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JJ the Gardener

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JJ the Gardener last won the day on August 23 2017

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  1. Fishmonger who released 70-lb octopus back into the ocean says he'd do it again By Michael Bartiromo | Fox News http://www.foxnews.com/food-drink/2018/05/24/fishmonger-who-released-70-lb-octopus-back-into-ocean-says-hed-do-it-again.html The folks at Giovanni’s Fish Market in Morro Bay, which is owned by Giovanni “Gio” DeGarimore, announced last week that DeGarimore purchased an especially large octopus from a fisherman for the sole purpose of releasing it back into the sea — and now he tells Fox News he'd do it again. “I can’t be a savior to everything, so I had to pick one thing and do what I can," DeGarimore tells Fox News. To that end, DeGarimore says he intended to release the 70-pound octopus into Morro Bay "without much fanfare," but an employee snapped a pic and shared the story to Facebook. “Meet Fred,” read the posted shared to the fish market's Facebook page, along with the picture of “Fred” in a basin of water. “As you may or may not know, Gio has taken a moral position to no longer support the sales of ANY Octopus products. While it might seem strange, we think it's actually pretty cool,” the message continued. DeGarimore told the San Luis Obispo Tribune that, even though he makes his living selling fish, he’s become more conflicted about octopus over the last 10 years or so, and especially after a recent diving expedition in which he “played a game of hide and seek for 15 minutes” with a playful cephalopod. He also told Fox News that the last straw came a few months back, after witnessing a live octopus being butchered at a sushi restaurant. "That's what made me take a stance," he said, adding that Fred himself was likely destined for the same fate. So when DeGarimore was offered the chance to purchase the 70-pounder, he forked over a few hundred in order to save the “beautiful animal.” The purchase came just a few months after DeGarimore made the decision to stop selling octopuses from his shop althogether — a decision he explains on the store's website. "Financially, it doesn't make sense, but I had to stand for something," DeGarimore told Fox News. "If I get the opportunity [to free another octopus] again, I definitely will." DeGarimore released Fred into Morrow Bay on Thursday, and says his decision has been met with "99 percent" positive reactions from customers, and Facebook commentators largely agreed.
  2. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. The Indoor Garden Environment ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Ventilation Ventilation is a big part of creating and managing the entire environment. First we need to understand the needs of the plants being grown. A wise gardener can not only create a stable grow environment but can manage with accuracy the environment in regards to temperature, humidity, CO2 and air quality. Their are a variety of setup and options that offers a range of capabilities depending on a gardens needs. Understanding how to use these tools is vital in creating optimized grow areas. What ventilation tool works in one setup may not be ideal in another ventilation setup. For example, dealing with humidity is different in a tropical area compared to dry climate area. Often people will be told that one method may not be good when in fact that method may be most beneficial in certain situations. This aspect negatively works against us by instilling these misunderstood views. Creating an effect that limits the typical ill informed gardener in knowledge and capability in respect to options to utilize to manage their garden. This may in part be due to much of the communities knowledge coming from marketed directions and forums, never mind this one . Ventilation Types Active or Passive Ventilation. Active Ventilation - Using a slightly smaller inline fan to intake fresh air into your grow room. This has less strain on your garden's extraction fan and is more efficient. Exhaust fan typically will have a filter attached This reduced effectiveness of the fan. Making it sensible for a lower intake fan. Using fans with control switches can give you better control. I tend to recommend that if a grower can afford and if they plan to expand at a later date to over spec the requirements using a speed controller for the fan to adjust to correct CFM rate for the grow. For tents I do not recommend a weaker intake fan rated CFM for tent size as negative pressure is a problem on stitching. I do not recommend an overly strong intake fan rated significantly higher than your CFM needs as a whole. Consider for intake fan, the next fan size or model down from your intake fan. Adjust for exhaust filter and ducting losses. Intake is 8 inch fan with dimmer switch and an 8 inch exhaust fan with/without dimmer switch. Intake is 6 inch fan with a 8 inch exhaust fan. Intake is 4 inch fan with a 6 inch exhaust fan. Negative of too much ventilation is high heat, high humidity and low levels of CO2, this will negatively affect photosynthesis. Negative of too little ventilation is low humidity and stomata/transpiration issues. Illustrates traits often associated with genetic aspect when in fact it is a result of a plant responding to environmental stress that the gardener may or may not appreciate. Extreme situations of low humidity will put the plant in a hibernation or pause state until the environmental stress passes (humidity levels return to functional levels). Dry climate areas with low humidity are higher risk. Passive ventilation - I dislike this typically due to the following. Basically is a low vent on one side and a high vent on the opposite side of the room or tent. Works best during colder periods when the difference between inside and outside temperatures is greatest. Passive ventilation used alone can’t extract humidity. Determining Ventilation Requirements Cubic Foot per Minute of ventilation requirement is needed. Exchange your garden's air at least once per minute at minimum. Not as important in vegetative growth when plants are small as they have less leaves. "Best Practice" is to exchange once per minute. Ensure fresh air intakes are managed (intake filter) for bugs and pest that could enter the garden via this pathway. Intake filter will reduce approximately CFM's by 25% Bends in ducting reduce CFM's drastically. Ducting curved 30 degrees reduces CFMs by 15% Air quality - Low humidity intake air will need less ventilation until humidity is correct as the leaves will begin lose moisture and negatively affect the stomata and the photosynthesis process. To calculate initial cubic feet per minute of ventilation you need, start with calculating the size of the garden in cubic feet. You do this by multiplying the height, length, and width of the room. FAN CFM CALCULATOR Note: You need to have Javascript enabled on your browser for the calculator to work. http://www.industrialfansdirect.com/CFM_Calculator.html Advanced calculator Ventilation Summary Understanding ventilation and how to use it in various situations is a skill that few appreciate and with automation capabilities it becomes rarer still. Often their are negative garden issues associated with to little ventilation within a multi ventilation setup and when this occurs it can lead to potential harmful situations like mold or heat aspects. It is important to understand ventilation but one can make it as complex or as simple as they wish. The point is that now one can make an informed decision and have some direction on how to effectively setup for each perspective gardeners needs. Environment the Tool and some tools The environment is the driving factor in a garden and as such it is wise to utilize this to our advantage rather than to just build around it. As an example, this is a common practice done by to instigating the flowering stage by adjusting the timing of the lights to further adjustments in temperature and humidity depending on how simple or as complex the design of the garden and needs of the crop are. Understanding how to use the tools such as ventilation and the different setups that enable various capabilities that may offer solutions to gardeners with certain situations and/or needs. Further still this knowledge gives you the capability to adjust to environmental conditions experienced out of normal weather patterns. The key is to appreciate that assisting a plant through a stressful period of time be it normal growth period development and/or environmental based stress that addressing the plant at all levels from environmental aspects to nutritional aspects as to ensure the overall health of the plants is strong. A gardener must not depend on the strength of any one aspect to cover for not being competent in other areas of plant care such as heat control but not humidity and also take into consideration nutritional and plant physiology aspects for before during and after the stress event. Some environmental control aspects. Hot and Cold areas Sealed Room Consideration (higher electrical cost but is easier to control grow environment) Air conditioning aspects Air conditioning Air cooled reflector hoods Insulated ducting Carbon dioxide Burner. Bottled. Bucket/Bag grow shop kits Wine/Ethanol making. Air Filters Pest control Air quality and smell controls. When seasonal outdoor temperatures are not good. Air intake from inside the building offers stable temperatures and humidity levels. Use an Lung room or tent to temper and treat air before going into garden area. Hot areas Outside air intake into an active cooling lung room. Balance for proper humidity level and temperature. Cold areas intake into an lung room. Outside air intake into lung room. Grow room exhaust into lung room lower temperature and exhaust or intake into grow room as best for your setup. If exhaust to outside this helps remove aspects of ice build up. If exhaust to grow room ensure proper temperature and humidity levels for current growth cycle. Lung room option 2 Intake air from inside building to lung room (stabilized but not ideal) Cool or heat lung room and obtain proper humidity level Exhaust lung room into grow area. Exhaust grow area outside (filtered most often) Exhaust grow area inside of building (Use the heat) or Exhaust grow area to a lung room for temper for outside temperatures. The biggest thing is to make informed and calculated decisions when working an issue. Their is no need to panic and rush into a decision that make things worse. Gain control of the situation and sit back and look at it through eyes as if you was going to give advice to another. Try to see the garden as if for the first time and go over your grow history and analyze. The answer or the answers are their. When you can during stressful climate times and periods, go for nature walks and see what plants are doing well and see if get any ideas! Video on Heat in the grow room Video on cold in the grow room Fan controller video AC video Air Cooled Hoods & Ducting Video Filter size video Additonal tools Advanced Calculator: http://www.uk420.com/growroomtools2.php BTU Calculator for room & Area: http://www.calculator.net/btu-calculator.html Click Hortilux logo for Watts/lights to BTU calculator A BTU, also known as a British Thermal Unit, is a measurement of the energy needed to cool a substance. Grow lamps generate a lot of heat. By converting your wattage into BTU per hour, you’ll have the information you need to keep your plants cooled so that they don’t burn up from the heat of the grow lamps. A BTU is also the equivalent of 252 heat calories, not to be confused with the kilo-calories of food, and of approximately a third of a watt of electrical power. When speaking of cooling power, the BTU also works in reverse. The air-cooling power of an air conditioning system refers to the amount of thermal energy removed from an area. Hence a 65,000 BTU heater and a 65,000 BTU air conditioner are of roughly the same capacity and size. The higher the BTU output, the more powerful the heating or cooling system. The thermal energy needed to raise water one degree Fahrenheit can depend on the original temperature and the method used for heating. Therefore, it is possible to get several different definitions of a BTU from different sources. This rarely has a palpable effect on consumer product information, however. Click for Phresh CFM, Cubic Feet per Minute Calculator Click for Phresh CFM Calculator Indoor Garden Environment Summary Ok, by controlling the environment we can affect plant physiology and development stages but as we know their is no simple "one size fits all" formula for managing the indoor garden. By understanding to appreciation the aspects discussed in this writing you have created a base of knowledge that will allow to address virtually all the varied aspects of the environment and how to control them to serve the plants and you very well. By making a true home for our plants, they will truly it make it that and live their life healthy and fit. Always understand via competent analysis of established to new technology that can affect indoor environments. Continue to learn on plant physiology. Always be the student. Continue to learn on plant and environment interactions and aspects. Always be the student. It is not so important that any specific method be strictly followed as that you have a true understanding of all things affected and then from that knowledge you apply effective methods to obtain the conditions you want. For You When environmental and plant physiology wisdom is effectively gained it can become the advantage that can equal or best the long established or it can just be what makes a garden happy and productive. ~JJ The Gardener The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas.
  3. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. The Indoor Garden Environment ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Air Quality Air Scrubbing Air quality in grow rooms is dependent on several factors but most important for plants is co2, temperature, humidity and air flow. However, we often do not think of the other aspects of air such as various particles such as pollen, hairs, dust, smoke, dander about anything than can float in the air. When considering I recommend a charcoal filter rated for the size of your room or slightly smaller than your rated CFM and run independently of any exhaust filter, Place the fan directly on top of the filter and secure to filter. Allow fan to filter air blowing the air upwards. The higher position the filter the better but keep away from moisture and humidity of 80% or more as it will stop the effectiveness of your filters. This is operated in the garden and separate from the exhaust system or you can run dedicated air cleaning machines. This will add some heat from the fan into the room Account for additional electric needs. To "scrub" the air take a filter for the size of your room or one with a lower CFM rating and do same with the size of the inline fan ensuring to match the correct size fan to filter. Aspects of air scrubbing: Offers a higher degree of smell containment when used in conjunction with a traditional charcoal smell filtration system or any other effective smell management system. Cleaner air in grow room. Can remove gas created by end of life leaves which give off a gas that encourages ripening. This is stated that it can be used to extend ripening times for some crops. I personally would not consider as a base justification as I would tell you to remove the dead and decomposing leaves. I do not necessarily believe this but it is stated in several competent writings. Down side to blowing into the room is that it can distribute a fine charcoal dust from the filter. A solution is use a lung room and scrub the air through that mechanism. I do not find it normally necessary to scrub or clean grow room air but I find beneficial in following scenarios. Consideration for high pollution areas. Additional layer of smell protection when used together with other smell management systems. Consideration for extra protection in breeding setups and will discuss such aspect in future breeding setup writings. Video on Air Intake A good example of the construction of a good air intake filter. Ozone Air Scrubber Option I do not recommend ozone for sealed or closed rooms as ozone is not healthy for plant life or most life in general. Plants will negatively respond that is a exposed to ozone. I have no problem with ozone being used for air filter system that is safely exhausted. Carbon Filter (Smell) Often carbon filters are used as part of the exhaust system. Adjust for loss of CFM when determining fan size, approximately 25% Replace approximately once per year. Some filters you can switch the cap and extend the life cycle of the filter. At 80% humidity carbon filters are no longer effective. Carbon filter Video Air Scrubber Summary The quality of the air is something we generally take for granted as being a given. It is not a necessity and adding more noise and heat to your garden area may not be the smartest move but it is an option that should be considered and ruled on as a matter of competence. In my view, if you can do it, do it. If you do, use it intelligently drawing and pushing the air in locations such as areas that receive little wind/breeze or are heat sink/spot areas as to distribute evenly throughout the room. It also can offer an extra layer of smell protection when used in tandem with a tradition smell management system. This option is also useful in areas of processing where extra filtration may temporarily be of value. I do recommend to run filtered air in areas that processing takes place in. This extra is more than a security measure it helps filter any animal hair, pollen or any matter that may be undesirable and visible under a microscope. For example, when a dispensary is analyzing your crop. Well filtered air is a blessing in preventing embarrassing detritus in the crops. Regardless of ones view of this, it is a tool that can easily be employed and should be considered and ruled any time an applicable scenario presents itself for its use. Carbon Dioxide or C02 Carbon Dioxide is one of those tricky subjects that is easy to misunderstand. Generally, CO2 is a great a marketing aspect for indoor garden suppliers but what is not often said is how to effectively use them. I believe many gardeners misuse or they are not efficiently using CO2. In the end this cost money and is wasted resources. When using CO2 it is best to be used with "best practice" along with "best practice" in lighting, nutrition and management. Then the capabilities of achieving the most from your genetics become a possibility. If not done to effective levels of competence with all other aspects of the plant the reality of the benefit of CO2 is greatly diminished. Thus, CO2 is only a viable option for flowering for those with well constructed rooms as to maintain efficiency levels in particular in reference to financial costs. However, it is beneficial to add higher levels of C02 in early veg, cloning stages as the required PPM is far less and this can assist with maintaining heat and light tolerance. This can be beneficial preparation in the stages before hardening rooted plants off outside or for other needs. Can be a benefit when you ship clones to help them endure shipping as they are stronger. High Concentrations of CO2 is bad for people and animals and can kill when it reaches 1% of the air. Gardens use approximately 0.15% of the air. However, use a CO2 meter to ensure that no malfunction of a burner and compressed tank could cause a disaster. never saw nor heard of this happening but lets not be a first. Using CO2 CO2 is heavier than air. Thus we put CO2 so that it falls or "rains" CO2 down on the plants. Evenly distributed Small fans strategically pointed upward can keep CO2 in air and over plants and helping distribution. "Best Practice" is to have the grow rooms at optimum levels of C02 during the day. Often CO2 is run in closed rooms. Often 15 minutes co2 dose and then 15 minute air exchange and repeated throughout day cycle. With this setup you often run air cooled lights. Exceptions can be with lung rooms and recirculated air system. This is a trade off in cost efficiency where you run the CO2 at optimum levels throughout the day and replenish as your plants use. Often used in conjunction with a CO2 Meter/controller. Their is no benefit to running C02 during the night/dark period. Will turn your plants yellow. Seedling, Cloning, initial transplant cycles you only need 300-500 ppm. Few leafs and little photosynthesis. Raising temperature at this level will not help CO2 at this level will assist with plant tolerance to heat and light stress. Vegetative stages after rooting increase CO2 to 600-900 ppm. As plants increase in leaf and growth they will use more energy/photosynthesis and sugars are made. Adjust/Rise the CO2 levels accordingly. It is not harmful to the plants if PPM's are higher than normal for period. This increases the cost of your grow to have ineffective CO2 ppm amounts. Do not raise temperature in vegetative area as in later flowering period. The plants can become more hardier to withstand light intensity and higher temperatures. Is generally part of a CO2 garden operation to treat at this stage as to prepare for the higher temperature and more intense light in a flowering/blooming or an outdoor environment. Helps reduce shock in this regard. Flowering stage keep CO2 at 1000-1500 ppm. Increased growth and bud production by running CO2 during the first 2-3 weeks of flowering. Once flowering has truly begun CO2 may or may not be effective. Their are strong views for and against continue or discontinue CO2 at this time of development. Traditional CO2 use would finish 2 weeks before harvest approximately. I have no direct experience with CO2 in terms of comparison as above. Raise temperature 85f (30°C) to 95f (35°C) for full benefit of CO2. Watch for heat stress in plant and adjust temperature accordingly. You potentially lower your lights towards the canopy if desired paying attention to light bleaching aspects. Plants become more light tolerant with higher CO2 PPM and higher temperature. Helps reduce shock in this regard and allows for leafs to function at brighter and hotter temperatures than normal. Examples of Setups with Enough Light for CO2 Injection up to 1500 PPM I like full spectrum light in addition to brightness, traditionally they go by brightness. 3' x 3' space - 600W HPS or HPS/MH Combo or LED/full spectrum & bright 3.5' x 3.5' space - 2 x 400W HPS or HPS/MH Combo or LED/full spectrum & bright 4' x 4' space - 1000W HPS or HPS/MH Combo or LED/full spectrum & bright CO2 Garden Options CO2 Generators and Compressed CO2 are the most effective and efficient ways to add CO2 to your garden area especially for flowering areas. Vegetative areas also benefit but a due to the less amounts needed this can be actually achieved by other means than generators and compressed tanks. It is possible to use fermentation kits and CO2 bags purchased from a store, however this is costly. If you are seriously into making wine you can also do this if fermentation concentrations are sufficient, smaller areas. Also for those who live on a farm and/or those who make ethanol, the fermentation process releases CO2. CO2 Generators & Compressed CO2 CO2 Generators often run on propane or natural gas. Some generators are optimized for higher elevations Compressed CO2 is run with a regulator and bottle setup. Costly operationally I like best for: When needing fast increases of CO2. Bug infestation. Management option. When testing CO2 in your environment before dedicating to it. Low initial cost and is often consideration for a "trial" run to evaluate before dedicating to a burner system which may require some room alterations. In some garden situations I like burner systems and the use of a CO2 tank in certain situations. Tank being largely used in supplemental aspects and certain situations. Very good informative video Good example of Compressed air system. CO2 Burner Information, Not an endorsement, for illustration purposes. I have no opinion on quality. Set up for this style of burner to give illustration of setup understanding. CO2 Summary CO2 use is ideal for most growers only in vegetative stages due to the low PPM requirements and benefits in preparing the plants for follow up stages. Often smaller gardens will use a bucket or bag CO2 product and hang high as CO2 is heavy and will fall. Fans pointed up will help keep CO2 in air column. The costs of these products can be high and some home brewers may be able to devise a system to take advantage but for most this aspect is a pain the ass. CO2 compressed tanks are a better alternative to the bags due to the low PPM in veg the cost efficiency of tank is more attractive and bags and buckets take up space and are generally a pain the ass. I recommend only for trial purposes. Dedicated gardeners with closed systems can create systems that take full advantage of the CO2 and to do this requires a degree of best practice aspects all around. The average gardener can not easily achieve this no matter what marketing says. Additionally their is much debate with merit on both sides for and against continued CO2 use after flowering/fruiting has begun. I have no experience with this aspect and will update as more information becomes relevant. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas.
  4. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. The Indoor Garden Environment ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Humidity Humidity is water vapor in the air. The amount of this water vapor (humidity) in the air we measure is in terms of relative humidity. Humidity has a significant impact upon plants both positive and negative depending on the percentage. Often I see people who prescribe negative aspects of the garden plants to other reasons when in fact humidity played a role in their issue more so than what they prescribed as the culprit of the problem. Many times this is in part an aspect for stretch and rooting aspects.. When humidity is in the correct "relative humidity" levels for a plants specific development stage it is the equal of what a perfect outdoor day feels like to us air and breeze wise. The kind of day where you think you could just stay out on the porch, in the yard, have a grill as the day just changes your plans for you. This is what we want to create for the plants and it is not as hard as you would think. Learning about humidity and how to effectively manage it is a key aspect of ones evolution in indoor gardening as we learn how to use the tools of advanced gardening. I warmly welcome you to the tool shed. Humidity aspects Plants Transpire This is how plants cool themselves, like sweating. They release water into the air But when the air is already saturated (high humidity) The plant shuts down at a certain point. This is why in part high humidity is dangerous. when the plant cannot transpire is can become the equivalent of being bloated and this makes it easier for plants to become infected by mold and mildew infections as their is much more water inside the plant it is easier to infect. Especially plants that are stretched due to high nitrogen and low calcium uptake. Weak cell walls + full of water in plant = easy for mold spore to drill into and infect internal plant water and infection. Seedlings and cuttings are most sensitive. Think spring light and humid environment. Cuttings may use dome in traditional clone rooting Cuttings in air cloners do not require a dome Seedlings require a dome only until they come up. Careful adjusting from climate of seed tray to next area. Placing a clear film over top of early rooting plants raises the humidity at plant level. Putting a dry light blocking material around plants will help with humidity in the plant area. Humidity of 80% is ok We do not want to put pressure on roots at this point. Vegetative growth a higher humidity of 60 to 70 percent is healthy. Gradually increase as plants develop. Pay attention to leaves and adjust humidity up or down accordingly. Generally this is controlled by exhaust, and/or air conditioning. Flower around 40 to 50% is healthy. To high humidity in flower is inviting to mold and mildew spores. Air conditioning & heat as applicable is sometimes used to manage humidity. A dehumidifier is sometimes used to manage humidity in flower Be aware of the electrical needs and amp requirements of a dehumidifier. Humidity Summary For most the next big thing is in some bottle or in an up and coming light. In truth, utilizing humidity as a tool will enable you control the plant in ways many do not yet effectively appreciate. We see that a plant will grow about anywhere and this aspect has caused many of us to misunderstand what a good grow environment actually is and thus our expectations are not aligned correctly and we often sell our selves short by simply not understanding humidity levels. Now that we understand humidity and growing we can better use it to our advantage to help control stretch and root growth, create environment conditions like early morning, mid afternoon, later afternoon and night for each stage. As with other indoor gardening tools control of humidity is as complex or as simple as one wants it to be. I recommend optimizing humidity for each plant development stage with root growth, transplant and transition stages. Very good video regarding humidity. How to control humidity indoors Good information on greenhouse and urban farming. Their youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/BrightAgrotechLLC/videos Too Hot Too Cold Fan control Air Conditioning Air Intake, Filter, Inline Fan, Ducting and Air Cooled Reflector Hoods The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas.
  5. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. The Indoor Garden Environment ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Temperature & Gardening To be wise in regards to temperature in gardening is to appreciate that temperature affects two main aspects in the garden. The environment and the plant. In gaining an appreciation of these two perspectives and their cumulative and lasting effects is the beginning of taking control of your garden environment rather than your gardens environment controlling you. Once we understand this concept we can discuss how to control the environment to our advantage to limiting adverse uncontrollable situations like heat waves or periods of high or low humidity. The below formula is made to help illustrate this aspect. Temperature/humidity effects on environment + Plant physiology/effects = Temperature in gardening knowledge Temperature perspective in regard to the garden environment The first perspective of temperature is the environment perspective as temperature is the guiding factor that directly determines the effects, positive and/or negative for all other environment factors in your garden. Such as raising or lowering temperature can affect the humidity and the effect on the plant itself ranges from comfort level to affecting its daily biological functions (leaf to root pressure) to negatively impacting the plants development stage. Further still, temporary bad temperatures that cause stress can have reactions that enable a setting favorable for mold pathogens and other similar negative effects on the plant. If a plant is not healthy (nutritional) and fit (Brix levels) during stress times plants can become more attractive to pests and disease causing further problems. Understanding temperature and its effects on your environment and that upon your plants physiology and development will enable the gardener to transform temperature as a feared grow barrier to a hard to control force to being just another tool in the gardeners tool box and a simple factor to account for. Garden Temperature Effect Formula: Temperature & Environment (humidity) from canopy/middle/low fruit/media/root media level + _____Plant Physiology & Plant Development + Impact over time_____ = Garden Temperature Effect. Genetic & Climate Tolerance Plant type/strain/phenotype @ Climate Tolerance + Match Environment = Good plant Genetic The Second perspective to temperature is from the plants perspective. We tend to take the plant for granted that it will just automatically respond wonderfully to our specially designed environment. However, before we can go that far with our expectations we need to ensure that we have the correct genetics, phenotype and sensitivity aspects accounted for that matches the garden environment or the garden environment adapted for. Hot and dry areas you want plants adapted for that climate. Humid and hot areas you want plants adapted for that climate. Account for known sensitivities or discard that genetic in favor of those who better adapt. Regarding the type of plant environment think and research about the time of the season and how the plant would naturally and traditionally be grown. We just want to match those conditions as best we can for the type of plant and the strain and phenotype. For example, spring environment for natural seedlings, early growth, pre fruit/flower, transition period, early flower, middle flower and end of flower/fruiting environments. The next part is to understand how temperature and relative humidity affects the plant. By understanding this aspect you can gain the knowledge to control your environment as necessary and to optimum conditions if so desired. Temperature, Humidity, Light Intensity, Spectrum and Plant Physiology The key to optimizing lights in the environment is to control the heat. We want to find the sweet spot that maximizes a lights intensity, spectrum and penetration with favorable conditions at all viable plant depths. Either using one or multiple lights each light is treated the same way to determine optimum settings in terms of cooling and heating. Light intensity & Environmental Formula Temperature and humidity @ various plant levels + plants physiology = light intensity/quality Often, If canopy temperatures are too high gardeners will often increase the distance between the plants and lights. This directly affects light intensity and spectrum at depth due to light loss with increased bulb to plant distance. Air conditioning options. Air cooled reflectors are options. CO2 use. This directly impacts the quality and yield of the plants lower fruits if lights are moved out the optimized distance. Take light intensity into consideration no matter how close you are able to get light to your plants with cooling if you are able to get to close to a plant due to effective heat control. (light bleaching.) Palm test - if too hot for your palm after a minute it is probably to hot. Lumens - 50,000 to 20,000 lux is acceptable. Temperature and humidity effects and damage can range from: Reduced photosynthesis. Leaf damage Heat damage High humidity shuts down plant process negatively affects transpiration and stomata function. Low humidity affects Too dry air negatively affects transpiration rates increased intake of water and nutrients can lead to nutrient burn and other nutritional aspects Light bleaching if too close Lower light spectrum aspect if canopy is not maintained at good environment temperature/humidity. Adjust light distance if applicable. Media environment stress will alter the bio life of your media to potentially negative aspects. Intersex plant trait potential due to stress depending on plant sensitivity and type. Temperature and humidity can alter the media and the plants uptake and intensity levels of nutrients to dangerous levels. This can affect temporary situations such as lock outs. Can create longer term effects such as adding to soil/media acidification and creating a domino effects from causing locks to inviting To visualize these effects in human comparisons think of a baby to teenager (seedling/cutting to veg) and/or an adult to elderly person (mid flower to harvest time frame) in harsh environments be it hot or cold this effect is dramatic on the younger people and older people (kids in cars and elderly people without air conditioning or heating as example) just as it does with young, elderly and sensitive people it is the same with most plants. This is why predators in the wild like old, the sick, the injured and the babies of their prey. Easier meal as they are weaker. This aspect is rarely appreciated by those who believe they understand temperature. If you are after quality and yields, pay very close attention to your temperature levels doing your very best to not go into stress situations. Just like "Goldilocks", plants like it just right. Not to hot and not to cold. You are also prepared to understanding on when to induce stress as applicable for your plant type. Be it to induce fruiting, sweetness or any pertinent factor for the plant being grown. Some plants require stress factors to help them enter their next development stages. Stable all the time is not necessarily as a good as matching the plant environment with its developmental stages. Things to help manage stress: When outdoors, encourage deeper root growth. B-Vitamins before, during and after High brix CO2 use (PPM dependent) Air conditioning increased air flow/breeze above and through the plant. If dry heat add some humidity depending on your plants needs at their development stage. if humid head reduce humidity depending on your plants needs at their development stage. Ensure reservoir water and watering in water is at a correct temperature. Add ice bottles. water chill system. increase aeration when water temps rise. lower oxygen content in warmer water. low oxygen and warm water is good environment for root pathogens. Add H2o2 to water periodically and 5 minutes before feeding to increase oxygen to water levels. H202 breaks down into oxygen. Ensure media temperature does not get out of proper range. Smaller containers may be transplanted depending on stage of development of plants. Larger containers soils should be shaded (if not already by plant). Union Break! I think this is how some might feel! Garden Temperature Planning During the planning stages of a garden the plan will often take into consideration the intensity, spectrum and over all the strength of a grow light in terms of yield and quality and work from the top down depending on what they can afford to purchase. Generally people think they will be automatically able to place the light at optimum levels as stated in marketing for light quality, penetration and per suggested light distance from the plants but they do not appreciate their ambient and the entirety of the operating temperatures and the lights impact on temperature. No matter what marketing says your garden temperatures will be determined along with other factors such as natural ambient temperatures and humidity and this directly affects the efficiency and overall quality of your lights in terms of heat, light intensity and spectrum in regards to the light penetration of the plants. Otherwise the scenario where gardeners purchase a high wattage light and cannot control the heat. A very common situation that leads to the gardener raising their costs by adding in cooling options to make the situation more palatable to the plant. The best answer is a reduced wattage light that equals the best operating temperature. Having a 600w HPS or a 1000w HPS so high from the canopy due to heat that it is essentially a 400w light is not efficient use but this is fairly common, especially during summer months where budgets do not include effective additional cooling options. Some people will consider LED lighting or other low temperature lighting in comparison to HPS or other high heat lighting and this is a valid option but I also recommend reviewing a smaller wattage light and in combination with another light for a better light spectrum. Which ever will give you better spectrum with good penetration taking into consideration the operational temperature of your garden. This is rarely the big light choice when the high wattage lights impact upon the garden is appreciated after taking into consideration impact the light brings to the operational garden heat as a whole and with other costs associated which typically lowers the lights efficiency in comparison to the other options. To plan out a garden environment we need to consider all the elements that make up the garden environment and affect temperature specifically. Such as mechanical equipment and the natural ambient temperature so that we can determine cooling and/or heating requirements. How To Determine Heating and Cooling for Environment Natural Ambient Area Temperatures - This is the normal temperature of the area you are going to grow in prior to starting. We will use this in estimating operational temperature. Day and night temperature at high and low temperature and humidity readings. This information will determine if we need to add cooling or heating just to prepare or set the garden environment. We will use this as our Natural Ambient Temperature Natural Ambient Temperature Formula Natural Ambient Temperatures (day and night) for operating seasons (intake air). + _____Estimated Heat (Lamps, fans, CO2 burners, insulation etc) @ BTU and/or Watts____ = Estimated Operational Temperatures per season as applicable @ BTU and/or Watts for cooling and heating requirements Now to determine the "Operational Garden Temperature" and then we can make adjustments to the build plan to obtain our environmental goals during the planning stages. Operational Temperatures: Intake temperature (outside/lung room air) needs @ BTU and/or Watts for HVAC + _____Grow room heat (Lights + other)_@ BTU and/or Watts for HVAC = Operational Garden Temperature HVAC requirements (Day and night highest and lowest temperatures per day for each change in intake air such as each season). By adjusting the BTU/Watt requirements for the selected lights it can be estimated to an acceptable range of accuracy the impact that each light will have on the cooling or heating requirements for the garden. As a general rule if the numbers are close I recommend going the light size lower or increase the BTU/watt requirements for additional cooling as to ensure better optimization for light penetration and spectrum. Further additional BTU/Watt, cooling/heating consideration for: Insulation properties of the room, ducting and any other pertinent factor. Air conditioning, dehumidifiers, CO2 burners and ventilation are also factors to consider. Add the wattage of heat generating aspects with the type of insulation and we can determine the cooling or heating requirements. Example: Grow tent 3x3x6 in a basement area that is consistent at 65℉= 18.3℃. Should a 400w light require cooling. We want to determine the cooling required for a 400watt HPS for a 3x3x6 size tent. http://www.eyehortilux.com/education-room/btu-calculator.aspx Enter 400w light wattage = 1365.200 BTU/HR http://www.calculator.net/btu-calculator.html Adjust Temperature to Increase or Decrease Setting Adjust this setting until it matches close but over the 400w BTU/Watt cooling needs as learned from this calculator; http://www.eyehortilux.com/education-room/btu-calculator.aspx 1365.200 BTU/HR Once the BTU needs match that of your light and combined needs of your room. Add the degrees needed to cool the light from your desired garden temperature. This is the temperature that can be estimated by your lights. This will determine if cooling or heating or nothing is appropriate. In this examples of a 400w HPS in a 3x3x6 tent with stable ambient temperature at 65f. You will need 1,360 BTU/hour or 398 watt to cool this light by 20f to reach desired setting. http://www.eyehortilux.com/education-room/btu-calculator.aspx Since it will take similar BTU/watt requirements to cool that matches our light BTU/watt requirements at 20f we can determine the light will add approximately 20-25 degrees of heat to our ambient temperature. Total heat is estimated to be in the 80℉= 26.6℃ to 85℉= 29.44444℃. A bit on the upper high side of acceptable. Add air conditioning for better environment and less risk. Add air cooled reflector. Reduce to next light wattage option down/dimmer switch on light. CO2 considerations due to plant temperature benefits if run on high side but may be more cost effective to consider cooling options. Once all the BTU/wattage requirements are known and accounted for at depth of the plant for light intensity you can determine the entire cooling or heating needs by simply working your overall BTU/watt requirements as you did each light. This will give you a good estimate on realistic garden environment and its requirements. Temperature in the Garden Summary Once a gardener understands to an appreciation the perspectives and effects of temperature and how to control it the gardener can utilizes this knowledge to manage their crops effectively and expertly to the degree of control they build into their garden systems. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas.
  6. The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas. The Indoor Garden Environment Part 1 ~A Cultural Healing and Life Compilation and Writing. Environment Introduction Garden order of importance Quality and strength of light + garden environment + nutrition + management/technique/method = grow operation. It is not rare for new gardeners to make basic errors when designing or planning an indoor garden. They often think of the harvest and what the optimum level for this and that when creating a grow environment but they rarely take into genuine consideration the plants themselves when planning and building grow environments. The following is my attempt to answer this aspect. First, lets change our perspective to that of the plants. For many of these plants the indoor garden environment is all they will ever know of nature and life. By creating a garden environment worthy of this aspect you not only respect the harvest you desire but the life that produced the harvest for you and in so doing we co-exist together in a sacred life cycle harmony that for some is a serious perspective and for others the basics will do. This is my attempt to lay the groundwork for either direction and all the ways in between. When we properly respect our plant partners and the harvest (by harvest I mean managing the crop) the happiness along with the fitness of the plant combines to bring back to you in a tangible form a glorious harvest worthy of the life and harvested crop that you have provided and managed for. To some this is sacred, to others this is just taking care of a plant. A plant that is in synergy with its environment, light and nutrition is a healthy and happy plant. When this happens the best of the genetics is possible by promoting the plants during their life stages or just take an easy growing approach it is all up to you. Note; Sometimes when a plant is in too good an environment we may have to alter the environment to induce a degree of stress to encourage the transition and/or to ripen or potentially face extended grow periods. Certain conditions can affect plant physiology such as hormones and trigger the beginning or the encouragement of a development period. Aspects such as temperature and humidity followed by light timings for quality to life cycle for various plants and qualities there of. To be wise in creating a garden environment is much more than construction and math. It is to understand and appreciate the life and physiology of plants, environmental aspects and all those as aspects as a whole. When these aspects are aligned the full spectrum and strength of your lights will be happily received and they will fittingly energize achieving plants that most will think they could not achieve prior to this appreciation. In the gardening community we often are more unwise at some point in our gardening lives. Early in our learning/experience we can tend to prescribe plant problems and aspects incorrectly as to other causes and effects than those that are environmental based or at least in part based. This misunderstanding often affects the reality of what we actually know of gardening compared to what we think of we know. At "common and harmless" levels it is just maybe a bit humbling to be corrected or to just learn correctly on a subject that you believed was one way but in fact was another reason or effect of. At worst, it directly causes harm to yours or others crops. Market affect on this type of grower: Before spending one bit of money or energy on adding "boosters" and such from light to nutrition unless your garden environment is happily in balance with your plants or you have largely wasted (ineffective results) and increased the cost of your environment. Their is a difference between a not as healthy plant but normal looking plant gaining health than a very healthy plant gaining a "boost.' from an additive or such. Most people fall into the category of "not as healthy but normal looking plant gaining health." This an aspect why many forums will say boosters do not work, I comment on environment not boosters in general but use as illustration. We will be discussing each aspect that makes up the grow environment so that you will be able to influence and manage your environment effectively for each stage of plant growth or just the general grow period as up to you. We will discuss standard grow area sizes and locations associated with personal medical grow rooms and indoor gardens associated within the normal garden community. In this discussion we will be giving recommendations that represent store bought or easily assembled products. This is not a marketing gimmick nor an endorsement of any products as they are used for illustration purposes and to be realistic to what I believe many in this category will use, at least initially. I do not give endorsed views other than possible situations based on unique and/or specific needs and availability of products to a perspective gardener. Grow Environment Formula Location (Grow Area) + Operational Temperature (actual operating temperature) (Day - High & Night - Low) (To estimate ambient temperature + estimated operational temperature, take into consideration fans, lights, CO2 burners) + Humidity + Ventilation + Air quality + Climate Adjustments (CO2, HVAC adjustments in addition to normal ventilation) = Grow Environment for Day and Night, can customize for each plant stage of development. Home Location Selection and Analysis Location location location as they say. We all think of grow areas differently. For some, it is a tent, for others it is an attic, a basement, a closet or just a room. Regardless of location we have to take some key aspects into consideration and then we want to work on removing any limitations to making a grow location suitable for a plant to call home, as everyone knows "home is where you make it." Many indoor gardeners do not really select or choose a grow area than they tend to use what is available to them. Regardless of how we may select the grow area, we need to understand the area wisely. This is often an aspect that many people take for granted and not much effort is put into effectively appreciating this aspect and often a price is paid for this lack of competence. Once a location is chosen and analyzed it needs to be cleaned and prepared correctly. "Best practice" may be to create a room within the room as to enable the typical construction of a sealed room easier, cleaner and more efficient. Thick or insulated type of walls are best for maintaining stability. Thick walls like rock. Modern insulated walls. A tent is generally not a significant issue as it is affected by the ambient room temperature for which the tent resides. Generally I dislike tents but they are fine to use and have their use depending on a variety of needs. Tent is influenced by the surrounding air in the room. Use air around tent like a lung room. Determine your base ambient temperatures. Determine Cubic Square Feet of grow area Phresh CFM calculator http://www.phreshfilter.com/tools/cfm-calculator Address location negatives Understand the grow area ambient temperature during the seasons and with day and night temperatures. This is your base ambient room temperature. Base Ambient Room Temperature = The "empty" grow area in Day (high) and night (low) for each season. We will use these base high and low numbers in our future calculations and analysis, notice the word and. Basements and attics may have damp and mold that needs cleaned and addressed. Window areas in attics often need addressed. Attics are typically not well insulated and the base ambient temperatures usually vary with the seasons Mostly effected by high and cold temperature extremes. This is one reason an attic garden is less favored unless it favors condition for a particular plant type. Basements may have mold aspects Using mold resistant white paint is an option. Hospital paint that has anti mold/fungus properties. I recommend use in grow areas regardless for "best practice" aspect. Basement base ambient temperature should be stable throughout the year. Flooding issues Old or not well managed drains Address tree root maintenance for pipes if applicable. Bugs/pest issues. A thorough cleaning and competent bug management is typically sufficient. Definitively remove any pre-existing infestations and ensure their will be no return. If the location was previously used for growing then ensure to clean and sterilize for pollen, bugs and molds. Good Location Video information. Location Summary Regardless of where and how we select our garden areas. It is our job to create and manage a favorable environment as possible for the harvest. It just so happens to get a good harvest we have to have healthy plants. The following information is about various aspects of the environment and how to manage for the location for which your garden resides. Since the best answer for some situations can vary from situation to situation it is important to understand the flexibility ventilation and its various setups that offers various management and control over your environment and plants. Remember, no matter the gritty appearance of a starting location you are creating a home! The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 1 - Location The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 2 - Temperature The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 3 - Humidity The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 4 - Air Quality & CO2 The Indoor Garden Environment - Part 5 - Ventilation & Calculators Advanced Section I - Understanding light, photosynthesis and how to select grow lighting Advanced Section II - Lighting & Reflector Section Advanced Section III - Plant Growth and Light Advanced Section IIII - Understanding Light Measurements Advanced Section IV - Advanced Lighting Information and formulas.
  7. Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 1 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 2 Vermiculture, Vermicompost  & Worm Castings - Part 3 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 4 Vermiculture, Vermicompost Worm Castings - Part 4 Using Vermicompost Vermicompost is a fully stabilized organic soil amendment that is much more microbially active than the original organic material that was consumed. It has a fine particulate structure and good moisture-holding capacity. Vermicompost contains nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in forms readily taken up by plants. It also has plant growth hormones and humic acids, which act as plant growth regulators. You can either use your vermicompost immediately or store it and use it later. The material can be mixed into the soil in your garden and around your trees and yard plants. You can also use it as a top dressing on outdoor plants or sprinkle it on your lawn as a conditioner. It’s best to protect the vermicompost from direct sunlight by incorporating it in soil or covering it with mulch. You can also make “vermicompost tea” to spray on your plants. Simply add two tablespoons of vermicompost to one quart of water and allow it to steep for a day, mixing it occasionally. Water your plants with this “tea” to help make nutrients in the soil available to the plants. Be sure to use the vermicompost tea on your plants within 24 hours of making the batch of solution. Do not use vermicompost tea on the edible portion of a plant unless you are absolutely certain that the solution does not contain pathogens. Mixing castings for use in starting a garden Pauly Piccirillo - How To Mix Worm Castings For the Garden. The way to much information section Worm farming information: A special thank you to Rhonda Sherman for all her work in the industry. Worms Can Recycle Your Garbage (Rhonda Sherman, 2017, AG-473-18). How to set up and maintain a worm bin in your home or office to compost food scraps. https://composting.ces.ncsu.edu/vermicomposting-north-carolina/ "Vermicompost for Healthier Plants" JC Raulston Arboretum - "Vermicompost for Healthier Plants" Worm Bin Troubleshooting Bin smells bad Overfeeding Stop feeding for 2 weeks Non-compostables present Remove non-compostables Food scraps exposed to air Bury food completely Bin too wet Mix in dry bedding, leave lid off Not enough air Drill more holes in the bin Bin attracts flies Food scraps exposed to air Bury food completely Rotten food Avoid putting rotten food in bin Too much food Don't overfeed worms Worms are dying Bin too wet Mix in dry bedding; leave lid off Bin too dry Thoroughly dampen bedding Extreme temperatures Move bin where temperature is between 59° and 77°F Not enough air Drill more holes in bin Not enough food Add more bedding and food Worms are crawling away Bin conditions are not right Review above; Leave lid off and worms will burrow back into bedding as they escape the light. Mold is forming Conditions are too acidic Cut back on acidic foods; remove mold; moisten bread products Bedding is drying out Too much ventilation Mist bedding keep lid on the worm bin Liquid collecting in bottom Poor ventilation and/or over-watering Leave lid off for a couple of days and add dry bedding Feeding too many watery scraps Cut back on coffee grounds and food scraps with high water content Mix food with bedding material before feeding To prevent unwanted seeds, generally a professional for profit operation. Compost traditionally until the internal compost pile temperature reaches 131 °F to 170 °F for 3 days. Remove composting material (is not done we only want to kill the seeds and pests) Spread around and let the compost cool or you can cook your worms. Add this compost as feed stock to the worms. Pests - Not all are harmful but annoying Potworms Potworms are common in worm bins and enjoy slightly acidic conditions. Potworms are small white worms commonly found in soil. They can develop into massive populations, especially in compost piles or in earthworm farms. They’re scientifically known as enchytraeids (enn-kee-TRAY-ids) and are segmented relatives of the earthworm. They are often thought to be baby red wigglers, but baby red wigglers are reddish even when they are tiny. The name “potworms” comes from the fact they inhabit the soil in pots and containers. There is some unnecessary worry that overpopulation will choke out the worm population. That is typically not the case as potworms and a host of other creatures, including those that cannot be seen except under a magnifying glass or microscope, reside peaceably with earthworms, often in great numbers. When a potworm invasion occurs, they can number as many as 250,000 in a ten-square-foot area. Adults measure about a quarter of an inch, and can literally appear to be in the millions in comparison to your red wiggler worm population. Potworms tend to congregate together under food. Potworms feed on the same type of litter as earthworms and inhabit rich organic environments such as a compost heap or worm composter. They are efficient at aerating soil and breaking down just about any organic material. This species prefers an acid environment that is moist. When lots of acidic materials are added to the bin, or when starchy materials are added and allowed to ferment. If the bin is too dry, they will die. The easiest way to reduce potworm populations is with bread soaked in milk. They will flock to a piece of soaked bread and can be lifted out and destroyed in large batches Just as potworms won’t harm other living worm species, they do no damage to living plants. The only possible problem that could occur with potworms in a worm bin is if their population grows so large that they compete for food with the red wiggler composting worms. However, this rarely happens and potworms generally help with the composting process. Spider mites (Brown and white) Mites are the most common pests to show up in your vermicomposter. Most worm beds usually contain several species of mites. Earthworm mites are small and are usually brown, reddish or somewhere in-between. They tend to concentrate near the edges and surfaces of the worm beds and around clusters of feed. They are not known for attacking the earthworms but do eat the worm’s food. When the mite population is too high the worms will burrow deep into the beds and not come to the surface to feed, which hampers worm reproduction and growth. Mites can compete with the worms for available food if the population spirals too high. High mite populations usually result from: Feeding the earthworms overly moist garbage and vegetable refuse as feed. Over-watering. Keep the beds damp but not wet. Poor bed drainage. Ensure that there are adequate drainage holes at the bottom of your worm bin or housing. Remember, the same conditions that ensure high worm production will be less favorable to mites. If you find your worm farm overrun by mites, expose the beds to the sun for light for a few hours. Cut back on water and feed and then, every 1 to 3 days, add calcium carbonate. Add additional shredded paper or coconut coir to absorb any excess moisture. Drain off any liquid that has collected in the base and check to make sure the spigot is not plugged. They seem to love cantaloupe and watermelon. Place the rinds on top of the compost (after you have enjoyed the fruit of course). Leave it over night and the next day you will have mites covering the rind from top to bottom. Wash the mites off over the sink. Keep repeating the process until you are satisfied with the results. When you're done leave the rinds in for your worms to enjoy. Christy Ruffner - ControllingSpiderMitesInTheWormBin Fruit Flies Not a friend, neither an ally, just plane annoying. A common method for ending the cycle of nature on these worm farming pests mainly in your house. Fill a small bowl with apple cider vinegar, wrap it with plastic wrap and punch a couple of small holes in the middle about the size of a toothpick. They will fly into the hole and eventually drown. They are attracted to the acid in the vinegar. This is probably what attracted them to the bin in the first place. Remember to add the food in small layers to avoid rapid bacteria growth and pungent odor. A way to prevent their eggs from hatching can be to boil it before feeding it to the worms or freeze it but only if you see them in the fruit. Freezing will probably only kill the larvae and not the cocoons. Make sure to bury the food under at least 2 inches of bedding to eliminate any flies from getting in. This will also mask the smell from emanating from the bin and attracting other worm farming pests. Springtails Springtails are tiny, wingless insects, usually white in color but may also be yellow, gray, red, orange, metallic green and lavender. They feed on mold, fungi, bacteria and decomposing plant material so they are harmless to earthworms. Springtails can “jump” about 75 mm. They have a tiny spring-like structure under their bellies that causes them to jump when disturbed. Springtails are most numerous in wetter bedding, while numbers decrease as the bedding dries out. Although they have on occasion been observed to eat dead or weak worms, springtails are primarily a nuisance because they eat the worm’s food and can, when the populations are big enough, drive the worms deep into the beds and keep them from coming to the surface to feed. One deals with them the same way one deals with mites Earwigs They are not harmful in a worm composter but may eat some of the earthworm food. Earwigs are outdoor insects usually found under mulch, logs or dead leaves. They both need and are very attracted to moisture. Earwigs are rapid runners, and are easily identified by the prominent pincers on the end of the abdomen. The common earwig is a light, reddish brown flattened insect, up to one inch in length. Most species of earwigs are scavengers that feed on dead insects and decaying plant material but some species are predators. Earwigs may try to pinch if handled carelessly, but are harmless to people. Beetles Beetles are not harmful in the worm composter. The most common beetles in compost are the rove beetle, ground beetle and feather-winged beetle. Feather-winged beetles feed on fungal spores, The larger rove and ground beetles prey on insects, worms, snails, slugs and other small animals. Rove beetles are the most common group of beetles found in composting bins. They are slender, elongated beetles with wing covers (elytra) that are much shorter than the abdomen; over half of the top surface of the abdomen is exposed. Their tail often bends upwards and they can be mistaken for earwigs. Most rove beetles are black or brown. Most rove beetles are medium sized beetles; a few species are up to one inch long. Rove beetles are active fliers or runners. When they run they often raise the tip of the abdomen. Rove beetles don’t sting, but can give a painful bite. They are found in or near decaying organic matter and feed on other insects such as fly maggots. Centipedes - Remove these pests Centipedes are fast moving predators that will kill worms and should be removed. Centipedes resemble millipedes, but their bodies are more flattened and less rounded at either end. Centipedes have one set of legs per segment on the bodies and a pair of pincers which originate behind the head. The centipede is generally more reddish than the millipede. The stingers behind their head possess poison glands that they use to paralyze small earthworms, insect larvae and small insects and spiders. The only way to control centipedes is to remove them by hand which should be done carefully. They will use the pincers to sting. Millipedes They are harmless to earthworms. Millipedes have worm like segmented bodies with each segment having two pairs of walking legs. Millipedes move much more slowly than Centipedes and have a rounder body. Colors range from black to red, but those species found in the worm bin are commonly brown or reddish-brown. Millipedes are vegetarians that break down plant material by eating decaying plant vegetation. They will roll up in a ball when in danger. Sow Bugs and Pill Bugs They are highly beneficial in the worm composter but can harm young plants. Sow Bugs, also known as a “wood louse” are fat bodied crustaceans with delicate plate like gills along the lower surface of their abdomens which must be kept moist and a segmented, armored shell similar in appearance to an armadillo. They are brown to gray in color and have seven pairs of legs and two antennae. They move slowly, grazing on decaying vegetation. They shred and consume some of the toughest materials, those high in cellulose and lignins. Sow bugs are usually found in the upper areas of the worm composter where there is an abundance of unprocessed organic matter. Pill bugs, or “roly polly bugs” look similar to sow bugs but roll up in a ball when disturbed. Slugs & Snails Slugs and snails can be found in your vermicomposter. While they will not harm the worms they will eat any fresh kitchen waste in the composter. The biggest detriment is the eggs they lay. The eggs can be transferred into your plantings in the compost providing them with a meal of succulent young plants. It is best to remove any slugs or snails you find immediately. If they become a problem you can make a slug trap as follows: Cut several 1 inch opening in the sides of a clean, covered plastic container. Sink the container into the bedding of the top tray of the worm composter so that the holes are just above the level of the compost. Remove the lid and pour in ½ inch of beer or a yeast mixture of 2 tablespoons flour, ½ teaspoon baker’s yeast, 1 teaspoon sugar, 2 cups warm water. The slugs will be attracted to the beer or yeast mixture, fall in and drown. Check the container regularly. Ants Ants are attracted to the food in a worm bin. They feed on fungi, seeds, sweets, scraps, other insects and sometimes other ants. Try not to spill anything near your bins and clear away any spillage as soon as it is spotted. The presence of ants is an indication of dry bedding. Moisten the bedding and turn it with a trowel to disrupt their colonies and most ants will find some place else to live. One way to keep ants out of your worm composter. Put each of your bin’s legs in a dish of water that has had a drop of dish soap placed in it to reduce the surface tension of the water. This prevents the ants from walking across the water. Alternatively, most of the garden centers sell ant goo, a sticky substance that is painted around the stems of rose bushes to trap ants. It is eco friendly as it doesn’t contain any insecticide poisons. If all else fails and the ant invasion has already become serious, Dust the area around your beds with pyrethrum dust or douse the ant nest and the trails leading to your bin with a granular insecticide, or use commercially available ant traps, which contain slow release poisons that the ants take with them back into their nests. Please be sure not to use any insecticide on the actual worm bed soil or you will kill your worms. If ants are already established inside the beds soak the section they are in with water and they will usually go away. The ants don’t bother the worms and they actually benefit the composting process by bringing fungi and other organisms into their nests. The work of ants can make worm compost richer in phosphorus and potassium by moving minerals from one place to another. Blow and House Flies Excess flies buzzing around your worm bins or worm farms are usually the result of having used meat, greasy food waste, or pet feces as feed. They spread disease and can also result in maggots if the beds aren’t properly sealed. If your farm is kept indoors or under some sort of shading Hang up some fly strips, which will draw them away from the farms. A properly maintained worm farm will normally not stink and therefore not attract flies. Soldier flies Soldier fly larvae are harmless to you, your worms and your plants. They are very good decomposers and, if allowed to stay in your vermicomposting system, will help to recycle your waste. Just be sure that your worms get plenty to eat as well. The soldier fly manure does make good worm feed as well. Soldier flies are true flies that resemble wasps in their appearance and behavior. Adult flies vary in color from black, metallic blue, green or purple, to brightly colored black and yellow patterns. The larvae of the fly are a type of small maggot that feeds exclusively on putrescent material. They are often found in worm composters but are not a real threat to the worms. They do not attack them or compete with them for food and may in fact complement the compost worms activities. Like the vermiculture worms their feces make excellent compost. They can best be kept out of the worm composter by not using meat and fatty waste and by keeping the moisture on the dry side. Make sure that there is a good cover of bedding material over the feeding area. These remarkable creatures, unlike the common housefly, do not spread bacteria or disease. The larvae ingest potentially pathogenic material and disease-causing organisms and thus render them harmless. Moreover black soldier flies exude an odor which positively discourages houseflies and certain other flying pests. When the larvae reach maturity they leave the feeding area to pupate. The adult fly is nocturnal and characterized by very fast and rather clumsy flight. It has no mouth and cannot bite or sting. Maggots or larvae The most common type of maggots found in a worm bin are grey-brown and about 1/2″ long. These are the larvae of the soldier fly, a large pretty, blue/black fly. These larvae are attracted to compost piles and to the worm bin, and will not harm you or your worms. In fact, they are good decomposers and, like the redworms, will produce a high quality casting. If you haven’t added animal proteins, and don’t have any foul odors in the bin, then in all likelihood the maggots you are seeing will be soldier flies. Once your bin has soldier flies, it can be difficult to say goodbye to them. Your best tactic is to simply allow them to grow out of the larval stage (which they do quickly) and fly off. If you really can’t stand them, you’ll have to harvest the worms and get rid of all your vermicompost material (put it in an outdoor compost pile, or bury it in the garden). Then put your worms back into fresh bedding. Flatworms and Planarians Land Planarians are extremely destructive to earthworm populations and need to be removed and destroyed upon sight. Land Planarians, also called Flatworms, are iridescent slimy worms with a hammer or disk shaped head. They eat slugs, each other, and are voracious predators of earthworms. Much like slugs, they hide in dark, cool, moist areas during the day and require high humidity to survive. They are rare in rural sites. Feeding and movement occur at night. They can survive desiccation only if water loss does not exceed 45 percent of their body weight. They are thought to primarily be distributed by tropical plants. Planarians are a predator that you will want to remove and destroy every time you see one. Spray with orange oil or bleach, or collect to dry out in hot sun. Summary Utilizing worm castings in the garden is an excellent way to ensure balanced plant nutrition and maintaining a healthy soil web. Castings are sometimes referred to as "black gold" due to the plant and soil benefits but also its economic value as high quality worm castings can be profitable. Additionally, vericulture works to remove food and other organic waste products from landfills where it does not assist nature. Today more and more restaurants, schools, farms, military and many other businesses and institutions are utilizing vermicomposting and truly making a greener world! For this, they have our respect! Depending on the food stock that you feed the worms the traits of the castings can be different. Such as more manure based castings are different than vegetable based worm castings but they all work great. Their is also not much data available on this aspect but I do know that is a thing. In time when more data is more accessible I will update this compilation. I hope you have a positive view of worms and perhaps become friends with them. We owe much to the not so lowly earthworms and I thank them! Congratulations for learning about composting worms! Credits - Please support these people and organizations directly. Dave http://floridanativeplantseeds.com/perennial_seeds_A-L.htm https://liaandrews.com/episodes/ WormPost SE - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WormPostSE Larry Hall DownToTheRoots Home Farm Ideas Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics The Abled Gardener GreenShortz DIY Gregor Skoberne I AM ORGANIC GARDENING The Growing Club The Farm at South Mountain Pauly Piccirillo JC Raulston Arboretum Rhonda Sherman geobeats Christy Ruffner http://www.wormfarmingrevealed.com/ The Record Company ChetFakerVEVO Links Natural farming section Indoor gardening environment Biochar Compost extract & Compost teas Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 1 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 2 Vermiculture, Vermicompost  & Worm Castings - Part 3 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 4 Soil recipe ~A Proud Cultural Healing and Life compilation
  8. Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 1 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 2 Vermiculture, Vermicompost  & Worm Castings - Part 3 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 4 Vermiculture & Vermicompost Part 2 Composting Worms and sources Finding suitable worms for vermiculture. It takes one pound of worms (1,000 individuals) to start a good-sized compost bin. You may find redworms near compost, under rotting logs or similar decomposing situations. You won’t be able to tell the difference between Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida. Composting worms can be purchased either locally or order via the Internet. If a shop cannot tell you the scientific name of the worms do not purchase. Worms suitable for vermicompost are from the epigeic class of worms. Eisenia fetida - Red Wigglers Eisenia Hortensis - European Nightcrawler Eudrillus Eugeniae - African Nightcrawler Lumbricus rubellus - Red worms, often confused with red wigglers or Eisenia fetida Amynthus Gracilus - Alabama Jumpers Attracting compost worms & a worm barrel update... Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics - Attracting compost worms & a worm barrel update... 4 Different Kinds Of Composting Worms Larry Hall - Why Am I Raising 4 Different Kinds Of Composting Worms? Well Let Me Tell You Why! Feeding worms Once the earthworms have settled into their new home (after a couple of days) Add a small amount of food scraps on the surface of the bedding. The amount should not exceed 1-inch high. This will prevent the food scraps from building up heat which is detrimental to the worms. Feed your earthworms any non-meat foods such as vegetables, fruits, crushed eggshells, tea bags, coffee grounds, shredded paper coffee filters, and shredded garden debris. Red wigglers especially like cantaloupe, watermelon, and pumpkin. Do not add citrus fruits or fruit peels to the bin They can cause the bin environment to become too acidic. Never add meat scraps or bones, fish, greasy or oily food, onions, garlic, fat, tobacco, citrus, salty foods, or pet or human manure. They can bring in pathogens and attract pests. Chop or blend food scraps into small pieces so they break down easier. This is not necessary but will help the food stock become consumed faster. Once you have fed your earthworms, use a three-prong garden tool to cover the food scraps completely with 1 to 2 inches of bedding to prevent fruit flies from finding the food. Food scraps can be stored for a few days before adding them to the worm bin. Store in container with a lid next to or under their kitchen sink. Coffee containers are excellent. Food scraps can also be stored in a container or bag in the freezer. The worms may be fed any time of the day Earthworms can be fed as seldom as every two to three weeks, depending on how many earthworms are in the bin. If you are going away for a couple of weeks, apply 1⁄2-inch layer of food scraps and cover it with two inches of moistened, shredded paper. Manure can be used but is recommended to compost it first. Non composted manure can be used but it can make the worm bin to hot. Worm Chow Recipe by down to the roots. Adding a spoonful of this sprinkled over the food stock will ensure a balanced and healthy nutrition for your worms which ensure quality castings. Think quality in and quality out! 1 Part-Whole Wheat Flour 1 Part-Corn Meal 1 Part-Ground Oats 1/2 Part-Ground Oyster Shell/Egg Shell - Eggshells need to be cleaned and dried before using. Feeding composting worm bins video section DownToTheRoots - How I feed my composting worm bins. Homemade dry worm food (Worm Chow) DownToTheRoots - Homemade dry worm food (Worm Chow) Processing eggs shells for worm bin DownToTheRoots - How I process egg shells for my worm bins. Utilizing fish manure. Home Farm Ideas - What to feed worms Worm Slushies Rob Bob's Backyard Farm & Aquaponics - How we feed our compost worms, worm slushies anyone ? Harvesting the Vermicompost You may harvest the vermicompost by one of three methods After a few weeks, you will begin to see vermicompost on the bottom of the bin. Vermicompost is soil-like material containing a mixture of earthworm castings (feces) and partially decomposed bedding and food scraps. In about four months, it will be time to harvest the vermicompost. : Method 1: Sideways Separation. Feed the earthworms on only one side of your worm bin for several weeks, and most of the worms will migrate to that side of the bin. Then you can remove the vermicompost from the other side of the bin where you have not been adding food scraps, and add fresh bedding. Repeat this process on the other side of the bin. After both sides are harvested, you can begin adding food scraps to both sides of the bin again. Method 2: Light Separation. Empty the contents of your worm bin onto a plastic sheet or used shower curtain where there is strong sunlight or artificial light. Wait five minutes, and then scrape off the top layer of vermicompost. The earthworms will keep moving away from the light, so you can scrape more vermicompost off every five minutes or so. After several scrapings, you will find worms in clusters; just pick up the worms and gently return them to the bin in fresh bedding (with the old bedding mixed in). Method 3: Vertical Separation. Before you begin vermicomposting, either buy a manufactured stacking bin or make your own. Set one bin aside and vermicompost in the other bin for a few months. When the bedding in the bin fits snug against the bottom of the bin you set aside, simply fit the second bin inside the first one, and begin only feeding in the top bin for the next several months. Most of the earthworms will move up into the upper bin to eat, and eventually the lower bin will just contain vermicompost. Be on the lookout for earthworm egg capsules; they are lemon-shaped and about the size of a match head, with a shiny appearance and light-brownish color. The capsules contain between two and seven baby earthworms. Place the egg capsules back inside your bin so they can hatch and thrive in your bin system. Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 1 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 2 Vermiculture, Vermicompost  & Worm Castings - Part 3 Vermiculture, Vermicompost & Worm Castings - Part 4
  9. Section 1 - Roots Section 2 - Cloning Section 3 - Shoots (leaf and above ground structure) Section 4 - Plant Nutrition Transport and Cellular Respiration Plant Physiology & Nutritional Transportation Section 4 - Plant Nutrition Transport and Cellular Respiration Plant Nutrition and Transport Since many people will already understand plant structure I have added that section below even though it would be more appropriate before this section. However, their is very good information in the plant structure section I recommend watching the videos. Very few people will not learn something from the videos to the writings (compilation). Regardless of water and nutrition, a plants transport system depends on a correct growing environment in terms of temperature and humidity as this directly affects the internal and external functions of the plant system. Basic Plant Nutrition - We often think of plant nutrition and NPK but this is not wholly correct at the cellular level as far as the plant cares about specifics. For example, we need protein, be it from meat or milk all things correct we can utilize protein in that form. Our body only cares it has a protein. Generically stated for illustration. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, Oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur. We will discuss plant nutrition in all its details in later sections but for the intention of understanding how a plant internally functions in transporting and in creating energy the above will be the main subject of plant nutrition within this specific section. The Video below illustrates with excellent visuals/graphics and explains above and nutritional transportation. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCCmNq4uCgWjpvoTpbphih3g - Transcript is available at youtube site, select more and transcripts under the video. All organisms require food and water for their survival. Transportation is the process of transporting water,food and minerals to the different parts of the plant body. Xylem, transports water from the roots to all parts of the plant through root hairs. Raw materials such as carbon dioxide, water and other minerals are used to prepare food in the presence of sunlight through photosynthesis.This food is then transported to all parts of the plant by the Phloem. Below you will find a video that will explain in an easy to understand format what the plant needs nutritionally and how it transports nutrition and utilizes it. While it may seem a bit a redundant the videos compliment each other and together equal a quality lesson. The top video has superior visuals but the bottom has more information and is an effective illustrative video as well. Paul Andersen explains how nutrients and water are transported in plants. He begins with a brief discussion of what nutrients are required by plants and where they get them. He shows you dermal, vascular and ground tissue in monocot and dicot roots, stems and leaves. He then explains how water is pulled up a tree in xylem and how sugar is pushed in a plant through phloem. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains how nutrients and water are transported in plants. He begins with a brief discussion of what nutrients are required by plants and where they get them. He shows you dermal, vascular and ground tissue in monocot and dicot roots, stems and leaves. He then explains how water is pulled up a tree in xylem and how sugar is pushed in a plant through phloem. Oxygenic Photosynthesis & its equation During oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy transfers electrons from water (H2O) to carbon dioxide (CO2), which produces carbohydrates. In this transfer, the CO2 is "reduced," or receives electrons, and the water becomes "oxidized," or loses electrons. Ultimately, oxygen is produced along with carbohydrates. Oxygenic photosynthesis functions as a counterbalance to respiration as it intakes carbon dioxide it reintroduces oxygen into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide exhale by many living things and oxygen released by the oxygenic photosynthesis process. Their are other types of photosynthesis and other energy generation but we are mainly going to discuss oxygenic photosynthesis in plants. Light-dependent reactions (also called light reactions): Light photons contacts the reaction center a chlorophyll pigment releases an electron. The electron in the chlorophyll makes an electron hole and the electron wants to escape and is released via an "electron transport chain" which generates the energy to make ATP "adenosine triphosphate" which is energy and NADPH. The electron hole in the chlorophyll pigment is filled from electron from water and oxygen is then released into the atmosphere via the stomata. Photosynthesis Equation In photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the form of glucose (sugar). Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are used to produce glucose, oxygen, and water. The chemical equation for this process is: 6CO2 + 12H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Six molecules of carbon dioxide (6CO2) and twelve molecules of water (12H2O) are consumed in the process, while glucose (C6H12O6), six molecules of oxygen (6O2), and six molecules of water (6H2O) are produced. This equation may be simplified as: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2. Photosynthesis video that better illustrates and effectively teaches the above and more. Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains the process of photosynthesis by which plants and algae can convert carbon dioxide into usable sugar. He begins with a brief description of the chloroplast. He describes the major pigments in a plant (like chlorophyll a and b). He then describes both the light reaction and the Calvin cycle. He finishes with a discussion of photorespiration and strategies for avoiding this problem evolved in CAM and C4 plants. Cellular Respiration I know we think of plants and us as very different as they use photosynthesis but we both use cell respiration very similarly and few actually understand nor appreciate that understanding but it is important to understand this aspect as when it comes to evaluating various traits of plants this information is vital if you understand how to "see" it and "use" it. By understanding this we can better acclimate a growing environment for optimal levels for specific plants in greenhouses and indoor gardens based on observations and adjustments of your plants and not following a generic guide. By learning to identify plants that have strong photosynthesis and cellular respiration rates in selecting genetics for clones or breeding is often an desirable but under looked trait. The video below further explains photosynthesis and respiration and discusses how photosynthesis played a role in early life on the planet. For many this video may seem a bit much and that is ok. It is mainly listed for those who want more information and understanding with more details. He also explains different versions of energy creation but is not a large portion. I highly recommend this video but for your average gardener this information is overly technical for that need. The plant cell video prior in this thread is similar however there is additional information when viewing both lessons. Paul Andersen details the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in this video on free energy capture and storage. Autotrophs use the light reactions and the Calvin cycle to convert energy from the Sun into sugars. Autotrophs and heterotrophs use cellular respiration to convert this sugar into ATP. Both chemosynthesis and fermentation are discussed. The evolution of photosynthesis is also discussed. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/transla... I post the translate request even though the posting is old, the link is still good as of the time of this compilation. The following video explains processes of cellular respiration in an easy to understand lesson. Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen covers the processes of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. He starts with a brief description of the two processes. He then describes the important parts of the mitochondria. He explains how energy is transferred to ATP through the processes of glycolysis, the Kreb cycle and the Electron Transport Chain. He also explains how organisms use both lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. Summary The knowledge base of plant physiology is currently growing at fast rate. As such each year they are learning more and more about the physiology of plants and some of these are not listed above as science has not yet determined what those functions truly are or what they are doing outside just learning they exist. As a result, the older this work is, it might need a revision or update depending on the extent new knowledge that will be learned as science as whole learns more. This is compiled January 2017 You should now have a working understanding of plant physiology and if you understand how environment and basic nutrition plays a role. You use this information and apply it to your garden. By utilizing all this information you can grow your plants to "best practice" as is possible for your growing areas limitations. Often we go to stores and see a massive variety of fertilizers with all kinds of claims and fancy graphics and names. Few people can see past the advertising as it is the advertisers and/or other equally untrained to moderately skilled gardeners who teach most home gardeners, outside of a family/friend dynamic with access to experienced gardeners. Many gardeners are at a knowledge disadvantage. This information is compiled in part as an attempt to answer this issue by working to instill fundamental knowledge so that home gardeners can learn what is gimmick and what is a good product and how to use it properly for their crops. A benefit of these lessons if learned is freedom from false advertising as you will not be easily fooled as knowledge can work to prevent emotional and impulse sales based on "adjective" sales tactics. By understanding plant physiology you understand how plants transport nutrition and create energy. This knowledge base will serve you well in future management practices as you can better attune your environment, nutrition and management to optimize your specific crop. This is more desirable in high value crops. By optimizing the plants ability to transport nutrients and generate energy you can begin to obtain the plants potential. However, by allowing negative factors to act against early plant physiology during its early growth stages can have significant limiting factors that the plant cannot fully recover from and thus the plant will not obtain its potential no matter the betterment after the shock. Plant Physiology in breeding, generically you first want to select plants that illustrate early strong plant physiology traits from roots to leaf health and vigor. Often in plant breeding plants will be selected for other traits and not consider plant physiology traits as they should, often taking this aspect for granted. This is in part a reason why some plants seeds offered for sale are not good at rooting equally from a package of seeds. These seeds were potentially not correctly bred for optimum plant physiology. However, most amateur seed makers may not understand and/or appreciate this aspect. In the following sections we will discuss plant development from roots to fruit and discuss the nutritional and environmental aspects for typical garden variety plants. If this work has helped you, please share what you learn with others. It is in that energy that this has come to you and I thank you for your time. ~Hempyfan. Congratulations for finishing Plant Physiology. Need More??? If you would like to learn more on Plant Physiology I highly recommend: BIOPL3420 - Plant Physiology - Video Lecture/Class 28 videos long - Thomas Owens - Cornell University Plant Physiology Taiz and Zeiger - https://ia802504.us.archive.org/16/items/PlantPhysiologyTaizZeiger1/Plant_Physiology_(Taiz_&_Zeiger)[1].pdf Click to go to video series Credits and appreciation: ~ I sincerely respect and thank them. The Science Media Production Center at Cornell - https://www.youtube.com/user/CornellTL/about Plant Physiology Taiz and Zeiger - https://ia802504.us.archive.org/16/items/PlantPhysiologyTaizZeiger1/Plant_Physiology_(Taiz_&_Zeiger)[1].pdf https://www.scribd.com/ http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0002075.html http://www.askiitians.com/revision-notes/biology/ Bozeman Science:https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw http://biology.about.com/od/plantbiology/a/aa050605a.htm http://www.livescience.com/51720-photosynthesis.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/differences-and-similarities-between-chemosynthesis-and-photosynthesis.html One Drop Forward - https://www.youtube.com/user/onedropforward/videos Plant Energy Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEIGuXCAGkkHgAZP9LWbXgA http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0002061.html http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/170/2/603.full#sec-13 Everest Fernandez - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC65Wtjuej_YyOOxg4PC-uhA Freesciencelessons - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCqbOeHaAUXw9Il7sBVG3_bw Physical Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjFaU87t6M2d3xPH8m30goQ ~A Proud Cultural Healing and Life Compilation. FIN
  10. Section 1 - Roots Section 2 - Cloning Section 3 - Shoots (leaf and above ground structure) Section 4 - Plant Nutrition Transport and Cellular Respiration Plant Physiology & Nutritional Transportation Section 3 - Shoots (leaf and above ground structure) Air (Shoots) Environment Shoots, is the above ground parts of the plants. We will discuss plant cell structure and nutritional transportation within the plants. This is the area where the plant energy is made. Some of the videos will repeat similar information but they all offer extra bits of information that all combined offer a higher benefit. In addition, if one video style is not effective in understanding than the virtual reality video/app may be more effective in illustrating for you. Plant Cell Structure Crayonbox - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9Kk19SMbIuqcNI4lew96kA Plant cells are more complicated and exciting than you might think! This video shows you the structure of the plant cell. Sam introduces you to the cell organelles and their functions. You learn about cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus and nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, vacuole, chloroplasts, and mitochondrion. Sam explains how proteins are produced inside the cell. The NAMOO app features beautiful encyclopedia-inspired interactive simulations you can use to learn about plants. Plant science is fun! Download your NAMOO and play with roots, stems, flowers, and other plant parts! Virtual tour of a plant cell This is a virtual tour of a plant cell you can control by the upper right toggle on the screen of the video. If your computer is strong enough you can enlarge to full screen (may need to go to youtube site, double click video and it will show link on bottom right of video). This is a great tool for understanding plant cells and photosynthesis. Plant Energy Biology Plant Energy Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEIGuXCAGkkHgAZP9LWbXgA Immerse yourself in the inner world of a plant cell! The Virtual Plant Cell (VPC) is the ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology’s new virtual reality project. This 360° video gives a preview of what we’ve been building – a virtual reality space where you can interact 3D Modelling and Animations: Peter Ryan, Tail Art, www.peterryanart.com.au Unity Development: Richard England, Reflex Arc, www.reflexarc.co.uk Project Management: Dominic Manley, AVRL: Augmented & Virtual Reality Labs, www.AVRL.co Graphic and Logo Design: Chris Brown, Eyecue Design, www.eyecue.com.au Music: Jim Kennedy, Audiosimian, www.audiosimian.com Voice Over: Glenn Hall Project led by Karina Price and the researchers of the ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, www.plantenergy.edu.au Leaf Anatomy Upper epidermis is a single layer of cells containing few or no chloroplasts. The cells are quite transparent and permit most of the light that strikes them to pass through to the underlying cells. The upper surface is covered with a waxy, waterproof cuticle, which serves to reduce water loss from the leaf. Epidermal cells are on the upper and lower surfaces of a leaf. The epidermis usually consists of a single layer of cells., Some specialized leaves of some desert plants and in cold environment plants can have epidermal layers which are several cells thick. Cuticle - Waxy layer that prevent water loss within the leaf. Plants that live in water do not have a cuticle, waxy layer. They have two features which prevent evaporative water loss: they are packed densely together and they are covered by a cuticle, a waxy layer secreted by the cells. Flavonoid pigments are contained in large vacuoles inside the epidermal cells. Flavonoids absorbs ultraviolet radiation, Similar to a sunscreen or tanning lotion for internal layers of the leaf, by filtering out harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. Palisade layer consists of one or more layers of cylindrical cells oriented with their long axis perpendicular to the plane of the leaf. The cells are filled with chloroplasts (usually several dozen of them) and carry on most of the photosynthesis within the leaf. Palisade cell layer at top of leaf - To absorb more light Palisade cells contain many chloroplasts to absorb all the available light. Spongy layer beneath the palisade layer, its cells are irregular in shape and loosely packed. Although they contain a few chloroplasts, their main function seems to be the temporary storage of sugars and amino acids that were synthesized in the palisade layer above the spongy layer of the leaf. They also aid in the exchange of gases between the leaf and the environment. During the day, these cells give off oxygen and water vapor to the air spaces that surround them. They also pick up carbon dioxide from the air spaces. The air spaces are interconnected and eventually open to the outside through pores called stomata. Collectively, the palisade and spongy layers make up the mesophyll. A single vascular bundle, no matter how large or small, always contains both xylem and phloem tissues. xylem - Consists of tracheids and vessels that transport water and minerals to the leaves. Phloem - Transports the photosynthetic products from the leaf to the other parts of the plant. Lower epidermis contains most of the stomata (thousands per square centimeter) which are located in the lower epidermis. Although most of the cells of the lower epidermis resemble those of the upper epidermis, each stoma is flanked by two sausage-shaped cells called guard cells. These differ from the other cells of the lower epidermis not only in their shape but also in having chloroplasts. . Stomata Open in light and closed during night. Transpiration is when the plants intakes carbon dioxide, releases via evaporation water and oxygen. More plentiful on the underside of the leaves but are all over the leaf. Approximately 95% of water in the plant transportation system is lost due to transpiration. Water evaporation from stomata as part of the osmatic pressure system. Guard cells when open accumulate potassium salts, causing an osmotic pressure that uptakes water. Guard cells control the open and close stomata function and is influenced largely by the environment (light, temperature and humidity) and results in osmotic pressure. Guard cells can detect blue light and varied levels of CO2 (carbon dioxide). Guard cells are the only epidermal cells to contain chloroplasts. Some chloroplasts are found in the cells of young stems and immature fruits but do not play a large role in photosynthesis. During drought stress guard cells release abscisic acid. It inhibits plant cell growth and is is in part responsible for fruit drop, leaf death and seed dormancy. and helps plants respond to water loss and seasonal changes. Its effects can be reversed with gibberellins. Abscisic acid is a hormone that will trigger dormancy. Often growers tend to think of dry soil negatives as reducing media microbe and fungal life, concentrating salts but few know or appreciate the abscisic effect on plants as only by knowing plant physiology will one tend to appreciate this outside of experience in the field with drought conditions. Do not allow young plants to dry out in their media unless that is part of that natural environment for your plant. Example of cactus. I have also added trichomes as they are part of some plants more than others in significance. However, this is not part of plant physiology and I will discuss more on this subject in future compilations. Trichomes - Help to avert being eaten or invaded by some pests by restricting insect movements and/or by storing toxic or bad-tasting compounds. The rate of transpiration can be reduced due to a reduction in air flow across the leaf surface. Leaf Anatomy graphic illustrations Plant Biology with NAMOO: Leaf Anatomy - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9Kk19SMbIuqcNI4lew96kA Leaves are beautiful and industrial. Located within every leaf is a fully functional food factory. This production process is called photosynthesis. Sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide are used to produce glucose (food!) and oxygen. Leaf Types - Monocot & Dicot Monocots vs Dicots Explained It is really easy to determine a monocot and a dicot. However, first, it is important to understand that monocots and dicots actually represent the two main branches of flowering plants. That means that almost all flowering plants can be divided into one of these two groups. Of course, the key word is almost all. There are some that don't fit into the two groups all that well. The five main characters I like to use are Leaves, Roots, Stems, Cotyledons, and Flowers. For a more detailed description, visit our page at http://www.untamedscience.com/biology... Watermelon Plant Time Lapse Learjet15 - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCv5UDsFrvS1Mh838rVJuJSw The video below explains more of the plant structure. This is a good video to gain an appreciation of a plant structure as it is in that knowledge that can better not just understand the structure but how nutrition plays its role in building the structure. By understanding a plants development at the various stages of growth nutrition can be accurately adjusted optimally for the development of the plant. In short, this knowledge will help you speak plant. Plant Structure Video Transcript of the video is available at the youtube site selecting more then transcript in options under video. More at Bozeman Science: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEik-U3T6u6JA0XiHLbNbOw Paul Andersen explains the major plants structures. He starts with a brief discussion of monocot and dicot plants. He then describes the three main tissues in plants; dermal, ground and vascular. He also describes the plant cells within each of these tissues; epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerencyma, xylem and phloem. He describes both primary and secondary growth in plants. He finishes the podcast with a discussion of double fertilization in plants.
  11. Section 1 - Roots Section 2 - Cloning Section 3 - Shoots (leaf and above ground structure) Section 4 - Plant Nutrition Transport and Cellular Respiration Plant Physiology & Nutritional Transportation Section 2 - Cloning Clones I discuss cloning a bit but will cover this topic in more practical detail in following writings. This compiled section is intended to instill an understanding of the internal processes during a typical cloning process. Regardless of cloning method this information is valid. To create clones of plants a chemical imbalance must occur. This can be created in various ways but in this instance we will discuss traditional cloning. While the method of cloning may vary the chemical process is similar in rooting and the type of roots being created for the plants. The figure below will help illustrate this process well. By understanding this process you will begin the basis of learning how to create the type of roots you desire in a "best practice" or "optimized" process. The graph above and below explanation from http://www.plantphysiol.org Pointed arrows represent positive interactions, and flat-ended arrows represent negative interactions. Yellow roots are adventitious roots, the white root is a primary roots, and blue roots are lateral roots. Below explains the illustration above. Adventitious root formation on cuttings. In intact plants, cytokinin and strigolactones are predominantly produced in the root Auxin is predominantly produced in the shoot. On wounding, jasmonic acid peaks within 30 min and is required for successful root development. Reactive oxygen species, polyphenols, and hydrogen sulfide also increase and promote adventitious rooting. Polyphenols do this via reducing auxin degradation. Auxin builds up in the base of the cutting, acting upstream of nitric oxide to promote adventitious root initiation. Auxin, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increase soluble sugars, which can be used for root development. The cloning act removes the original root system and thus levels of cytokinin and strigolactone (they inhibit root growth) are reduced removing this natural counter too root growth in a normal plant. At later stages, Auxin inhibits primordia elongation (reduced shoot growth) while ethylene promotes adventitious root emergence. As the new root system establishes, The production of cytokinin and strigolactones is restored and the plant will begin to function normally. General Cloning information Staminate (male) plants have higher average levels of carbohydrates than pistillate (female) plants, while pistillate plants have higher nitrogen levels. Almost all plant cells contain the DNA and "capability" to create a whole plant. (Clone and petri-dish) Not all plant species and phenotypes clone equally. Selection of rooting material is important. Selected that have finished growing up and start growing to the sides or radial growth.Younger, firm, vegetative shoots, Top of the plant is not ideal. the secondary tops or crown of a plant is ideal. Cuttings of relatively young vegetative limbs 10 to 45 centimeters or 4 to 18 inches and are made with a razor blade and immediately placed in a container of pure water so the cut ends are covered to prevent an embolism (air bubble). 3 to 7 millimeters (1/8 to 1/4 inch) in diameter. The medium should be warm and moist before cuttings are removed from the parent plant. Feed rooting cloning parental plants, a balance of low nitrogen to high carbohydrate is desired and achieved in several ways. Higher carbohydrate to Nitrogen is ideal. Iodine and Starch test. (video below) Highly impractical and unnecessary for most growers but I put in this writing for information and for the curious and those who are optimizing in their growing methods and systems for "best practice" with specific/known plants or crops. Reduce nitrogen and allow for carbohydrates to build up. Crowded roots will increase carbon due to competition for the nitrogen in medias. The carbohydrate to nitrogen ratio rises the farther distance between the tip of the limb, Cuttings are not made too long. Etiolation Etiolation is a condition caused by the growth of plants in the absence of light. It is characterized by a pale yellow coloring, sparse leaves, and weak, elongated stems. The stems of a plant grown in darkness grow longer and thinner in order to reach a potential light source. Its stems will also grow faster than those of a plant exposed to adequate sunlight. Since leaves grow at the internodes of a plant's stems, a plant suffering from etiolation will have less leaves than a normal plant. Chloroplasts that have never been exposed to light remain immature and non-pigmented and are known as etioplasts. When a plant suffering from etiolation is exposed to sunlight, a process known as de-etiolation occurs. In de-etiolation, a plant begins producing chloroplasts, becomes greener in color, and produces fuller and more plentiful leaves. Over time, the internodes of the stem will become a normal length. Inhibiting rooting factors Woody Stems. High nitrogen in parent plant. High nitrogen in clone leaves. Iodine Starch Test Ibn Sahlan - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwMOknYVLikEwhODDSlEhiQ Cloning 101 Everest Fernandez - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC65Wtjuej_YyOOxg4PC-uhA Root growth in time lapse Gregor Skoberne https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCnDrhu5DCQpD1VB3I3bVJJQ Root growth of transformed Cichorium Intybus grown in a medium. Corn roots in time lapse MicropolitanMuseum https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGFFFsNZoZahwQ8UPFIWhFA Time lapse fast growing corn, roots and leaves growing Mindlapse - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEPvisw_QQ_anAwxdklxm1Q
  12. Section 1 - Roots Section 2 - Cloning Section 3 - Shoots (leaf and above ground structure) Section 4 - Plant Nutrition Transport and Cellular Respiration Click for a video on learning. Plant Physiology & Nutritional Transportation Section 1 - Roots Fundamental Gardening Knowledge Pre-Introduction As I began to learn this information it had an effect I did not count on. It applied to my health as well and as I learned and began to appreciate more about plant nutrition I got much better at human nutrition. In this way we grow each other and goes to examples of how plants farm and manage us. By learning about plant nutrition it has enabled me to understand and appreciate how bad my personal diet was and what that diet did and did not do for me. I was consuming an average diet in regular society and thus nutrition should not of been a cause of concern. As a result of this diet I suffered the typical afflictions associated with such a "normal" diet that the medical community was willing to offer a wide variety of pharmaceutical solutions except for explaining nutrition, diet and simply instructed to check out the internet for such questions. Well profits skew that way of thinking and a grey area has been created and we end up with socially acceptable foods that actually harm us as honesty about the frequency of those foods would potentially be damning to foods in question. All things competent those foods really should not be so easily accepted, except for the fact someone makes money off it, so it is ok. I hope these words reach, for those it does it can help far more than just with growing a healthy garden but also a healthy you in many more ways than we tend to think when looking about plant nutrition. We are actually talking about living nutrition as it applies in general to most thing. I shared the above with you with the idea that learning this can potentially help others how it helped me in more ways than one. I will now discuss only plant physiology and plant nutrition from here and apologize if the above is unwelcome herein. Plant Physiology Introduction The following information can be complex and confusing. It is more important that you understand the basics and the follow up sections will be far less complex as we get into the growth aspects. Please do your best to understand the basics of this information. If I can help better explain a confusing subject please let me know and we will find solutions as I am able. Before we can learn how nutrition helps a plant we need to understand how the plant grows and functions throughout its various stages. In knowing this we can better apply other management practices as to optimally garden. Plant physiology is the basis for which the rest of the information will be based on. We will start by discussing the basic plant structure in terms of energy production and nutritional transportation system of a plant. It will help if you understand a bit of thermodynamics and kinetics but this is for more advanced understandings. As we progress to the nutritional segments of these lessons we will discuss the different varieties of plant foods from organics to salts and their qualities, their benefits, their negatives, how to use, why to use and when to use. In so doing you will be able to gain knowledge on how to evaluate the many fertilizer options and select from a learn-id position rather than a marketed direction. This is a compilation of information from a variety of sources with the intention of effective instruction. I have tried to give all credit for materials used. Any error is just that, an error and is unintentional and once brought to attention will be correct as appropriate. This is a not a money/profit generating enterprise. Plant Tissue Types & Structure Dermal - Epidermis, Periderm = Prevents loss of water and protects the plant like a skin. Ground - Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Schlerenchyma = Metabolism, Storage & Support. Vascular - Xylem, Phloem = Transport water and sugar. Plant Environments (Roots & Shoots) We often think of the plant environment as one thing but it is really two different environments. Above and below the ground and is referred to as "roots' and "shoots." By understanding these environments and how it affects plant biology we can better understand how nutrition affects the plant and can begin to better understand how to manage a plant in various stages and environments for optimal growth. Ground (Roots) Environment This is the area of the roots and media layer. Regardless if hydroponic or soil based it is considered ground or roots. In following sections we will discuss the different aspects of hydroponic and soil based system medias but for this specific lesson we will consider it one medium type of simply "ground" or "roots" when referencing this area of the plant. This is the area where plants store energy, the roots. Roots transportation process: Water/Salts/Oxygen > Root hairs > Xylem > Leafs > Evaporate > Pressure moves water up each evaporation like a chain. Water/salts move upward via pressure controlled in part by osmotic pressure via water evaporation humidity and temperature. Notice that oxygen is taken up by the roots. This Oxygen is used in cell respiration, discussed later. This is a key reason why it is important for good drainage for the type of plant you are gardening/landscaping. Type of roots Root Examples Monocot root illustration Tap root - Dicot plants & ferns. Is the main root and will sprout other roots laterally. Anchors the plant Can grow deep in search of water and begin to break up lower harder soil layers and initiate the tapping of lower minerals within the lower soil column. Fibrous roots - Monocot & cloned plants. Fine roots that extend from the main stem of the plant. Trees 30–50 m tall has a root system that extends horizontally in all directions as far as the tree is tall or more, but around 95% of the roots are in the top 50 cm depth of soil. Plants can be managed to be better drought resistant by training the plants to dig deeper before it makes fibrous roots as to increase the depth of the roots at the top of the media column. This is only effect if water is accessible via water table, in low water areas this may or may not be as effective depending on the plant type. Parallel venation plants have fibrous roots. Reticulated venation seed plants have tap roots. Adventitious roots (clones and stress roots) Adventitious roots (clones and stress roots) are plant roots that form from any non-root tissue and are produced both during normal development and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. We will discuss the rooting due to stress aspect in more depth in a future writing. All plant cells have the DNA to create a cloned plant besides the root. Can be induced by ECMs or Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Bacteria that transfer DNA to plant and create root hairs, used in study and in instances as managing for drought resistence.) Age‐dependent process. Auxin cross talks with other hormones to control adventitious rooting. Adventitious rooting is a complex quantitative genetic trait. Unstressed and stressed roots via flooding illustrations Adventitious root development in response to flooding. Under aerated conditions, gaseous ethylene escapes from plant tissues, but during flooding, water acts as a physical barrier, trapping ethylene in the plant. Gibberellic Acid or GA enhances the ethylene-promoted adventitious root growth, Abscisic acid reduces the effect. Ethylene triggers reactive oxygen species production, and together they trigger epidermal programmed cell death for root emergence and cortical programmed cell death lysigenous aerenchyma formation. The main difference in some eudicots (e.g. tomato) is the requirement for de novo adventitious root initiation via auxin and ethylene signaling. In the cross section, epidermis and exodermis are combined, but the exodermis can be several cell layers adjacent to the epidermis. Yellow roots are adventitious roots, (diagram above) blue and pink roots are lateral roots, (diagram above) and white roots are primary roots. (diagram above) Pointed arrows represent positive interactions, and flat-ended arrows represent negative interactions. (diagram above) Adventitious root emergence Physical Biology - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjFaU87t6M2d3xPH8m30goQ
  13. Former US House speaker to promote legalizing marijuana https://www.yahoo.com/news/former-us-house-speaker-promote-legalizing-marijuana-164553769.html DAN SEWELL,Associated Press - Follow Dan Sewell at http://www.twitter.com/dansewell CINCINNATI (AP) — Former U.S. House Speaker John Boehner said Wednesday he has had a change of heart on marijuana and will promote its nationwide legalization as a way to help veterans and the nation's deadly opioid crisis. The Ohio Republican, an avid cigarette smoker, has joined the advisory board of Acreage Holdings , a multistate cannabis company. The company also announced that former Massachusetts Gov. William Weld has joined its advisory board. Weld, a Republican as governor, ran in the 2016 presidential election on the Libertarian Party ticket that was headed by legal-pot advocate Gary Johnson. Boehner said in a statement his position "has evolved" from opposing to supporting legalization of marijuana. "I decided to get involved because of the struggles of our country's veterans and the opioid epidemic, after learning how descheduling the drug can potentially help with both crises," said Boehner, now 68. He said he wants to see federally funded research done and to allow the Department of Veterans Affairs to offer marijuana as a possible treatment option for such conditions as chronic pain and post-traumatic stress disorder. Boehner also said the move would curtail federal-state conflict on marijuana policies. While marijuana is illegal at the federal level, most states have legalized pot in some form. President Donald Trump's administration in January lifted a Barack Obama-era policy that discouraged federal authorities from cracking down on the pot trade in states where the drug is legal. New York-based Acreage, which has cannabis operations in 11 states, said Boehner and Weld will serve on its board of directors when that is formed. Boehner had an earlier stint on a tobacco's company's board. Paul Ryan, Boehner's successor when he resigned as speaker in 2015, had talked about the work of getting the smell of cigarette smoke out of the speaker's office after Boehner's departure.
  14. They also take homes from regular citizens too! Though this appears to be an organized bust regarding Chinese/oriental grow ops. They likely followed the money and seen the real estate purchases and just investigated. The organization who did this was not as smart as they thought or a little to bold. This may play a role in helping law enforcement become better skilled at locating well hidden grow operations.
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