic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System CrashCourse The sympathetic nervous system The sympathetic nervous system is generally called the flight or fight reflex. It is a stress reflex the basically diverts our bodies energy into the vital processes of our bodies for the moment and shuts down or reduces energy to other parts of the body. Such as if we see a dog and that dog begins to chase us, the sympathetic system sends hormones to receptors that enable us to run as fast and as quickly as possible. This system affects our heart and blood vessels and promotes the areas of our bodies that need it the most, as in the legs for the above dog chase scenario. It also suppresses immunity and overtime with frequency this is a factor that plays a role in us being unhealthy due to reduced immune systems. Your body goes through a number of changes when the sympathetic nervous system is activated. Your heart rate increases The bronchial tubes in your lungs dilate Your pupils dilate Your muscles contract Your saliva production is reduced Your stomach stops many of the functions of digestion More glycogen is converted to glucose However, the sympathetic nervous system can be activated without real world aspects and can be activated such as scary movies, work stress, bad news on tv, personal relationship hardships or just about anything stressful. Unfortunately when this type of stimulation actives our sympathetic reflexes we do not go through the balancing aspect of the physical activity such as running or whatever action would of been applicable. This aspect and negative consequences becomes compounded overtime. What happens is we when we mostly have the stress component activated overtime we become accustomed to this stimulation which then becomes a habit and becomes integrated into the normality of how we live our lives and we develop significant health issues and mental aspects as a result. Often these issues are not noticeable at early stages and leads to many problems we tend to take medications for such as high blood pressure but by understanding that how we live our lives is the root of the cause we can begin to take actions and measures that can truly cure the issue and not hide it via medications. The following is taken from Lyam Thomas Christopher - As I think he sums it best. In summary of the Sympathetic Nervous System is that is provides a valuable service in genuinely emergency situations but since it is easily activated by our modern life style and habits it has become a root instigator into many health and mental issues that affect us today. The doctors will tend to give us medications that do little overall but treat a symptom. We all hear stress is a big issue but we rarely appreciate those words. By understanding this system perhaps we can begin to truly understand and begin to appreciate those words and start to change the cycle that is destroying us. The following tactics can help and we will go into more on each aspect further in their own compilation. Positive state of mind, Meditation, Breathing, Exercise, 7 to 8 hours sleep on a regular basis, Nutrition Detailed information about the Sympathetic Nervous System CrashCourse The Parasympathetic Nervous System The second part of the autonomic system is the parasympathetic nervous system. This is activated when we are typically are rest and relaxing allowing our bodies to use energy in healing and maintenance type of ways. This system is often referred to as the feed and breed system. The parasympathetic system when in balance with the sympathetic system enables us to reduce stress and live healthy mental and physical lives. We often ignore this part of us and we suffer greatly for it. The body undergoes several specific responses when the parasympathetic system is activated. Your saliva is increased Digestive enzymes are released When we are stressed we cannot digest our foods correctly and this causes a reduction in nutritional absorption and health issues overtime. Your heart rate drops When this does not occur due to modern life style and modern stimulation this buildup of increases stress on the affected body parts and overtime create significant health issues. The bronchial tubes in your lungs constrict Your muscles relax The pupils in your eyes constrict Your urinary output increases Regulating sexual arousal Ways to activate the parasympathetic system is to do calming things, from breathing, light exercises, petting a dog or a cat, reading a book, sitting and enjoying the evening, listening to calm music, a soothing bath, taking a walk, gardening, spending time in nature and the list can go on and on. Finding what works for you to that helps calm and sooth you is the answer and possibly to expand on that list to help you manage it with more tools. These methods can assist in activating the parasympathetic system in situations such as work or when other techniques are not practical. Aligning our mental and physical attentions: By bringing our mental state into the physical state (what we are doing now) it can help to reduce stress by simplifying stimulation. Examples: Focus on your feet on the ground or within your shoes Feel the wind upon your face The sun shining on you The saliva in your mouth, how your tongue rests and the warmth and texture of your tongue. Breathing excercises Meditation and muscle relaxation techniques Positive emotion and happy thoughts The more time we spend in the parasympathetic system the better and the sooner we activate this after stimulating the sympathetic system the better for our mental and physical well being. Detailed information on the Parasympathetic Nervous System CrashCourse In Summary By addressing these two parts of our nervous system by understanding how modern life and its stimulation affects us we can begin to take control of our physical and mental health at a root level by simply allowing our bodies to function as intended. As a result we can increase our mental and physical energy levels, our nutritional absorption, our mental states, our immunity and reduce the potential for chronic diseases. It is never too late and the body is remarkable at healing if given the chance. We hope this has given you an understanding of how stress in our lives affects us and that you will begin to take the steps to manage those stresses and become better for it. Credits: crashcourse Lyam Thomas Christopher Professor Kimberlee Bethany Bonura HealthVibed The adrenal fatigue Medical Disclaimer 01 - Personal Energy - Understanding Stress and Our Energies 02 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 1 - Understanding Breathing and Breathing Test 03 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 2 04 - Sleep and its meaning to energy and life A cultural healing and life writing and compilation
  7. Medical Disclaimer 01 - Personal Energy - Understanding Stress and Our Energies 02 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 1 - Understanding Breathing and Breathing Test 03 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 2 04 - Sleep and its meaning to energy and life Sleep Sleep like breathing is often something we typically take for granted. However, as in breathing, we often do it wrong and form habits that are detrimental to our daily energies and to our health in ways that we seldom appreciate. Typically this process happens when we are kids. For example, look at young children today and see how wide awake and full of energy they have when they awake, this is in part due to healthy sleep. As children they tend to have bed times on a regular schedule and thus they do not suffer from sleep deprivation or a short sleep. At the same time it is often the desire of the child to stay up late and they will tend to find ways to be able to stay up late at every opportunity. It is in this that we typically begin the process that later will develop into sleep deprivation as we learn to get by with less sleep. Almost as a right of age is that we can stay up as late as we want and for most, the effect of this is dramatic on our energy and our health. The centers for disease control has listed insufficient sleep as a public health epidemic. TEDx Talks The following are just an example of the lures that can keep people from sleeping correctly. Watching late movies, Going out or to parties into early morning hours, Playing video games into late to early morning hours, Working late hours, Economic stresses, Parental aspects, baby and small child, Social aspects, Emotional or physical distress. Finding solutions to address these issues will help eliminate those sleep deprivation aspects and in a short period of time you can begin to enjoy the life you want to enjoy with energy and give yourself the capability to be healthy. We will talk more on that in a bit but first lets discuss the process of sleep. The Sleep Process Understanding our sleep cycle is not just to educate on the issue but to understand what is happening when we sleep. This is important when it comes to addressing negative sleep issues and potentially in our sleep management. The stages of sleep: Stage 1 is light sleep where you drift in and out of sleep and can be awakened easily. In this stage, the eyes move slowly and muscle activity slows. During this stage, many people experience sudden muscle contractions preceded by a sensation of falling. Stage 2, eye movement stops and brain waves become slower with only an occasional burst of rapid brain waves. The body begins to prepare for deep sleep, as the body temperature begins to drop and the heart rates slows. Adults spend nearly half of sleep time in stage 2, Stage 3, (Deep Sleep) extremely slow brain waves called delta waves are interspersed with smaller, faster waves. This is deep sleep. It is during this stage that a person may experience sleepwalking, night terrors, talking during one’s sleep, and bedwetting. These behaviors are known as parasomnias, and tend to occur during the transitions between non-REM and REM sleep. Stage 4, (Deep sleep continues) as the brain produces delta waves almost exclusively. People roused from this state feel disoriented for a few minutes. In both deep sleep stages of 3 and 4 A reduction in sleep drive, and provides the most restorative sleep of all the sleep stages. This is why if you take a short nap (power nap) during the day, you’re still able to fall asleep at night. However if you take a nap long enough to fall into deep sleep, you have more difficulty falling asleep at night because you reduced your need for sleep. Human growth hormone is released and restores your body and muscles from the stresses of the day. Your immune system restores itself. It may be during this stage that the brain also refreshes itself for new learning the following day. In stage 5, REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, brain waves mimic activity during the waking state. The eyes remain closed but move rapidly from side-to-side, perhaps related to the intense dream and brain activity that occurs during this stage. Dreams occur at this stage of sleep. Infants spend almost 50% of their time in REM sleep. Adults spend about 20% in REM Older adults spend progressively less time in REM sleep. REM occurs during the second half of sleep. REM sleep typically begins about 90 minutes after you first fall asleep, with the first REM cycle lasting about 10 minutes. Each successive REM cycle last longer, with the final REM stage lasting up to 1 hour. Most people experience three to five intervals of REM sleep each night. Waking may occur after REM. If the waking period is long enough, the person may remember it the next morning. Short awakenings may disappear with amnesia. In the REM period, breathing becomes more rapid, irregular and shallow, eyes jerk rapidly and limb muscles are temporarily paralyzed. Brain waves during this stage increase to levels experienced when a person is awake. Heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, males can develop erections and the body loses some of the ability to regulate its temperature. Younger men often wake up with erections or sometimes referred to as morning wood. The Sleep Cycle The sleep cycle is the period of time it takes a person to progress through the sleep stages however a person does not simply progress from stage 1 to stage 5. There is a gearing up and gearing down sort of like a stick shift in a vehicle. The sleep cycle progress through the stages of non-REM sleep from light to deep sleep, then reverse back from deep sleep to light sleep, ending with time in REM sleep before starting over in light sleep again. This cycle typically repeats 4 to 5 times a night. For example, A typical sleep cycle order looks something like this: Stage 1 (light sleep) – Stage 2 (light sleep) – Stage 3 (deep sleep) – Stage 2 (light sleep) – Stage 1 (light sleep) – REM Sleep After REM sleep, the individual returns to stage 1 of light sleep and begins a new cycle. As the night progresses, individuals spend increasingly more time in REM sleep and correspondingly less time in deep sleep. The first sleep cycle takes about 90 minutes. After that, they average between 100 to 120 minutes spending more time in REM sleep as the cycles progress. Effects of lack of sleep TED-Ed We all are familiar with being sleepy and needing some restful sleep as we have all experienced this need for sleep but outside of being sleepy and perhaps a bit cranky to confused do you really understand what is going on when we miss correct sleep? Sleep and Performance In a study published in 2003 in the Journal of Sleep Research, 66 In a study published in 2003 in the Journal of Sleep Research, They were tested regularly on a psychomotor vigilance task. 66 normal volunteers spent either 3, 5, 7 or nine hours daily time in bed for one week. This was followed by three days of recovery with eight hours daily time in bed for recovery. When people were held to sleep deprivation of either 7 or 5 hours per night performance decreased but then stabilized. This stabilization remained even after 3 days or normal/recovery sleep. The people only getting 3 hours of sleep per night declined in performance over the seven days. Even after three days of recovery in regular sleep, they were still under-performing compared to everyone else. The people getting 9 hours of sleep performed better than everyone else across the week of the experiment. They also continued to perform better even after the sleep-deprived participants got more sleep in a recovery phase The authors of the study concluded that the brain does adapt to chronic sleep restriction, but we adapt at a reduced level of performance. This illustrates that our bodies will adjust to our sleep patterns but with a decrease in performance and it is unlikely that in our day to day functions that we realize this decrease in performance with 5 to 7 hours sleep. It also shows that catching up on sleep does not effectively restore our performance levels. How to Reset your sleep schedule. This will help you restore healthy sleep patterns. Adjust sleep in 15 minute small increments, adjusting no more than 15 minutes earlier every two to three days. This will help your body to adjust to the new schedule. It can take 2 to 3 weeks to properly adjust to your new schedule. Sleep Deprivation Effects Sleep deprivation reduces your ability to make good decisions about sleep. People who consistently get six hours of sleep a night report that they have adapted to function on less sleep. However, actual investigations of their mental alertness and mental performance show that they are suffering the effects of sleep deprivation In terms of efficiency getting sufficient sleep is one of the best health-promoting decisions you can make. Consider the common cold. Adults who sleep fewer than seven hours per night are almost three times more likely to get sick when exposed to a cold virus than adults who sleep eight or more hours a night. Prioritizing eight hours of sleep per night can save you days of productivity lost to sickness Sleep is part of the process that regulates our body’s natural DNA repair. When you don’t sleep, you disrupt the body’s natural healing process, which can make you more susceptible to chronic diseases such as cancer. Sleep deprivation can affect postmenopausal women with breast cancer who routinely sleep less than six hours per night. They may be twice as likely to have more aggressive breast cancers as those who sleep more. Lack of sleep can also make you more susceptible to mental health disorders. In fact, after just 24 hours of sleep deprivation, healthy people exhibit symptoms of schizophrenia, including reduced inhibition, attention deficits, a sensitivity to light color and brightness, an altered sense of smell and time. Lack of sleep can literally create psychological and psychiatric dysfunction. Sleep-deprived people have impaired judgment. One Swedish studies asked people to go shopping twice with a fixed amount of money. When the same people went shopping while sleep deprived. They bought more food overall, and more fatty and unhealthy food options in particular Sleep is also involved in how we learn and remember. In one study, preschoolers worked on a memory game, and then either stayed awake or took a nap that was about an hour and 15 minutes long. Then they played the memory game again. When they stayed awake, they forgot 15 percent of what they learned. When they napped, they remembered everything Sleep also matters for preserving long-term memory. Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health say that interventions to improve sleep quality may help to prevent or slow the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. how Sleep helps. Sleep helps promote health is through growth hormone which is primarily secreted at night, while you are sleeping In kids, growth hormone is a primary factor in growth. In adults, growth hormone is critical to maintaining and repairing tissues and organs. Sleep also keeps you safe. Consider that a blood alcohol level of 0.08 is considered legally drunk. By 18 hours awake, your alertness level is comparable to someone with a 0.05 alcohol level while not necessarily legally drunk, but certainly tipsy. By 24 hours awake, your alertness level and reflexes are comparable to a .01 alcohol level, which is drunk past the legal limit. Signs of aging, research from University Hospitals Case Medical Center in Cleveland shows that people who slept less had more visible signs of aging. Getting enough sleep may make you feel better about what you see in the mirror and that’s going to give you more energy. A moment on sleepy driving, a very deadly and life impacting problem. JoinTheDrive Long term effects We often know in a sense that reduced sleep is not good for us but often when the price is to be paid for this behavior it may be a bit on the side of too little too late in terms of correcting the developed issues, at least in a quick turn. Please appreciate that this damage may stay with us in part for the remainder of our lives depending on the severity. However, it is never too late to return to healthy sleep patterns and begin the process of renewal and healing. From the CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention As chronic diseases have assumed an increasingly common role in premature death and illness, interest in the role of sleep health in the development and management of chronic diseases has grown. Notably, insufficient sleep has been linked to the development and management of a number of chronic diseases and conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and depression. Diabetes: Research has found that insufficient sleep is linked to an increased risk for the development of Type 2 diabetes. Specifically, sleep duration and quality have emerged as predictors of levels of Hemoglobin A1c, an important marker of blood sugar control. Recent research suggests that optimizing sleep duration and quality may be important means of improving blood sugar control in persons with Type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular Disease: Persons with sleep apnea have been found to be at increased risk for a number of cardiovascular diseases. Notably, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease and irregular heartbeats (cardiac arrhythmias) have been found to be more common among those with disordered sleep than their peers without sleep abnormalities. Likewise, sleep apnea and hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) appear to share some common physiological characteristics, further suggesting that sleep apnea may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease. Obesity: Laboratory research has found that short sleep duration results in metabolic changes that may be linked to obesity. Epidemiologic studies conducted in the community have also revealed an association between short sleep duration and excess body weight. This association has been reported in all age groups—but has been particularly pronounced in children. It is believed that sleep in childhood and adolescence is particularly important for brain development and that insufficient sleep in youngsters may adversely affect the function of a region of the brain known as the hypothalamus, which regulates appetite and the expenditure of energy.3 Depression: The relationship between sleep and depression is complex. While sleep disturbance has long been held to be an important symptom of depression, recent research has indicated that depressive symptoms may decrease once sleep apnea has been effectively treated and sufficient sleep restored. The inter-relatedness of sleep and depression suggests it is important that the sleep sufficiency of persons with depression be assessed and that symptoms of depression be monitored among persons with a sleep disorder. Common Sleep Disorders Insomnia: Insomnia is characterized by an inability to initiate or maintain sleep. It may also take the form of early morning awakening in which the individual awakens several hours early and is unable to resume sleeping. Difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep may often manifest itself as excessive daytime sleepiness, which characteristically results in functional impairment throughout the day. Before arriving at a diagnosis of primary insomnia, the healthcare provider will rule out other potential causes, such as other sleep disorders, side effects of medications, substance abuse, depression, or other previously undetected illness. Chronic psycho-physiological insomnia (or “learned” or “conditioned” insomnia) may result from a stressor combined with fear of being unable to sleep. Individuals with this condition may sleep better when not in their own beds. Health care providers may treat chronic insomnia with a combination of use of sedative-hypnotic or sedating antidepressant medications, along with behavioral techniques to promote regular sleep. Narcolepsy: Excessive daytime sleepiness (including episodes of irresistible sleepiness) combined with sudden muscle weakness are the hallmark signs of narcolepsy. The sudden muscle weakness seen in narcolepsy may be elicited by strong emotion or surprise. Episodes of narcolepsy have been described as “sleep attacks” and may occur in unusual circumstances, such as walking and other forms of physical activity. The healthcare provider may treat narcolepsy with stimulant medications combined with behavioral interventions, such as regularly scheduled naps, to minimize the potential disruptiveness of narcolepsy on the individual’s life. Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS): RLS is characterized by an unpleasant “creeping” sensation, often feeling like it is originating in the lower legs, but often associated with aches and pains throughout the legs. This often causes difficulty initiating sleep and is relieved by movement of the leg, such as walking or kicking. Abnormalities in the neurotransmitter dopamine have often been associated with RLS. Healthcare providers often combine a medication to help correct the underlying dopamine abnormality along with a medicine to promote sleep continuity in the treatment of RLS. Sleep Apnea: Snoring may be more than just an annoying habit – it may be a sign of sleep apnea. Persons with sleep apnea characteristically make periodic gasping or “snorting” noises, during which their sleep is momentarily interrupted. Those with sleep apnea may also experience excessive daytime sleepiness, as their sleep is commonly interrupted and may not feel restorative. Treatment of sleep apnea is dependent on its cause. Gentle air pressure administered during sleep (typically in the form of a nasal continuous positive airway pressure device) may also be effective in the treatment of sleep apnea. As interruption of regular breathing or obstruction of the airway during sleep can pose serious health complications, symptoms of sleep apnea should be taken seriously. Treatment should be sought from a health care provider. If other medical problems are present, such as congestive heart failure or nasal obstruction, sleep apnea may resolve with treatment of these conditions. Sleep management Naps can be a good way to boost your energy. Different naps have different purposes, and you should choose a nap based on what you need. A 90-minute nap clears the brain’s short-term memory storage and helps make room for you to learn new information. A 20-minute power nap primarily helps to boost alertness. A German study has found that a micro-nap as short as six minutes may help boost your memory Making up for lost sleep? Some people try to make up for limited sleep during the week by sleeping in on the weekends. That strategy has downsides. One research study found that the greater your average daily variation in wake-up time, the higher your body-fat percentage. People who have less than 30 minutes variation in their wake-up time have, on average, 6 percent less body fat than people who have 2 hours or more difference in their wake-up time. If you just try to clear your schedule and go to bed early one night, that can also backfire. Some sleep researchers state that it is easier to stay up an hour past your bedtime than it is to go to bed 15 minutes before your normal bedtime. If you are trying to get more sleep, you may need to move your bedtime up. Move your bedtime gradually, in 15-minute increments. That gives your body time to adjust and build a habit of rest Banking sleep. While you can’t really catch up on missed sleep, you might be able to bank it occasionally. If you have a work project coming up or a social outing that will require you to skimp on shut-eye, stock your sleep bank in advance by getting more sleep than normal. This will allow you to perform at a higher level even on limited sleep. Use this approach as a sleep emergency fund. It shouldn’t be your regular approach to sleep, but it’s good to know you can save up rest and have enough energy when you need it. Resetting sleep schedules. Adjust sleep in 15 minute small increments, adjusting no more than 15 minutes earlier every two to three days. This will help your body to adjust to the new schedule. It can take 2 to 3 weeks to properly adjust to your new schedule. Overcoming Sleep Barriers Disconnect: Another common sleep barrier is social interests and entertainment. The world is plugged in 24/7, and it’s hard to unplug when there are so many things to see and do and watch. This stimulation can keep you awake. Health and life Stresses: Health and life struggles with emotional or physical challenges that interrupt sleep can be a significant sleep barrier. These are challenges that will affect both your rest and your sleep, and you will have to identify personal adaptations to make rest possible. Professional help may be required. Mattress and Pillow. The physical condition of your sleep space matters: Evaluate how you sleep, where you experience pain, and your preferred sleep position to find the preferred mattress for you. Your pillow matters too. The type of pillow is going to depend on the position you prefer for sleeping. A good chiropractor or physical therapist can likely make recommendations about a pillow. Click for a video, not a mattress endorsement but a good video.(any good mattress that fits your sleep style is great) Routine is key. The lack of a consistent sleep routine can also disrupt sleep: The simplest way to improve your sleep quality is to build a consistent routine, both for life in general and for sleep in particular. It works for kids, and research shows that it works for adults. The light affect. In terms of your schedule, be aware of the effect of light of your sleep: Light in the day is good for your sleep. Light at bedtime and during the night is bad for your sleep. Blue light helps awaken and alert the brain. A study in the journal of Sleep Medicine reported that nighttime light exposure led to shallower sleep and more mini-arousal's. Waking up during sleep. Another common barrier to sleep is stress about sleep itself. For instance, you may have anxiety about waking up during the night: It can help to learn that waking up at night is completely normal. In fact, bimodal and segmented sleep is not unusual. A normal night’s sleep includes many mini-arousals that last only a few seconds; there can be as many as 3 to 15 per hour. Sometimes, especially as we get older and under stress, these mini-arousals may be full-on wake-ups, which can lead to sleep stress. Working on our anxiety about sleep itself can go a long way to helping us sleep better in spite of the mini-arousals. A study from Northwestern University found that when insomniacs practiced yoga for 15 to 20 minutes per day, twice per day for two months, they spent less time awake at night. Avoid large meals: Avoid large meals 2-3 hours before bed. Eating a snack before is ok. Easily digestible foods such as fruit is recommended. It forces your organs such as liver and pancreas to work at a time they should rest. In addition, if the caloric intake of a meal exceeds the amount you need for energy you will store this energy as you are unable to work or exercise this energy off. Eating at bed can also cause heartburn and this can lead to other health issues besides problematic sleeping. Exercising near bedtime can wake you up: Exercise can stimulate us and keep us awake. Exercise 2 hours before bed. Sleep Disorder struggles: If you consistently struggle with sleep quality and insomnia, a sleep-improvement program can be valuable. Your doctor can likely refer you to a sleep specialist. Some mental health providers specialize in behavioral sleep training. There are also online tools that can help. Such as an online sleep training program, which combines cognitive behavioral strategies with practical tools like sleep logs and progress charts. Summary Sleep is as most things one of the aspects of life that we tend to take for granted. We tend to believe we manage sleep with our life schedule but the reality is that sleep manages us and enables us to be at a level that is linked by our hours of restful sleep. We typically diminish our capabilities in this way without even knowing it. This aspect is rarely appreciated. This affect us physically, mentally and emotionally and can be a significant factor in all problematic areas. Without a charged and healthy battery, we do not function well nor efficient. Often we believe sacrificing sleep is a necessary aspect of life when we have responsibilities but we often fail to see the big picture and suffer the long term cost of our health. We may suffer for our families and responsibilities now but by not giving ourselves healthy restful sleep we will deny our families and fail at our responsibilities later in life as the repercussions of long term sleep deprivation affects begin. We owe it to not just ourselves but those we love and care about, to our responsibilities and we need to not just teach these lessons and aspects of life to our children but mold them in a way that they have this understanding and appreciation instilled in them that it becomes a core value and perhaps happier and healthier families will result. Sleep well my friends, sleep well! Credits Professor Kimberlee Bethany Bonura centers for disease control http://www.sleepdisordersflorida.com/pvt1.html https://www.sleepadvisor.org/eat-just-before-bed-risks/ https://www.tuck.com/stages/ https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/healthy-sleep/health-risks/the-effects-of-sleep-deprivation JoinTheDrive https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/discomfort-15/better-sleep/adjust-sleep-cycle?page=1 http://www.centerforsoundsleep.com/sleep-disorders/stages-of-sleep/ https://www.everydayhealth.com/sleep/insomnia/resetting-your-clock.aspx Medical Disclaimer 01 - Personal Energy - Understanding Stress and Our Energies 02 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 1 - Understanding Breathing and Breathing Test 03 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 2 04 - Sleep and its meaning to energy and life ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation
  8. Oregon’s marijuana glut forces growers to make hard choices By Lily Raff McCaulou, Rolling Stone https://nypost.com/2018/07/20/oregons-marijuana-glut-forces-growers-to-make-hard-choices/ John Plummer, founder and co-owner of Bull Run Craft Cannabis in Boring, Oregon, got his first hint that the state was careening toward a marijuana glut two years ago. In early 2016, his company received one of Oregon’s first few licenses to grow recreational cannabis. In June of that year, Plummer and one of his employees stood third in line to pay at Camps True Value Hardware, in nearby Gresham. They were buying lumber to fence a temporary outdoor operation that would ensure a quick harvest while they set up their more labor-intensive indoor facility. The cashier asked the couple at the front of the line what they were building. “Recreational marijuana is legal now, so we’re going to start farming it,” Plummer overheard the couple say. The next people in line, an older couple, chimed in that they, too, were building a space to grow recreational cannabis. Plummer and his employee glanced at each other, eyebrows raised. Every person in line at the lumber store was farming cannabis. Two years later, Plummer laughs as he recounts the absurdity of the scene. “I mean, what are the chances?” Plummer says. Pretty good, it turns out. Oregon now has 1,012 licensed growers, with another 956 in the process of obtaining licenses. All those growers in a state with just four million residents has resulted in a mountain of marijuana. Nearly one million pounds of usable flower remains unsold — about three times what consumers purchased in all of 2017. Prices of the recreational drug have plummeted, with dispensaries selling pre-rolled joints for $1, less than the price of a cigarette. That leaves growers to face tough decisions. Some are getting out of the business altogether. Others are struggling to stay afloat. If the product can’t be sold before it goes bad, the legal method of disposal is to burn or compost it. For growers with no other options, that means churning all their hard work and money back into the soil or igniting it into an expensive, fragrant bonfire. Officials say desperate growers are increasingly turning to the black market. When Oregon launched its recreational cannabis program in 2016, the first growers’ licenses were issued just six months before retail dispensaries opened shop. Plummer and two of his business partners, growers Steve Bailey and “EZ Mike” Scarbrough, were waiting at a computer the morning that Oregon put its application online. Then it was a mad dash to get their product on shelves in time for shops to open. That fall, Oregon growers harvested about one million pounds of wet-weight cannabis, according to the state tracking system. Processing shrunk that down – drying weed cuts it to about a quarter of its original weight – and consumers snatched it up. Demand was high and prices were astronomical. Robin Cordell, co-founder and owner of Oregon Girl Gardens LLC, was a little slower to set up her farm. Cordell has a degree in horticulture and opened the business with her brother and sister-in-law on a swath of overgrown land behind their parents’ house. She had no trouble selling her first few harvests in early 2017. “One distributor said to me, ‘We’ll take whatever you have and we’ll pay whatever you want for it,’” she says. “You could make a very good living at $2,000 a pound.” But those prices didn’t last long, and expenses kept mounting. Cordell says she had trouble keeping up with regulations, not only from the state but the county. The two standard greenhouse fans she bought, for example, were considered too loud given the building’s proximity to her property line. To stay in compliance, she had to replace the fans with five smaller, indoor-rated fans. She says that switch cost her an extra $2,000. Meanwhile, more growers were coming online and adding to the state’s supply. David Fowler became interested in cannabis in 2014, after it helped him overcome a chronic sleep problem. An empty nester with ample savings, the civil engineer-turned-financial advisor longed to start his own business on the side. Fowler decided to start small. He purchased property that he felt confident he could turn around and sell, regardless of the state of the cannabis industry. The property had an old farmhouse on it, which Fowler converted into an indoor grow facility, doing most of the construction himself. “We started taking our product around, just to get an idea of what dispensaries would think about it,” Fowler says. “This was in July 2016. Everybody back then was in desperate need of indoor (high-quality) flower.” But it was January 2017 by the time Fowler’s operation was licensed. The first harvest was in May 2017, when prices were still high, around $2,300 to $2,500 per pound. That was more than he had counted on. In his business plan, Fowler had penciled in a per-pound price of $1,400, to play it safe. “You can’t get any loans in this business, and I knew that from the time we started, we would have zero cash flow for the first five or six months, so I made operations really cheap,” he says. After a few months, prices slipped to $1,900 per pound. Then, in October 2017, Oregon growers harvested 2.5 million pounds of wet-weight cannabis – more than twice the previous year’s crop. By then, there were hundreds more indoor grow operations, too, which harvest regularly throughout the year. Prices dropped to $1,200 per pound, and Fowler grew frustrated with dispensary managers. “You would start having this relationship where they would say, ‘We’ll take two pounds this week and then in two weeks, bring me another pound.’ Eight times out of ten when you called to say ‘I’ve got your next order ready,’ they’d say, ‘Give me a couple more days.’ And then when you called back, they’d say, ‘Oh, someone came in yesterday and we bought all their product,’” he says. When dispensaries did buy a pound or two, they didn’t pay much. Fowler was getting offers for $800 per pound. He laid off three of his four employees, so only he and the master grower remained. Farming is always hard work, but cannabis involves a particularly labor-intensive routine after harvest, to dry the flower and trim it without compromising quality. Fowler and his grower were working around the clock. And Fowler still had a day job. Even with no employees, the operation was barely breaking even. About a year into the venture, Fowler put his farm on the market. He sold it this month for a little more than he paid for the land. “It was a good time to get out,” he says. Fowler recently dropped his last 40 pounds of cannabis off at a processor who turned it into extract and split the sale price with him. When he looks back on his experience, he mostly feels relief that it’s over. He thinks it will take years for the market to stabilize. “The only way to really enjoy it is to have 10 employees,” he says. “I know what it takes to get to that level – you have to be producing 800 pounds a year and bringing in $1 million. We were at a point where we could do 300 to 350 pounds a year.” Fowler estimates that he lost between $50,000 and $60,000 in his venture, and says he feels lucky about that figure. “People in the business,” he says, “hear what I lost and say, ‘That’s it?’” In January, with prices plummeting due to oversupply, Cordell’s relatives decided to pull out of their company, leaving her to run the operation herself. She says she is not currently speaking with her brother and sister-in-law and compares the fallout to going through a divorce. She plans to grow medicinal cannabis this year and eventually switch to hemp. She also intends to grow food and medicinal herbs and to start teaching classes on gardening and making therapeutic food and body products. “I’m just looking for things that not everyone is doing,” she says. “This is the life a lot of people want to live.” Plummer, on the other hand, is sticking it out. Bull Run Craft Cannabis has marketed its organic farming practices and its carefully curated strains. “We’re kind of the ‘soccer mom’ brand right now,” he says, “and we’re really proud of that.” Plummer has decades of experience building small businesses in Portland that overcome stark odds. He owns a popular bar and music venue, and he owned a shoe store that thrived downtown for more than 20 years despite the rise of big box stores and online behemoths. Besides, Plummer and his partners are not strangers to risk. Back in 1998, “EZ Mike” Scarbrough served 90 days in jail for growing five marijuana plants under a light in his closet. “I was really lucky to be in a tolerant state,” he says of the experience. Scarbrough had moved a couple of years earlier from Utah, where the same activity could have resulted in a seven-year sentence. His record was expunged in 2015, and 10 years after he was released from jail, he applied for and received a license to grow medical marijuana in Oregon. But today, Scarbrough’s “tolerant state” has caused new headaches. Unlike Washington and Colorado, which control the number of cannabis licensees and who can invest in them, Oregon has taken a free-market approach, with no caps on licenses issued or out-of-state investment. “The marketplace is a closed system,” Plummer says. “We’re producing, producing, producing, which would be great if it were like our craft beer industry or our wine industry, which sells all over the world.” Instead, it remains federally illegal to transport cannabis across state lines. Last month, Oregon’s US Attorney, Billy Williams, issued a memo challenging the state to do something about its oversupply issue, and vowing to crack down on the illegal black market. In a press conference, he said large amounts of Oregon-grown marijuana have been seized in 30 states. Earlier this year, Oregon lawmakers earmarked an additional $1.5 million in law enforcement, to crack down on the illegal cannabis market. “Everybody in the industry knows someone who is doing something shady if not outright illegal,” Plummer tells us. “There are only three choices: sell it legally, dispose of it legally or do something illegal.” Cordell says she wishes there were a legal avenue for donating unsold product to low-income patients, for example. “It would take some crappy options off people’s plates,” she says. Plummer says once-friendly relationships between growers have turned sour and suspicious. He says he’s heard of growers reporting violations to the state that they spotted on other growers’ social media feeds. Oregon uses a seed-to-sale tracking system to log recreational cannabis as it’s grown, processed and sold. State code instructs growers to dispose of any cannabis they can’t sell by composting it, burning it or dumping it in a landfill. Any product that can’t be sold has to be marked for disposal in the online tracking system and then stored on the premises for at least three days before it’s discarded, so inspectors can stop by to verify. As cannabis has piled up, disposal of usable marijuana has increased. In March 2017, growers destroyed about 3,367 pounds of usable marijuana, according to the state tracking system. In March of 2018, growers destroyed 13,976 pounds. The agency that handles licensing and compliance recently stopped accepting new applications, from June 15 until at least January 2019, but a spokesman says that decision had nothing to do with concerns about illegal activity. Mark Pettinger, of the Oregon Liquor Control Commission, says it was based on a simple backlog of applications. Despite turmoil in the market, people are still lined up to go into the cannabis business. “We foresee it taking six to nine months for us to get through the work we already have,” Pettinger says of the licensing backlog. He adds that only the state legislature – which next convenes in February 2019 – has the power to cap licenses. “We can’t do it unilaterally,” he says of his agency. Growers say they expect it will take several years for the oversupply to work itself out. Plummer remains optimistic that the federal government will eventually legalize cannabis. If that happens, he thinks whatever Oregon producers remain in business will be poised for success. Oregon growers are engaged in the agricultural equivalent of an arms race to produce cannabis that stands out from the competition. “One positive of all of this is that Oregon is producing the most scrutinized weed that the world has ever seen,” Scarbrough says. “We’ll take the Pepsi Challenge with anyone right now.” Tris Reisfar is co-owner of Blazing Trails, a cannabis tour company in Bend, Oregon. Many of his tours turn into de facto consulting sessions. “Lots of people who come visit are dreaming of getting into the industry,” he says. Reisfar is honest with them. He tells them that prices have plummeted, that growers are desperate. He tells them about growers who lost their life savings, even their homes. None of it dulls the twinkle in peoples’ eyes. “They hear me, but they don’t really hear me,” he says. Plummer compares the current market to the Gold Rush, when people were dying and losing everything they owned, yet hordes more kept flooding into California to pan for gold. “There’s this romantic idea, it doesn’t matter that it’s not reality,” Plummer says. Even Plummer can’t really help himself. He still sees opportunities. “My mom’s a senior citizen and she won’t stop talking to her friends about her pot cream that helps her arthritis so much. I keep expecting to see the farm that sort of brands itself as the senior citizen brand,” he says. “That would be a really smart move.”
  9. Thank you for sharing. I hope to hear about more about the improvements good sleep and breathing has done for you. As well as anything you can add from your experience to helpful hints. It all goes to help others who will follow later.
  10. Its the little things in life that make the biggest impacts. Kaizen!
  11. Medical Disclaimer 01 - Personal Energy - Understanding Stress and Our Energies 02 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 1 - Understanding Breathing and Breathing Test 03 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 2 04 - Sleep and its meaning to energy and life Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 1 Understanding Breathing and Breathing Test Medical Disclaimer Understanding Breathing Managing energy and stress through breathing is not a new practice. This practice started in ancient times and is even used in the military today. We also do it everyday without realizing it. When our physical and mental activity change our breathing patterns do the same. In the following we will discuss the types of practices that can increase energy or to reduce stress working towards relaxation and clarity. The following techniques can assist greatly with our day to day energy and stress but I recommend using them in conjunction with other practices such as: correct sleep patterns, meditation, nutrition, a general positive and happy state of mind These are keys that help unlock a healthy life controlling stress by enabling our bodies and mind to serve us well by working in tandem and in support of one other. Think of each aspect as spokes on a wheel. They all serve a purpose and are very important to the strength and longevity of the wheel! Oxygen Advantage When we think of breathing we think of oxygen but the regulator in breathing is not oxygen. It is carbon dioxide that regulates our breathing reflex and it also plays an active role in how well our cells work. We think of carbon dioxide (co2) as a waste gas but this is not necessarily the most accurate way to understand carbon dioxide. We need to understand how it affects the process of breathing. It is the level of carbon dioxide that triggers our breathing and this level can be adjusted. As carbon dioxide increases in our bodies a message is sent from the brain to inhale. Exercise and stress can increase carbon dioxide and thus increases our breathing rates. In this manner, carbon dioxide is a regulating factor. Generally our modern lifestyles works against us in breathing healthy and we tend to breath hard/faster. However the key is to healthy breathing is to slow breath. Our modern life has worked to set our brains to activate our breathing points on a lower level of carbon dioxide which reduces the functionality of our cells while at the same time not having an effect on oxygen in the red blood cells. We essentially bring in more oxygen than we need and by doing so we remove too much carbon dioxide that it unbalances our cells from functionally optimally and this can cause a domino effect of other negative issues. It is interesting to note, when we hold our breath we think we reducing oxygen to our cells but in reality we are not making any real differences. What is affected is our "breath hunger" and this is a behavior that can be trained and changed for better or worse. This level of breath hunger can be altered by slow breathing and we will discuss this further in this compilation. For now, it is important to understand, that when we hold our breaths and feel the need to inhale, that is breath hunger and not a true indication of a lack of oxygen. BreatheSimple Mouth Breathing and Nasal Breathing Mouth breathers are those who breathe through their mouths instead of their noses. Breathing through the mouth has negative health implications. There are those who breathe with their mouths only when they are asleep and those who do even when they are awake. Those who wake up with dry mouth, they mouth breath during sleep. Mouth breathing can be is as a result of either one of these: Nasal obstruction: There is resistance to the smooth flow of air It can also be habitual where you formed a habit of breathing through the mouth since you were a child In the third trimester of pregnancy, mouth breathing is common. However if you are not a mouth breather this will stop. Associated mouth breathing symptoms include: Dry mouth Bad breath Snoring Chronic fatigue Dark circles beneath the eyes Slow growth in children If you typically breathe through your nose, you should be enjoying these benefits. Less anxiety and stress Healthier blood pressure levels Increased endurance during physical activity Improved lung function Anatomical mouth breathing causes: Obstructions: Nasal obstructions are a common cause of mouth breathing. These can be foreign bodies, a deviated septum, or large adenoids. Facial deformities: Both lip incompetence and a cleft palette can force mouth breathing. Infectious mouth breathing causes: Viral: Both the common cold and sinus infections are examples of viral infections that can make it difficult to breathe through the nose. In these cases, mouth breathing is typically temporary and resolves after the infection is eliminated. Medical mouth breathing causes: Pregnancy: Women who have never snored can suddenly find themselves being woken up by angry partners when pregnant. Additional blood flowing through the body causes blood vessels to expand and nasal membranes to swell. Sleeping disorders: Mouth breathing is a common first symptom in those diagnosed with sleep apnea. If a diagnosed patient wasn't always a mouth breather, CPAP treatment can usually revert the patient back to breathing through their nose. Tumors: Though incredibly rare, the location of an undiscovered tumor can affect breathing. This shouldn't be the first cause of mouth breathing you consider but if all common causes have been ruled out, it should be explored. If you need help diagnosing your condition, schedule an appointment sooner than later, especially if you're experiencing the following. You're receiving complaints of sudden or loud snoring You never feel rested, even after a full night's sleep You're experiencing persistent bad breath or dental problems Even if you've been a mouth breather your entire life, you should still take positive steps to reverse the condition. The following mouth breathing treatment suggestions can help. Practice: For some, mouth breathing is a habit. Breaking a habit takes consistent practice. Whenever possible, focus on breathing through your nose. Elevate your head: This can especially help when pregnant or suffering from a sleeping disorder. Propping yourself up with an extra pillow can discourage mouth breathing. Exercise regularly: Similar to elevating your head, exercising on a regular basis can improve breathing in those with sleep disorders. Remove allergens: Even slight allergies can cause serious nasal inflammation. Focus on making your bedroom an allergy-free area. Keep pets out, purchase bedding made from safe materials, and keep windows closed. Breathing aids: If congestion is behind your mouth breathing, a nasal strip can help to support nasal passages and encourage nose breathing. What I've Learned Tanveer Abbas The normal anatomical function is to breathe through your nose. And there are good reasons why you should maintain this natural provision. Breathing through the mouth reduces the oxygen absorption capacity of the lungs. As you breathe through the nose, nitric oxide gas is produced by mucus in small levels. This gas increases the lung’s oxygen absorption capacity. Prolonged oxygen inadequacy has detrimental long term effects to your overall health. Air breathed through the nose is cleansed of harmful microbes and other impurities. As the air travels through the hose, they are filtered in the mucus lining of nose. This mucus lining also moisturizes and warms the air. Breathing through the mouth is detrimental to your oral health. It dries out gums and promotes acidity increasing the risk of cavities and plague. It also increases the risk of gum disease. Research has proven that mouth breathing at night worsens snoring. As absurd as this may sound, breathing through the mouth can lead to facial deformation. This mostly happens in children. Buteyko Clinic International How to stop mouth breathing in five easy steps. Sarah Hornsby The Breath Test A measurement of how long we can hold our breath can be indicative of our overall health. Since we are all different we will discuss the breath test which will allow us to uniquely understand our personal breathing as it relates uniquely to us. The following tests will assist in determining what our breathing illustrates about us and will give us a starting point in seeing how our breathing affects us uniquely. Oxygen Advantage Breath Test, Sitting Instructions Mouth is always closed. Step 1 Sit down in an upright position, with your back straight, and relax for a couple of minutes. Take a small breath in and a small breath out, in a calm way through your nose (approx. 2-3 seconds on inhalation and approx. 2-3 seconds on exhalation.) Step 2 Pinch your nose after the exhalation is finished and hold your breath and start the timer. Step 3 When you feel the first urge to breathe, let go of your nose, stop the timer and breathe in and out calmly through your nose, in the same way as in step 1. Chad Moreau Breath Test, walking instructions Mouth is always closed. Step 1 Sit down in an upright position, with your back straight, and relax for a few minutes. Step 2 Stand up and take a small breath in and a small breath out in a calm way through your nose (approx. 2-3 seconds on inhalation and approx. 2-3 seconds on exhalation). Step 3 Pinch your nose after the exhalation is finished and hold your breath and start walking while counting the number of steps you take. Step 4 When you are not able to hold your breath any longer, let go of your nose, inhale and exhale calmly through your nose and note how many steps you took. Try to wind down by breathing calmly as soon as possible. Mim Beim Interpretation of Breath Test Health status Hold breath sitting Hold breath walking No symptoms, optimum health 60 seconds 120+ steps Very good health, most symptoms are completely gone 40 seconds 80-100 steps Good health, symptoms present when exposed to a trigger 30 seconds 60-80 steps Symptoms are often present 20 seconds 40-60 steps Many different symptoms always present 10 seconds 20-40 steps Medications, diseases, very heavy breathing 3-5 seconds 10-20 steps Understanding Breathing and Breathing Test Summary By understanding breathing and how carbon dioxide and oxygen affect our bodies we can begin to institute various breathing exercises and even the retraining of our breathing for optimal oxygen absorption for our cells giving our bodies the opportunity for optimum health. By understanding how we uniquely rate in the breathing test we can establish a personal base point so that we can understand our personal starting points and chart our growth. In addition the breathing test is a generic test of overall health and thus this measurement holds a larger significance. In the next compilation we will discuss various breathing techniques and breathing retraining. The good stuff! Credits: Lyam Thomas Christopher Professor Kimberlee Bethany Bonura http://www.mayoclinic.org/ What I've Learned Tanveer Abbas Buteyko Clinic International Sarah Hornsby https://www.buoyhealth.com/ Oxygen Advantage Mim Beim Chad Moreau BreatheSimple Oh Wonder Medical Disclaimer 01 - Personal Energy - Understanding Stress and Our Energies 02 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 1 - Understanding Breathing and Breathing Test 03 - Personal Energy - Energy and Stress Management - Breathing Part 2 04 - Sleep and its meaning to energy and life ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation.
  12. It is an honor and privilege! More to come within a few days
  13. JJ the Gardener

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    From the album: Hempyfan

  14. This is a biographical, artistic telling of how the inspiration and beginning of cultural healing and life happened. This is written in a different perspective as Deborah died unexpectedly and it is simply easier for me to write in that manner as it does hurt but I desire to tell this. The following is authentic and true. The songs and videos have deep meaning and fit so well it is almost like it was designed for it. All respect to the artist as it is they that help add another layer that illustrates the emotion and feelings that is genuine for the illustration of how we were and I ask to please support the artist direct. Cultural Healing and Life is not designed to make profit in any way nor will it as this site is a sacred working gift from the hearts of Jon and Deborah and we hope it becomes the entity of positive in some way or whatever it is is for you. In that way, we all still live. The advice of Deb would be to listen to the tree. ~JJ the gardener. The story of Jon and Deb. and the beginning of Cultural Healing and Life! The Strumbellas - Long Road Deborah's Back Story Deborah started college in 1986 with four children. She graduated from Meramec Community College with History Honors and an A.A. In 1988 she graduated from Fontbonne University with Dean’s List & Phi Lambda Theata and a 3.9 G.P.A Her second marriage at the time disintegrated due to her husband attempting to utilize controlling religious views and practices which was driven to influence Deborah to quit college direction and to be become a specific type of house wife. During this time Deborah's husband pledged to give the church Deborah's house which she had bought and had title. She corrected this in the church at the time. The church then sided with Deborah's husband and attempted to talk her out of her continued education and personal to professional betterment which thus caused her to leave the church and become shunned by virtually all associated with her and the church for her efforts. She was abandoned without support (some limited support from mother and siblings) nor friends but she endured her and her children. Deborah would remain true to her beliefs her entire life never turning away from God but she would not trust those of the cloth again. Deborah worked as a secondary education teacher and was recognized and awarded for her teaching abilities during this time. While shes struggled for her education she did not allow the family and life struggles to diminish her. It was in her nature to do the best she could as it was the only way she knew of doing something. Later Deborah would meet and later marry a prestigious chemical engineer professor at the University of Delaware and she put the money down and made the payments on a new family home from the sale of her first house. While they had no children of their own, her husband raised and cared for Deborah's children as if he was. Most of their middle-school to high-school years were in this family dynamic. They were a loving family. While assisting her husband, Deborah wrote the grant that enabled the creation of the glue that was used to attach the tiles to the space shuttle. She also assisted in obtaining grants for the creation of a method to break down oil spilled in bodies of water. She was specifically credited with enabling complex scientific terminology, scientific explanations and other confusing and complex aspects understandable to the governing bodies that awarded such grants. It is in this skill that made her unique from other grant writers who often wrote in a certain style but was not as effective. Deborah additionally worked as a substitute teacher but due to low pay for teachers at the time she found better economic employment with a law firm & after that law firm merged with another she found employment working as a surgical assistant for 5 and a half years. In 1996 Deborah accepted an opportunity to work with a Delaware commission that catered to community needs and was the Executive Director for over 14 programs plus “Learn and Serve” which Deborah personally wrote the grant to bring the program into the State of Delaware. Today the programs are still going strong with 21 programs statewide. Jealously from a politician over Deborah's work (ordered to say the politician did the work and Deborah did not give in to this demand) forced Deborah out of the commission. (All internal documents of proof we have.) Deborah, while studying and researching art became friends & Biographer for Allen Midgette who worked with Andy Warhol in the late 50’s and 60’s. Deborah also published a book, Allen Midgette Contemporary Artist and was a contributing author within other publishing's. She assisted Allen Midgette with various art grants and friendship and was friendly with many of the people in the shadow of Andy Warhol. During this time frame Deborah went to France to study art under Ultra Violet. Ultra Violet was also part of Andy Warhol’s entourage and muse of Salvador Dali. Deborah helped create art that sold for high financial figures at a show they did in France. Deborah at this time had earned a master degree and was only a few credit hours from a PH.D. However the PH.D would not assist her professionally nor economically so she elected to not pursue that last collegiate degree. Her marriage would not work out but it was no ones fault than life itself. I will finish here with her words from a poem she wrote shortly before Jon and Deborah met and is reflective how she viewed the entirety of her life at the time. She shared this poem with Jon as that he would better understand her better. Prison of Iron Unfetter my wild heart Parched flames of desire Ever glaring, midnight moonless, besieging walls, Ever watching, lest the hell-chains slip To lie silent on the frigid, footworn, stones, Captive in this dismal cage, Mute to the swell and fall of haunting desire, Burrowed deep within my casket Where burning love flickers to forget All hope, Realized, radiant love, shall it ever allude my touch? Or shall I curse the day I was born in bondage To relish fragrant apparitions Of unrequited love. Tuesday, July 8, 1997 – M. Deborah Beris Jon's Back Story Jon served honorably in the Air Force (before, during and after the first gulf war) and then went to work for the federal government working for the Defense Commissary Agency. A grocery store for the military located at Bitburg AFB, Germany. Jon was also good friends with Dee, an American business owner and friend who played a positive role in Jon's life when he was at his most down he almost made a foolish error and Dee overheard a stupid plan and he gave them the money to fix the situation. Jon later went to repay Dee at another business he owned and they became friends for many years afterwards and Dee would be almost a father type of figure towards Jon at times. Dee was caring and helpful to those who were good people and needed help and he often assisted those in need quietly and without always being asked. This aspect of humanity would remain with Jon and play a larger role later in Jon's own life choices. One night Jon's mother, whom he had a negative relationship with, called him and told him she was without food, couldn't pay the bills or wash herself (she had an accident and was incapable at the time) and that Jon's father was living somewhere else and the kids (Jon's sisters) were running wild. Upon hearing this he said if this is true he will resign his job, leave his life in Germany and come home personally to take care of this. She said it was true and Jon followed through on his word. Once Jon returned home he found these descriptions to be false and Jon left the family home and was going to return to Germany. However an Aunt talked him out of going back and Jon agreed to stay in USA due to the seemingly odd aspect that Jon did not call anyone in the family to verify which he normally would have done. So Jon just let it go as fate and did not return to Germany. Jon filed for unemployment in Pennsylvania but he took a job the day the check came in and he never picked it up as he had a job working for a relative in a fair food business. After doing that for most of the season Jon took another fair job and traveled with a fair working a basketball game of skill for the rest of the season. After the season Jon traveled to NewCastle, Delaware and stayed with his sister. During this time Jon went to check out a business and that is where Jon and Deb met. Natia Tavartkiladze - Sacred Spirit - Yeha Noha Poem from Deborah written to Jon The Way I love You No one wil ever marvel you, as in the way I love you. Silken words you weave incisively into the chasm, that abysmal grotto that is bent on the annihilation of my soul. Your sovereign hand apprehend the thief as you lead me to exodus. In this way I love you, for your gifted perception in the way you counsel and guide me. Yearning years, resigned I waited for a man to be equally united. Impatient, obliging, never loyal to my secret self, I cheated myself until now, when I feel the way I love you. The impenetrable pass of my heart is rent, crushed by your strong nature I speak in your spectral eyes. I love you in a way that no other will. Completely The way I love you. Monday, June 15, 1998 – M. Deborah Beris The start of Jon & Deb Deborah and her husband would separate and divorce. Deborah left her husband and financial security to be with Jon. Their love was a powerful entity that could not be ignored by each other even though this was not the best moral choices to make due to Deborah being married. Deborah left her marriage not due to Jon but due to their particular relationship issues. Her husband at the time was a good man worthy of respect and other than her arm being hurt (She was harmed and had to wear a sling) as he grabbed her arm while she was leaving (not abusive but a genuine accident in an emotional moment not intended for injury) he was a correct man towards her. Jon and Deborah would travel to Missouri for a short period of time while things settled down. A short period of time after Deborah returned to Delaware and later Jon joined. Soon after Jon came to live with Deborah, one of Deborah's sons attempted to murder Jon with a shotgun. He spent time in Jail and would later make a good professional and financial life and start a family of his own. This particular son of Deborah's would continue to attempt to attack Jon upon sight at all opportunities in life as of this writing. While he was in prison Jon cooked for and ensured his daughter was well cared for as her and the child's mother lived with them for a period of time. Jon personally ensured she was cleaned from fleas which she was infested with. They did not make a big deal of it. Jon and Deborah looked after (their grandchild) as they would any other. Jon and Deborah would display her photos as she grew up and became an adult. Jon would not see her again since the time she moved overseas with her mother who married a military man. Jon kept up with her life from afar and via discussions with Deborah gave input with Deborah's spoken advice on subjects regarding her. She is all grown up now but to Jon, she is still the little girl in his heart and is always welcome but he knows he will not see her again and his likely forgotten and/or misunderstood due to parental influences on the view towards Jon. Deborah's youngest son had married and later they bought a house. Jon personally made the food for the wedding which was held at Jon and Deborah's home. Later when the couple bought a home Jon was asked to come and see the new house and Deborah's son who attacked Jon before came to the house (likely bad timing and not premeditated) and attempted to attack Jon but the son's wife or fiance stopped him and got him around the corner while Jon and Deborah left. Jon would never return to the youngest son's home or any other home of his again. Work and Health Jon and Deborah would work at Community Systems inc, which is a not for profit company that runs group homes for the mentally handicapped. Jon's health was bad and thus he was not able to consistently maintain a regular work week and is the start of some hard times health wise for Jon. Jon and Deborah's work helped to transform the company which had been required to pass an accreditation due to issues with the state in poor past performance. As a result of Jon and Deborah's work Community Systems Inc, would obtain its highest CARF rating on record for CARF for any organization at that point in time. Community Systems Inc, would later betray Deborah and as a result Jon left Community Systems Inc in support of his wife. Deborah left Community Systems Inc, and went to work for Delaware Cardiovascular. She was a vice president and responsible for all locations and personnel. Jon and Deborah created a side business "M. Deborah Studios" which created personalized movies from pictures and existing videos. They also made family orientated cook books and personal books for family members such as having their stories in a book for their family and similar special occasions. They made unique personal and business media products. Eventually this service would dramatically slow during an economic down turn as businesses no longer were making videos for their projects and family clients shrank due to technology coming to a threshold one could use a low cost application on a computer to create similar results. While not an equal in quality the price difference was too great to overcome. In time they would close M. Deborah Studios. During this time the USS Cole, a navy destroyer was bombed and as the military brought back the dead servicemen to the mortuary at Dover AFB the military did not allow the media on the base to photograph so the media gathered around the fence by the road and this odd gathering distracted a driver who hit Deborah from behind. Deborah's was visiting a new office location in Dover Delaware and a while sitting at a red light in front of Dover AFB she was hit from behind by a large truck and totaled Deborah's car and severely injured Deborah for which she would never fully recover. Deborah did not sue the military as they did not want to do that but they ask their lawyer to discuss the issue with the base commander. They do not know if such a discussion about the risks took place but years later the traffic pattern in front of the base were redone that would prevent that type of accident again. This was likely an independent decision outside of the accident. As a result of this accident and injury Deborah would suffer a broken neck and broken back at multiple points. Her initial doctor wanted to do immediate surgery. Deborah was adamant about no surgery due to a deep feeling against it and this started issues with doctors and with her insurance company which their was unprofessional and unethical behavior on both the doctor and insurance companies part. Documents would later show the insurance company acted improperly from the moment of the accident and how they would interact with Deborah's doctors by attempting to dictate care per their interest and not a medically correct one. Deborah would seek a second, third and fourth opinion but could never get two opinions that matched in reason but they did mostly recommend surgery but for different reasons. Eventually due to friend of friends connections Deborah was seen by the head of a department at a prestigious medical college. This doctor agreed with Deb's view and said not to do surgery and to use a stretch machine over time to help correct the issues. This was the correct the treatment and she would become better for it but she had suffered physically, emotionally and financially for her efforts to be treated as a patient and not as product with the sole interest to obtain the highest insurance payments (the doctor.) Deborah's doctor at the time would literally throw a fit about not going to his partner for a second opinion and later he would uncontrollably run around the room throwing a fit as if a child upon finding a differing opinion which came from the head of John Hopkins University for the department for which she was scene. The insurance company accused her of pain pill abuse as she did not want the surgery, had a prestigious medical opinion to not do the surgery and her desire to correct the issue with the long term stretching. (She was later proved correct.) Deborah's sons had tried to influence their mother in having the surgery siding with the doctors (without them even speaking to a doctor) advice, rather than the John Hopkins opinion, some of them pursued this discussion with her even when obtaining positive results from physical therapy. It was not the issue of disagreement but was the tone and belittlement she endured for which she would remain silently disappointed in that behavior in those who acted in such a way. Jon told her it was because she was with him and that should expected similar behaviors and other passive aggressive emotions and actions as their disgust of Jon was translating inappropriately towards their mother. She would endure this for the sake of being able to visit her grandchildren. Deborah was in immense daily pain and agony and she developed RSD (Raynaud's disease) which would never leave her and she suffered daily for the rest of her life. At the time RSD was not generally accepted in the medical community nor at the Christian Hospital in Delaware and many doctors would ignore her visible issue at the hospital forcing her to cruelly suffer far greater than necessary. This was action was similar to torture without merited justification. The insurance company would call Deborah's doctors as she would find a new doctor after the last one threw a childish fit and they would tell them she had been abusing pills which was not true and not based any merited reasoning. Jon and Deborah would have to go far into PA to find a pain management practice that would not bow down to the insurace companies tactics. Eventually Deborah found a local doctor who would stand up to the insurance company and he would be a saviour for her. Later the insurance company would pay for this abuse as Jon documented her suffering hours by hours and daily for many months and before walking into court the insurance agreed to their terms. The Strumbellas - The Bird That Follows Me Deborah suffers more bad health Jon nursed Deb back to health and after years of physical therapy and as medically recommended from John Hopkins University they regained some level normality. Then shortly after finding a balance managing the injury with day to day living Deborah began to have issues with a hiatal hernia. However, the hospital initially misread the hiatal hernia scan. Deborah was consistently hospitalized for long periods of time due to extensive suffering. The misreading of the initial hiatal hernia test was used by many doctors and thus they chose to diagnose incorrect and even accused Deborah of having health issues from being fat. Deborah gained weight due to the hiatal hernia, naturally and otherwise she is and was slim with good health and this was ignored by the doctor. They fired a lot of doctors. Eventually after many lengthy stays in the hospital in two states a doctor redid the test and it showed the hiatal hernia and it was very serious. A re-look at the first test showed they misread it. Deborah would go thru an operation to repair the hiatal hernia and during the operation the surgeon nicked her chest cavity. While Deborah was recovering in her hospital room within a few days of the operation an infection took hold but was not recognized by the hospital. Deborah called Jon in a great amount of pain and told him that she complained of extreme pain to the nurse and the nurse came and closed the door as if she was a problem patient. While on the phone she stood up and a splashing sound was heard by Jon. This sound was Deborah's chest and it rotted and fell on the floor. Deborah was placed in intensive care and the head doctor watched her as she had a breathing mask on but might need a bigger mask but he did not think she would survive putting it on so if needed he wanted to make the call for the best time if needed. He watched her all night. During this time Deborah would say she was visited by an old sea captain who told her it was not her time yet and she started to get better. Deborah would go on to have a mesh abdomen that would slowly heal. She would suffer intense pain and nausea for the rest of her life. They did not sue anyone as the doctor who saved her and did the best care possible after the accidental nick of the abdomen so we let it go as her being alive when she easily would not have been was enough for them. The injury was an accident and not negligence. Very few people would do this as they had a potential law suite with negligence and with pain and suffering could of ended with substantial financial ruling but ethically they could not do that and have to go after those who saved Deborah life. Sometimes life is hard and it speaks for the measure of a person when they make such during times of hard. Some would say it was a stupid decision to not sue especially as later in life financially they would suffer but it was an ethical and moral question to Deborah and they would do what the could to get through life and keep their ethics and morals regardless of ones opinion on the subject. No matter the financial position later in life, this choice was never second guessed by Deborah and Jon. This horrific situation physically affected Deborah but it did not change who she was. Finding employment with medical issues As a result of all their medical expenses and lack of regular income Deborah had tapped her retirement funds while a several years search for employment commenced. Deborah would consistently make it the last round of interviews but she was always second to getting hired. Her health issues and age was typically the problematic issue. This went on for several years. She eventually took a position with a staffing agency to work at a prestigious patent law firm in a nearby city. They would soon fire her as soon as she started having health issues but they said she made a bad choice for a trivial thing. Karma has said hello to them I am sure. Later she would find a job at a chiropractic office and she would not last long as the office manager was threatened by Deborah's qualifications compared to hers. Deborah had no interest in the office managers Job. The School of Life - Resilience In Hard Times Student Loans Deborah would take a job with student loan processing company as they hired a group of disabled people in essence to illustrate that they are a good business entity who hires disabled people too. Deborah hated the aspect of the Job where people abuse and say hurtful and demeaning things to the collectors. She grew a thick skin and this is part of being a collector for student loans. Deborah was consistently at the top ratings for collectors and regularly rewarded. She viewed her Job as helping borrowers and not "just" as collectors. She would look correctly at the borrowers finances and put in a realistic reduction request as to bring the borrower back into good standing and be a realistic adjustment. This is why she did that job until she passed. She cared for those people who truly wanted to do right but were in a financial position that it was not possible to honor earlier agreements that in truth, few understood correctly when they signed. Deborah would work their until they split into two companies. She would work with the one split company for many years but they would eventually fire her due to her health issues but before they could even file a legal/civil action Deborah was hired at the other split company. She would work their until she passed away bringing relief to many borrowers. Almost daily she would come home and tell Jon about the people she helped by getting their interest rates reduced, how they cried and so very thankful as we are talking a significant amount of money on the part of the borrower. She was grateful she was able to help in such ways but she was also harassed by some of her managers from time to time as they prefer quick collections rather than longer time consuming rate reductions. The collecting system is managed in a way it punishes collectors for doing rate reductions and/or they do not approve it for a variety of reason and on the collectors. Deborah's has been scolded by low level managers for doing so many rate reductions but the superiors were always supportive but it is the managers reacting to pressures and not being effective managers. Deborah could not be bullied or intimated so she could stand up to inappropriate management, few others can. Deborah enjoyed working with the people at the company but specifically the ability to help others and she also assisted her fellow collectors in being better and correct collectors. Deborah was famous for bringing in her coleslaw and Jon's chili. While she hated going in the morning due to knowing all the problem she was going to face she enjoyed coming home to Jon and her cats and telling of her day in which she performed financial miracles in loan rate reductions on a virtual daily basis. She was proud of that and so was Jon and the cats! The medicinal beginning. Jeremy Jensen - Rising Appalachia- Medicine Jon's health was also not good at most times from diverticulitis but he also suffered from a type of condition from having too many concussions and this mimicked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). When Jon would have issues from this Deborah would make a special tea for Jon when he would have stress issues and to help his kidneys function. Deborah combined over 70 ingredients and consulted with many herbalist and oriental medicine practitioners. She spent many hours at libraries and in consultation on this tea. It is referred to as stress tea or a stronger version called pissing tea. When these health issues were at their worst Jon could not get out of bed and he was in immense pain. Pain medication does not agree with Jon and he would become forcefully ill with nausea and thus pain medication generally makes a situation worse than help. Deborah one day came to Jon with an old wooden pipe and being unknown to Jon she had grown a cannabis plant with the hopes it would help Jon, at this time cannabis was not a part of their lives but Deborah being desperate to help her husband took an action out of desperation. An action to assist in relieving the suffering of a loved one. In that perspective, this was not a wrong act. Add on the experience and emotion of watching Jon deteriorate and suffer greatly one should be able to understand how such an act by a desperate and caring person happened. She did what she did out of love and caring for her husband as she could see that Jon could not find relief in traditional medicine. For Jon, it was a great act! This aspect of caring would later play a large role with Jon and cannabis. The use of cannabis did help and as Jon regained his health he took over growing the plant. Jon's condition made him not able to endure regular daily physical stress and simply walking around at the house would cause Jon to violently gag. He also suffered very painful leg cramps on a daily basis He was stuck in a cycle of regaining and diminishing in strength and just going up and down some stairs could cause a gagging attack that would force Jon to be bedridden for a day or two and if stress was not reduced he would worsen and lose the ability to walk or he would walk like an old person all bent over. The medical use of cannabis helped Jon obtain a degree of stability by managing his nausea and he slowly regained more endurance and better health over time and it is Jon's view that cannabis did play a significant role in enabling Jon to be able to endure the daily routine of life so that his health could begin to improve. This aspect of cannabis would later play a significant role in the future of Jon and cannabis. Vaporizers for the sick and terminal Jon was a non tobacco smoker and thus the traditional means of smoking was difficult for Jon's lungs to manage on a regular basis so he looked into other methods of taking cannabis and found the early workings of the vaporizer industry. For a time Jon would speak at an online forum for vaporizers when their was no such thing at the time. Jon helped promote and played a small role in the new industry by talking on vaporizers online and in person often introducing vaporizers for the first time in talks with people who had terminal and significant health conditions within the state Jon resided. No cannabis was used or given during these talks, it was about the vaporizer as means of intake being cleaner than smoking it. Later due to Jon's work within the vaporizer industry, vaporizer companies would sometimes send Jon vaporizers to review and he would often be allowed to loan and/or gift those vaporizers to a suffering or terminally ill person for their use. Jon only supplied the vaporizer and instructions on how to use it at this time. While people may have varied opinions on doing such a thing. A significant benefit was that the terminally ill person could gain a period of quality time with their loved ones and have good end of life type of conversations where as when they were on the narcotic heavy pill medications the effects of those options created a state where the person was not suffering but was largely removed from such interactions due to drowsiness, nausea and/or inability to coherently interact. Another benefit was often that a family discussion would revolve around the suffering aspects of the patient (stated for illustration of person in conversation) and not the quality type of discussions either participant wanted. In perspective, when people were on the pills people they had less endurance for company and to participate fruitfully in deeper discussions compared to cannabis use in my experience and view based from discussions with the suffering persons family members. This aspect and the other experiences with cannabis would play a further and significant role in the life of Jon and cannabis. Easy Eye Sound - Dan Auerbach - Shine On Me The Crime At this time Jon medically took care of himself but in time people who knew Jon and Deborah the closest would at times discuss their health issues and at times included the topic of cannabis. No one knew of Jon's medication at that time. During certain discussions Jon and Deborah might talk on their experiences with the plant and sometimes a small gift was given and depending on the effectiveness of that small gift it would potentially be a one and done interaction or become a regular medical usage depending on the effectiveness and situation. Each situation was different. By gift, it was a gift and no money or compensation in anyway was accepted during this time. This all combined at this time was a small amount and it did not yet take away from what was already being made for Jon's medicine. This would soon change. These people were truly injured, sick and terminal and suffering. This was not used for recreational enjoyment. They found hope and relief via Jon's work and he could appreciate suffering and not being able to find relief from the traditional pharmaceutical pain and symptom relief options by main stream medicine. Helping people in this way, as Jon would say is "the pat on the back I take" "as they cant take that (the benefit they helped make) away" Life sort of made them a victim of circumstance and their own ethical and moral views and emotions perhaps, but they were not criminals. They cared for whom they helped as it was the suffering that was their concern more so than repercussions when they were faced with these life choices. It is easy to judge off the cuff so to speak but it is another thing to be in those shoes and face such needs for help when you have the unique ability to help. For Jon and Deborah, their was no question but a dread they did have in knowing they now become something else. While it seems they made a choice, for them it was merely being true to their ethics and morals they live by and thus this never was a choice but more of a path that life placed before them with no other direction to take. Jon and Deborah made a decision to take a direct action to help based on not just the need of the individuals, their closeness to Jon and Deborah but also because they have seen true benefits from cannabis not by opinion but by experience and most importantly how effective the medicine helped them. To some this was a crime, to others they were seen as blessings from god doing what no other people could do for them. To their country and state, they were essentially an enemy due to laws that helped create the situation enabling the real suffering by cannabis being an illegal commodity, at the time. At the time the state Jon and Deborah lived in and for the people they assisted did allow medical cannabis but only from state sponsored dispensaries (not effective solution for a variety of reasons) but the high pricing and difficulty in finding quality doctors who cared for their patients who would risk prescribing it as cannabis was still not a mainstream option accepted yet across the medical industry. The combination was an effective barrier for those Jon helped in receiving help from the "legally controlled system." In addition, many of these people would not easily know how to obtain street cannabis or from a traditional illegal source as the risk of them become victims increases. I am not speaking for or against aspects, I am just stating the perspective as it was and perhaps still is as they seen it. Jon and Deborah stood up when they were needed and called upon. No regrets except for the fact the situation was needed in the first place and this fault is with the medical and legal views which often are incorrectly influenced and in that is the cause of this unnecessary suffering. This is not pointed out as a justification or an excuse but an illustration of fact. It is up to each person to weigh that themselves. . The Revivalists - The Revivalists | "Men Amongst Mountains" | Live Session Expansion & Finances As time progressed more people came to Jon and Deborah and the need grew bigger than what was currently grown became an issue. As a result Jon learned about growing indoors in a serious horticultural direction becoming knowledged in growing environments, lighting, plant physiology, plant nutrition and many horticulture aspects of plants. Jon in his youth did yard work for a lady who was a serious horticultural hobbyist and had high value and award winning plants in her backyard that people would travel and see yearly. Through her Jon was introduced to growing plants and in a quality way. The foundation of learning horticulture for Jon was due to her teachings and influence. Years later after she passed away a lawyer would buy her house and make a parking lot in her garden. I am confident he had no idea. I would beleive it the place is haunted! Jon and Deborah understood the need was increasing but they did not want to ramp up production quickly as they wanted to ensure the highest quality genuinely as this is medicine and not a ramping up yield for a profit. Special considerations were taken to maintain purity of plant and grow as natural as possible. Jon gained knowledge and become proficient in hydroponics of various types and growing in soil-less and soil mediums. Jon is learn-id in natural farming and some permaculture aspects and techniques but would be considered a serious student over all. Jon is learn-id in pest and disease management without chemical pesticides and natural farming friendly techniques. They would then take this knowledge and apply it as they ramped up to meet the needs. These are not things a for profit enterprise would do. During the time Jon had diverticulitis he also grew seedless tomatoes and would give anyone who had diverticulitis and could not eat seeds free seedless tomatoes when he had available. Jon became sort of famous for this for awhile and was once mentioned in a Burpee catalog for seedless tomato seeds. During this time they assisted in the managing of the suffering from cancer of all types, aids, lung issues, the occasional injury and the unfortunate terminally ill. The benefit that they obtained from the Jon's work was precious to them and it was sacred to Jon and Deb. It is odd that such a thing can be looked down on. In that moment they would feel freedom fleeting as such a thing should not be need to be hidden. It is understandable that people would think they did this for money as Jon and Deb had significant financial problems but did not use the cannabis for profit. They also paid tax on it as an extra business on their taxes. The following list some aspects of their financial situation. No large screen TV's No fancy anything, Literally a leaking roof into the living room. The driveway needed immediate concrete repair. No vacation trips with expense. Credit card debt mostly due to paying bills from loss of work. The people they were helping were poor and often elderly on fixed incomes. Virtually a true and genuine not for profit enterprise. Deborah worked hard every day that she could but her health began to diminish and they were talking about Deborah going on disability as she could not maintain two work weeks in a row without having to call off due to illness. Then June came. June and the end of an era. In early June, Jon and Deborah was invited to Tennessee to visit an old military friend of Jon's who bought some land. Deborah was feeling well enough to but could not attend due to not having available vacation days from using sick days due to her instability health wise. As a result Deborah did not go but she was excited for Jon to be able to see his old friend. A few days before Jon returned home Deborah passed away. ~A song selected as how Jon and Deb saw one another. my music - Grace VanderWaal - Beautiful Thing (With Lyrics) It is believed at this time that she did not test her blood sugar and took too high a dose of insulin and she went into a diabetic coma and then she passed away. No one but Deborah knew that Jon was on a trip. In part as Jon is a very private person who did not even use a cell phone and that he does not regularly talk with others than Deborah. However, an uncle was informed of Deborah's passing and thought he might pass on the information to a friend of Jon's that he once met and they exchanged contact information. By chance that is where Jon was, with that friend. Jon was informed a few days after Deborah's passing. In part because that no one knew other than Deborah where I was but their was phone records of Jon talking to Deborah from his friends phone from Tennessee and the return plane information was in her purse and on the table by her purse. It was clear where Jon was but this information was ignored. The message to Jon was that Deb died and the police want to speak with him regarding it as would be normal. Jon calls the detective and tells him where he is and that he will visit the police station on his way home. Jon also talks about the cats but no one knows anything about the cats, Jon asks the detective to help determine if they are left alone or if they are in an animal control shelter and Jon did not want a situation to get worse by having the animals put down. The cats would later be found in the house and not well cared for. Deborah's kids put down a lot of food but never changed the cat box nor respected the animals in a manner as she would of have expected. In this, Deborah would also be genuinely disappointed in them. Jon was able to contact his lawn guy to pick him up at the airport and then they went to Jon's home where Jon confirmed that law enforcement knew of the medical grow operation. Jon then went and turned himself in. He would be out within a few hours as the police understood the situation correctly. Jon turned himself in to the Newark police department and was charged with possession of a controlled substance in Tier 5 quantity, second-degree conspiracy and possession of marijuana-related drug paraphernalia. These charges were on the day Deb passed. One Drop Forward - Take my Ganja Away The police department were for their part respectful and professional. They understood the situation and genuinely assisted with the painful process of dealing with the law enforcement side of the issue. This was a welcome surprise and Newark, Delaware police department has Jon's respect and appreciation for the way the whole situation was handled. Additionally the district attorney is be mentioned and thanked as they did their job correctly and saw the situation what it was rather than to go for a hard prosecution. A competent and correct process was followed with a correct outcome that is satisfactory to both parties. Jon would receive no jail time and he will enter the veteran treatment court sometime in January 2018. This is a two year program. Deborah's kids however would unifying act in many incorrect ways towards Jon at this point in time and this was a shocking surprise how they all treated and acted towards him. Jon and the son who was over the estate would later work out an understanding. If it would of been appreciated how they have acted it is not believed Deborah would of managed her final affairs the way she did. The following is some but not all the things they did. Her kids tried to prevent Jon from learning where Deborah's body was. Jon had to shame one of the son's in front of a police officer in order to finally get the mortuary and the time. Initially they only said it would be in the paper tomorrow and that is how they wanted Jon to know. Jon was told that he was not wanted and if he came their would be problems. He was told he was no longer part of the family with hate filled adjectives. Jon said he was coming no matter what and that he did not come back and turn him self in and not see her. He did everything for Deborah and he was going to see his wife one last time. They said they would try to have her cremated that night to prevent Jon from seeing her and they were not going to show the body anyways and would just be ceremonial. Jon gave a speech and at the end of that speech one son did the right thing and went to talk to the others and they arranged for him to have a private moment several hours after the scheduled time long after everyone else would be gone at the literal end of the day. Jon expected to find a locked and closed funeral home but they did keep their word. By them doing this they stole from their mother's voice at the end. Only Jon knew Deborah so close and more of her life as a whole. Jon lived with Deb longer than any other person in her life including each of their children. She was very proud of that and would say it often! By preventing Jon from being able to speak at her funeral by not making it possible for him to be their to do that, they hurt her and her memory for what is real of her and she was far more grande than just a loving mother. They have no idea who their mother truly was and she was glorious in many ways. The kids diminished her biography, history and what she was purposely due to their hate towards Jon. These insults are stated not as a shame to her children but as a lesson and illustration of what not to do for those who may read this. Enough pain, please.. Jon did not see it but he was told by two people who took him to the funeral home that he was mocked as he wept over his wife. Jon was told specifically non of them would be their but all but one was and no one said a word nor illustrated any other reason for being their other to notice and watch Jon. It is not so much the insult to Jon that hurt Jon but the insult towards their mother. It is hard to understand how people can profess their love for an individual but then have such hate towards what they loved and cherished. Many things from the house was missing, destroyed and damaged as the kids had three days in house prior to Jon getting home. It was ransacked via drawers, cabinets and belongings of value and it appears some tried to hide some things from others but that Jon's returned thwarted the theft as some vases that packaged and wrapped and hidden under a sofa and these vases were normally disp. Not really from Jon but from the other siblings. A list of these findings was left for the son who is over the will. A will exist because Jon insisted. Jon is not in the will per his wishes. Jon insisted Deborah put her kids as beneficiary for life insurance. She originally wanted to put only Jon. When they agreed to be a couple Jon said he was with Deborah for her and not her stuff. He meant this even at cost to his own financial betterment. Jon left everything other than what was from their time together and due to their financial status at the time of Debs passing and after the insults and hurtful and attempted emotional inflicting actions Jon suffered by her kids he left with only the bed, couch, tv, computer, some paintings, the chair she died in, a microwave, refrigerator, as many personal pieces of Deb as Jon could get and that was not destroyed or already stolen by some of her kids and not one penny. All Jon asked for was the will "they stole from the house before Jon returned" and a copy of the death certificate for closure. To this date this has not been honored. Jon has done what the family wanted and left. He is no longer part of their lives and the loss of two grandsons who were treated as such since they day they were born are now gone from his life. Jon still views himself as their pap, pap but he knows he is no longer welcome nor wanted, as the parents were very clear. My door, support and heart is always open to those kids. The family business was only discussed not as a shame to her children but as a lesson and illustration of what not to do for those who may read this and find themselves one day in such situations. Stand up and stop the progression of pain during painful family situations in life. Then perhaps healing can begin in its slow but forward direction. After all that has happened to Jon, he lost his wife, his grandsons, his way of life, his home and virtually everything but some clothes and memories it should be understood that while he is devastated Jon is still the same old happy guy as no situation or hardship will change his soul and energies. He has no hate and perhaps is more Buddha in these moments than anything else. Nothing will change Jon, but he does suffer the passing of his wife and the end of an era and the greatest woman he ever knew. Other than writing for cultural healing and life it is unsure what awaits Jon but he does not worry as he knows what ever happens he will do his best and he is a happy soul. Easy Eye Sound - Dan Auerbach - King Of A One Horse Town Cultural Healing and Life Begins. The last gift Deborah bought was a lifetime membership to the us press association as we were about to build this site together, Cultural Healing and Life. Now it is her spirit with me and all those who choose be part of the community that will carry it forward. Cultural Healing and Life is not about cannabis. It is not about Jon and Deborah and they never thought of ever having to really talk on themselves as it has been now. This is intended to be a source to promote genuinely healing about any topic of reason. This is about betterment and certainly it is obviously a more grande idea kind of thing than what we likely create or inspire but it is in the spirit and energy of that and perhaps that will have some kind of a positive effect even if we would fail in one fashion or another. This enterprise is more fate like than anything else for Jon. It is almost like he is watching this happen. This is not a fast endeavor and will take years to build and for it take on its own life other than what we think it will be but in the end I have no idea if this is anything more than a hobby for a guy who talks to much but we hope to make a difference in betterment in some degree. Cultural Healing and Life has no hate towards anyone. We have told our story as to allow you to know who we are and why. We are about learning, understanding, appreciating, caring, healing and living a free and joyous life and it is in that we can find a healthy love of life for ourselves and perhaps a caring existence for all peoples. Jon & Deborah and cultural healing and life hope you join us. It is not about what one brings to the table but that they care and/or have a need. All genuine people are welcome and wanted. No matter how little one might think their contribution might be to a subject. That perspective, view, understanding or what ever it is can and will help others. In that, your contributions are sacred no matter how small one might view it themselves. It is our belief, knowledge should not just simply flow but also be free and we genuinely offer you our sincerest appreciation for sharing with us. Deborah's greatest gift to Jon was that he once only cared about him and her and basically shunned the world. Today, he cares for all and it is in that energy that I close with this and open cultural healing and life. I eternally thank you my loving wife! Claire Macdonald - Killard House Special School choir singing Hallelujah ~JJ the Gardner, Cultural Healing and Life
  15. JJ the Gardener

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    From the album: Hempyfan

  16. JJ the Gardener

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    From the album: Hempyfan

  17. JJ the Gardener

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    From the album: Hempyfan

  18. JJ the Gardener

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    From the album: Hempyfan

  19. JJ the Gardener

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    From the album: Hempyfan

  20. Billy Caldwell to be granted 'lifetime' medical cannabis licence From Q Radio Local News - Tuesday, July 3rd, 2018 6:04am - By David Hunter http://www.goqradio.com/belfast/news/q-radio-local-news/billy-caldwell-to-be-granted-lifetime-medical-cannabis-licence/ The Home Office has rubber-stamped a special exemption licence meaning severely epileptic Billy Caldwell can go home with his medicinal cannabis, a family spokesman has said. His mother Charlotte, of Castlederg in Co Tyrone, Northern Ireland, had seven bottles confiscated at Heathrow Airport customs on June 11 after she brought them in from Toronto. Last month a 20-day emergency licence was granted for 12-year-old Billy after he was admitted to hospital in a critical condition having suffered multiple seizures. But a family spokesman said the Home Office, and Chelsea and Westminster Hospital have now agreed he can go home to Northern Ireland with his medicinal cannabis. He added: "The Department of Health in Northern Ireland are applying for a licence for Billy's medication to be administered at home in Castlederg. "In anticipation of that application being processed, the Home Office have rubber-stamped it and he will be going home at some point this week." The spokesman said the special exemption licence was agreed on Monday afternoon. Welcoming the development, Ms Caldwell said in a statement that the "Home Office clearly wanted this to happen". "The amazing Chelsea and Westminster Hospital got behind it, and they've helped make it happen," she added. "We all now need to make this also happen for all the other families who need medicinal cannabis. "We are in the very final stages of what has been an amazing four weeks. I can barely believe we'll be home in a few days. "Billy has been amazingly resilient throughout. He's autistic, and everything that has been going on - no regularity, no familiar surroundings - are beginning to take their toll on him. "He needs his toys, his garden, the things he's used to. I need to see him happy and well. I can't believe he'll be back in his own bed in a few days. It's within our grasp." A family spokesperson described it as a 'lifetime' licence, but the Home Office hasn't clarified the limitations. Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust and the Home Office both declined to comment. Following the public uproar over the confiscation of the cannabis oil from Ms Caldwell as she attempted to bring it into the UK, a new panel assessing claims for its use was set up. On Wednesday, the temporary expert panel began accepting applications for licences for the drug from senior clinicians. The Home Office announced the panel will make "swift" recommendations to ministers, who will then sign off on applications within two to four weeks. If given approval, doctors can then start writing prescriptions for their patient, while ministers decide whether to remove cannabis's banned status as a medicine. Ms Caldwell said the focus will now turn to a campaign to get "every other family equal opportunity, and equally swift progress through the assessment process". "Clinicians simply don't yet have guidelines, and no clinician will operate outside guidelines, so few are taking what they see as the risk of entering a patient into the assessment process - and even those who have seen the Government's announcement are hesitant," she said. "We want to help them in any and every way we can."
  21. The Tale of a loving mother, an epileptic child, a plant medicine and a government. The following are news articles illustrating the story of a loving mother fighting for her son, fighting for his life and fighting his epileptic seizures that tormented him daily and caused his life to be more torture than enjoyment. The mother took her child across the pond to Canada and found legal medicine in Canada but not in the UK as it is made from cannabis and the laws of politics and prohibition without genuine merit in this situation cruelly force physical torturous suffering on a small child and mental anguish only a parent and mother could know. I ask what is gained by forcing such a condition on a child rather than doing the right thing. The following video was made specifically for such situations and I ask that you say a prayer or give a positive thought for Billy and his loving mother Charlotte so that the powers that be will find a way to allow the effective medicine to free those who suffer these conditions! One Drop Forward The Articles Castlederg woman to fly medical cannabis to UK for epileptic son Original article: By David Hunter http://www.goqradio.com/belfast/news/q-radio-local-news/castlederg-woman-to-fly-medical-cannabis-to-uk-for-epileptic-son/ The mother of Billy Caldwell says she will openly 'smuggle' medicinal Cannabis into the UK today. The 12 year-old from Castlederg, Co.Tyrone, suffers from a severe form of epilepsy. He received cannabis treatment in the U.S for several months last year after medical specialists in the UK said they couldn't help. Doctors say the cannabis oil reduced the frequency of his Billy's dangerous and exhaustive seizures , which Charlotte Caldwell said happened hundreds of times per week. He became the first person in the UK to be given a prescription last year. However, Home Office officials told Billy's Doctor to cancel the script last month, saying he could be struck off. Charlotte travelled to Canada last week, where the medicine is legal, as Billy's supplies ran out. She's told the Daily Mail she'll fly into Heathrow today with a six month supply and will beg customs to let her through. "I hate having to do this" she said to the newspaper. "For a mother to be pushed into breaking the law to keep her son alive is horrendous. But this drug has given me hope and given my son back his right to life. "Of course I worry about breaking the law – but I want my son illegally alive rather than legally dead." Billy Caldwell's cannabis meds battle may end in arrest for mum at Heathrow Original By Jilly Beattie 22:24, 10 JUN 2018 UPDATED 23:02, 10 JUN 2018 https://www.belfastlive.co.uk/news/billy-caldwells-cannabis-meds-battle-14767713 Charlotte Caldwell flies into London on Monday carrying outlawed medicinal cannabis and will face arrest or change history in the UK. The mum from Castlederg, Co Tyrone, traveled to Toronto last Thursday to source the oil her son Billy has relied on to keep potentially deadly epileptic seizures at bay for months. Now doctors in Canada’s leading children’s hospital have placed Billy on a clinical trial of the medication which is awaiting peer review. Richard Pengelly, the Permanent Secretary at the Department for Health in Northern Ireland, and the Chief Medical Officer were furnished with the full documents of clinical trial data and the ingredients in the doses on Sunday night. The Canadian trial is ongoing but early data supports the use of medicinal cannabis oil for patients like Billy. The 12-year-old made history when he became the first UK recipient of an NHS prescription for medicinal cannabis last year. Charlotte giving Billy his first dose legally in Canada But the Home Office put a stop to the prescriptions last month and with just one dose left, Charlotte and Billy flew to Canada desperate for help from specialists at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto. And last night they were booked onto the 9.55pm flight from Toronto Pearson International Airport to Heathrow terminal 5, due to land on Monday at 10.10am. If they make it through customs, immigration and security, and are allowed to pass go after declaring the oil, Charlotte and Billy will be joined by 10 other families who say they need medicinal cannabis. Then together they will make a public statement urging the Home Secretary to trigger a change in the law. Speaking to Belfast Live from Toronto, Charlotte said: “I have no choice. I’ve been prevented from giving Billy the medication that keeps him seizure free. Faceless civil servants did that to Billy. I’m worried about breaking the law but I’d rather have Billy illegally medicated and alive than unmedicated and legally dead. What mother should have to make that choice?” This will be the second time Charlotte Caldwell will have openly carried illegal medicinal cannabis into the UK. In May last year the pair flew into Dublin and drove across the border into Northern Ireland after declaring the full spectrum and THCa cannabis oil at customs in Ireland. Billy Takes 2 drops a day Last week Charlotte and Billy attended a meeting at Stormont where she was assured of support by every political party in Northern Ireland except the DUP. And it was shortly after she invited the DUP to the meeting that her GP received an email from the Home Office ordering him not to write any more prescriptions for Billy. The same GP was then invited to a hotel in Belfast to attend an un-minuted meeting with civil servants from the Department of Health’s Drug Enforcement Agency. A source said: “The meeting was particularly uncomfortable for the doctor. He had no choice but to comply. The prescriptions stopped there and then.” Charlotte said: “Members of the DUP initially said they would support us but the support was retracted. They do not support Billy and they do not support my work to keep him alive and well. Charlotte's campaignis supported by parents and all of Northern Ireland's political parties except the DUP “If I had been offered an abortion I would have refused it and protected Billy’s right to life and so would the DUP by all accounts. "Well I’m doing my bit. Where are they? I believe their stance on this is hypocritical." A spokesperson for Tilray, the British Colombia manufacturer of the trial drug oil, said: “Currently, the study drug used in the clinical trial is only authorized for use by patients participating in the trial. "Once authorised for sale, this would be the highest concentration of cannabis-derived CBD found in a medical cannabis product legally available to Canadian patients. “After the product is authorized for distribution Tilray will first make it available to patients who participated in the trial. As we are able to increase supply, we hope to make it available to patients outside of the trial.” The Trial Drugs from Tilray On Wednesday, Charlotte hopes to bring Billy’s six month trial doses home to Co Tyrone via Heathrow. The situation presents Home Secretary Sajid Javid with a dilemma over whether tomorrow Charlotte should be: arrested and detained, arrested and cautioned and allowed to retain the oil, arrested and cautioned and the oil confiscated, or allowed to pass freely through the airports in London and Belfast She said: “I can only ask to keep the drops to keep my son alive and well. “I don’t know if they'll let me. I don’t know if they'll arrest me and confiscate the oil and sign Billy’s death warrant. But I do know that Billy needs it and I’ll make sure one way or an other that he gets it. “Not only that I want to make sure that everyone who needs medicinal cannabis oil, gets it too.” Charlotte has support from the UUP, SDLP, Sinn Fein, Alliance and the Green Party and now includes a former Tory Health Minister in her group of backers. Former NI Health Minister David Ford attended the meeting with Charlotte and backed her Dr Dan Poulter works part-time in mental health services and recently started an all-party parliamentary group supported by three other doctors at Westminster, pushing to legalise medical cannabis in the UK. He said: “The current law is ridiculous. There is growing evidence cannabis products used medically can be helpful in a number of conditions.” He urged that Charlotte and Billy should be allowed into the UK with the oil and said: “This is both medically the right thing to do and humanely the right thing to do.” Billy has been through so much to get to where he is today A spokesperson for the Home Office said: “We are sympathetic to the difficult and rare situation that Billy and his family are faced with. ‘While we recognise that people with debilitating illnesses are looking to alleviate their symptoms, it is important that medicines are thoroughly tested to ensure they meet rigorous standards so that doctors and patients are assured of their efficacy, quality and safety.” THE mother of a severely autistic boy has accused the government of signing her son's "death warrant" after she had cannabis oil which she claims can help soothe his seizures confiscated at Heathrow Airport Original: By Erica Doyle Higgins 11th June 2018, 1:03 pm Updated: 11th June 2018, 6:22 pm https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/6500494/billy-caldwell-cannabis-oil-confiscated-heathrow-airport/ Their is a video at the link above from the original article, a must watch! Charlotte Caldwell, from Tyrone, Northern Ireland, travelled to Canada last week for the oil after the Home Office banned her son Billy's GP from prescribing the life saving medication. Mum Charlotte had said she would return to the UK with six month's supply of cannabis oil, but customs officers confiscated the oral drops at Heathrow this afternoon. Ms Caldwell accused Home Office Minister Nick Hurd of having "likely signed my son's death warrant" before heading to a London meeting with him. "It's Billy's anti-epileptic medication that Nick Hurd has taken away, it's not some sort of joint full of recreational cannabis. "Let me tell you something now: we will not stop, we are not going to stop, we are not going to give up, we have love, hope, faith for our kids and we are going to continue." She said Billy was due his next dose at 3.30pm, and warned of the dangers of missing his first treatment in 19 months. Charlotte Caldwell returned to the UK from Canada with the cannabis oil but had it confiscated as she arrived at Heathrow "The reason they don't do it is that it can cause really bad side-effects - they wean them down slowly. So what Nick Hurd has just done is most likely signed my son's death warrant." It's not some sort of recreational cannabis, it is his anti-epileptic medication he has taken off me today. "I'll go back to Canada and I'll get more and I'll bring it back again because my son has a right to have his anti-epileptic medication in this country and his own home." She said customs officers were "conflicted" about removing the medication from her. She added that doctors are trialling the oil in Canada and it's been "very successful." The mother pledged to go back and try again to get her son the prescription she believes will help him "I'm not at all interested in recreational use.. It's not something I've ever had an interest in, and for me it's a small bottle of oil that's keeping my son alive, it's anti-epileptic medication. It keeps his life-threatening seizures at bay, it's keeping him alive," she said. Billy, 12, was given a prescription for medicinal cannabis oil last year to help treat his epilepsy - in a case similar to that of six-year-old Alfie Dingley, who met with Theresa May in March in a bid to help change the law around the drug. He has a form of the condition meaning he cannot get help through medication or diet. He used to suffer up to 100 seizures a day until he began treatment with cannabis oil in the US, where medical marijuana is legal, in 2016. Charlotte has fought to get her son Billy the treatment she thinks can help calm the number of seizures he suffers She said she would be meeting Mr Hurd at the Home Office on Monday afternoon to plead to him "parent to parent" to get the oil back. The Home Office has defended the seizure of cannabis oil from a mother who attempted to get it into the UK to treat her son's severe epilepsy. A spokesman said: "The Home Office is sympathetic to the difficult and rare situation that Billy and his family are faced with. "Whilst we recognise that people with debilitating illnesses are looking to alleviate their symptoms, Border Force has a duty to stop banned substances from entering the UK. Ms Caldwell has, therefore, had cannabis oil seized this morning at Heathrow Airport upon landing from Canada. "The Policing Minister will meet Ms Caldwell this afternoon." What is cannabis oil and why does Billy Caldwell need it? Billy Caldwell can suffer up to 100 epileptic seizures in a day, and his mother Charlotte previously got cannabis oil for Billy’s treatment from the US. This medicine reportedly had stopped Billy’s seizures but when they were unable to travel for a new supply, she took Billy to their GP. Recognising this as a “unique” case, Dr Brendan O’Hare prescribed the medicine to Billy, but was told last year by the Department of Health and the health board he should not continue to do so. Cannabis oil is a medicine containing a part of the cannabis plant called cannabidiol (CBD). It does not contain the ‘psychoactive’ part of cannabis – the part that causes the feeling of being high. Last year, the UK’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) classed CBD as a medicine in the UK, but it has not been licensed as a medicine. The agency has said that CBD products must be licensed as this means they “have to meet safety, quality and efficacy standards”. In 2017, he became the first person in the UK to receive a prescription after his local GP Brendan O'Hare began writing scripts. The doctor was summoned to a meeting with Home Office officials recently and told to desist. Ms Caldwell is worried the cycle of fits "will eventually kill him", and has struggled to contain her son's seizures without access to the cannabis oil. She said Billy has been free of the debilitating episodes for a considerable period since the treatment. Charlotte said the oil is keeping her son's life-threatening seizures at bay The Department of Health in Northern Ireland said it did not comment on individual cases, but added that Cannabis is a Class B controlled drug and has not yet been licensed in the UK as a medicine. "However, an application made by a specialist clinician based in the UK to prescribe a Schedule 1 controlled drug on the basis of relevant medical and scientific evidence and guidance may be considered within existing legislative provisions and appropriate clinical supervision arrangements. "No such clinically supported applications have been received by the department," it confirmed.
  22. Today is the anniversary of Deborah's passing. Soon I will write part two of this story and tell of the happenings of the last year! I offer these songs by the Avett Brothers. I celebrate Deborah and while I miss her she lives on in that celebration and within my heart and in my soul. We are still, as always one. Deb's loving husband, Jon
  23. Cannabis oil row: Boy has epilepsy medication returned Original article: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-44507135 A boy with severe epilepsy has been given back medicinal cannabis oil that was confiscated from his mother at customs, the home secretary has said. Billy Caldwell, 12, received the oil after doctors made clear it was a "medical emergency", Sajid Javid said. Billy's mother, Charlotte Caldwell, from County Tyrone, said they had "achieved the impossible" but called for the oil to be freely available. Billy began using cannabis oil in 2016 to control his seizures. The cannabis oil, which contains a substance called Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is illegal in the UK but available elsewhere. Billy's most recent supply - which Ms Caldwell had tried to bring into the UK from Canada - was confiscated at Heathrow Airport on Monday and he was admitted to hospital before Mr Javid said it would be returned. The oil arrived at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, where Billy is being treated, on Saturday afternoon. It was administered under a special 20-day licence and is not allowed to be taken home. A spokeswoman for the Home Office said it was an "exceptional licence" for a "short term emergency" and it would need to be reviewed. 'Completely broken' Ms Caldwell said: "I truly believe that somewhere in the Home Office there's someone with a heart, and I truly believe that Billy was pulling on their heart strings." But she said Billy's "little body has been completely broken and his little mind". "No other family should have to go through this sort of ordeal, travelling half way round the world to get medication which should be freely available," she said. "My experience leaves me in no doubt that the Home Office can no longer play a role in the administration of medication for sick children in our country. "Children are dying in our country and it needs to stop now." Billy was admitted to hospital in London on Friday Mr Javid said he had issued a licence to allow Billy to be treated with the cannabis oil after discussions with Billy's medical team. "This is a very complex situation, but our immediate priority is making sure Billy receives the most effective treatment possible in a safe way," he said. "My decision is based on the advice of senior clinicians who have made clear this is a medical emergency. "The policing minister met with the family on Monday and since then has been working to reach an urgent solution." Reality Check: Does UK export the most legal cannabis? Barbara Zieniewicz, co-founder of campaign group Families4Access, and who travelled to Canada with Billy and Ms Caldwell, called Mr Javid's decision "triumphant". "I strongly believe that this is the first push - from here, it's a ripple effect. This means, to me, there is hope, not just for Billy, but for all the families that need it." Billy, from Castlederg, started the treatment in 2016 in the US, where medical marijuana is legal. Ms Caldwell says Billy's seizures dramatically reduce when he takes the oil. In 2017, he was prescribed the medication on the NHS. But in May this year, his GP was told he could no longer prescribe it. At the time the Department of Health in Northern Ireland said cannabis had not yet been licensed in the UK as a medicine. Last Monday, Ms Caldwell tried to bring a six-month supply of the oil - to treat up to 100 seizures a day - into the UK from Toronto but the substance was confiscated by officials at Heathrow airport. The boy's family said he was taken to hospital when his seizures "intensified" in recent days. The family's MP, Órfhlaith Begley, said the Home Office's decision was "life-saving", adding: "I will continue to engage with the Home Office and the health authorities to ensure he can access his medication in the longer term so there is no repeat of the trauma he has suffered over recent weeks." 'Not straightforward' Dr Amir Englund, who studies cannabis at the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College London, said: "Clearly, there is evidence that Billy's medication works for him where others have failed. "The duty of government is to protect its citizens from harm with regulations on medicines, so that the ones doctors prescribe are safe and effective. "However, there are instances which these measures become counterproductive and harmful. This is such an instance, and the Home Office should allow an exemption so that he does not come to further harm." Meanwhile, clinical lecturer in psychiatry at University College London, Dr Michael Bloomfield, said on the one hand "current laws are too strict", but added that the issue of medical marijuana is "far from straightforward". "Any 'medical marijuana' needs a scientific evidence base, in the form of medical trials et cetera, which is currently lacking for many disorders and has become, for many jurisdictions, a potential way of decriminalising cannabis through the back door," he said. Does cannabis have medicinal benefits? CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are two types of cannabinoids found naturally in the resin of the marijuana plant. A cannabis-based drug called Sativex has been licensed in the UK to treat MS. It contains THC and CBD. Doctors could, in theory, prescribe it for other things outside of this licence, but at their own risk. MS patients prescribed Sativex, who resupply it to other people, also face prosecution. Another licensed treatment is Nabilone. It contains an artificial version of THC and can be given to cancer patients to help relieve nausea during chemotherapy. Source: NHS Choices
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