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Plant Physiology & Nutritional Transportation - Section 2 - Cloning

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Plant Physiology & Nutritional Transportation


Section 2 - Cloning




I discuss cloning a bit but will cover this topic in more practical detail in following writings.  This compiled section is intended to instill an understanding of the internal processes during a typical cloning process.  Regardless of cloning method this information is valid.

To create clones of plants a chemical imbalance must occur.  This can be created in various ways but in this instance we will discuss traditional cloning.  While the method of cloning may vary the chemical process is similar in rooting and the type of roots being created for the plants.  The figure below will help illustrate this process well.

  • By understanding this process you will begin the basis of learning how to create the type of roots you desire in a "best practice" or  "optimized" process.



  • The graph above and below explanation from http://www.plantphysiol.org
  • Pointed arrows represent positive interactions, and flat-ended arrows represent negative interactions. Yellow roots are adventitious roots, the white root is a primary roots, and blue roots are lateral roots.

Below explains the illustration above.

  • Adventitious root formation on cuttings.
    • In intact plants, cytokinin and strigolactones are predominantly produced in the root
    • Auxin is predominantly produced in the shoot.
    • On wounding,
      • jasmonic acid peaks within 30 min and is required for successful root development.
      • Reactive oxygen species, polyphenols, and hydrogen sulfide also increase and promote adventitious rooting.
    • Polyphenols do this via reducing auxin degradation.
      • Auxin builds up in the base of the cutting, acting upstream of nitric oxide to promote adventitious root initiation.
    • Auxin, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increase soluble sugars, which can be used for root development.
    • The cloning act removes the original root system and thus levels of cytokinin and strigolactone (they inhibit root growth) are reduced removing this natural counter too root growth in a normal plant.
    • At later stages,
      • Auxin inhibits primordia elongation (reduced shoot growth) while ethylene promotes adventitious root emergence.
      • As the new root system establishes,
        • The production of cytokinin and strigolactones is restored and the plant will begin to function normally.


General Cloning information

  • Staminate (male) plants have  higher average levels of carbohydrates than pistillate (female) plants, while pistillate plants have higher nitrogen levels.
  • Almost all plant cells contain the DNA and "capability" to create a whole plant. (Clone and petri-dish)
    • Not all plant species and phenotypes clone equally.
    • Selection of rooting material is important. 
      • Selected that have finished growing up and start growing to the sides or radial growth.Younger, firm, vegetative shoots,
        • Top of the plant is not ideal.  the secondary tops or crown of a plant is ideal.
      • Cuttings of relatively young vegetative limbs 10 to 45 centimeters or 4 to 18 inches and are made with a razor blade and immediately placed in a container of pure water so the cut ends are covered to prevent an embolism (air bubble).
        • 3 to 7 millimeters (1/8 to 1/4 inch) in diameter.
      • The medium should be warm and moist before cuttings are removed from the parent plant.
  • Feed rooting cloning parental plants, a balance of low nitrogen to high carbohydrate is desired and achieved in several ways.
    • Higher carbohydrate to Nitrogen is ideal.
      • Iodine and Starch test. (video below)
        • Highly impractical and unnecessary for most growers but I put in this writing for information and for the curious and those who are optimizing in their growing methods and systems for "best practice" with specific/known plants or crops.
      • Reduce nitrogen and allow for carbohydrates to build up.
      • Crowded roots will increase carbon due to competition for the nitrogen in medias.
      • The  carbohydrate to nitrogen ratio rises the farther distance between the tip of the limb,
        • Cuttings are not made too long.
      •   Etiolation
        • Etiolation is a condition caused by the growth of plants in the absence of light. It is characterized by a pale yellow coloring, sparse leaves, and weak, elongated stems. The stems of a plant grown in darkness grow longer and thinner in order to reach a potential light source.
        • Its stems will also grow faster than those of a plant exposed to adequate sunlight. Since leaves grow at the internodes of a plant's stems, a plant suffering from etiolation will have less leaves than a normal plant.
        • Chloroplasts that have never been exposed to light remain immature and non-pigmented and are known as etioplasts.
        • When a plant suffering from etiolation is exposed to sunlight, a process known as de-etiolation occurs. In de-etiolation, a plant begins producing chloroplasts, becomes greener in color, and produces fuller and more plentiful leaves. Over time, the internodes of the stem will become a normal length.
      • Inhibiting rooting factors
        • Woody Stems.
        • High nitrogen in parent plant.
        • High nitrogen in clone leaves.


Iodine Starch Test

Ibn Sahlan - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwMOknYVLikEwhODDSlEhiQ


Cloning 101


Root growth in time lapse

Gregor Skoberne


Corn roots in time lapse



Time lapse fast growing corn, roots and leaves growing

Mindlapse - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEPvisw_QQ_anAwxdklxm1Q


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